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the Clergy." In these letters he animadverted, with hfo 
usual facetiousness, on several of the answerers of his first 
performance. He soon after published some farther re- 
marks on the writings of Hobbes, in " A second Dialogue 
between Philautus and Timothy. 9 ' On the death of Dr. 
John Lightfoot, in 1675, Mr. Eachard was chosen in his 
room master of Catharine-hall ; and in the year following 
he was created D. D. by royal mandamus. It does not 
appear that he produced any literary works after being 
raised to this station ; but it is said that he executed the 
trust reposed in him, of ^master of his college, with the 
utmost care and fidelity, and to the general satisfaction of 
the whole university. He was extremely desirous to have 
rebuilt the greatest part, if not the whole, of Catharine-hall, 
which had fallen into decay : but he died before he could 
accomplish any part of that design, except the master's 
lodge. He contributed, however, largely towards rebuild- 
ing the whole ; and was very assiduous in procuring dona- 
tions for it from his learned or wealthy friends. He died 
on the 7th of July, 1697, and was interred in the chapel 
of Catharine-hall, with an elegant Latin inscription, said 
to have been more recently added by the late Dr. 

Dr. Eachard's pieces, excepting his setond Dialogue on 
the writings of Hobbes, have been several times printed 
together in one volume, 8vo ; but the most complete edi- 
tion, and which contains that Dialogue, is that published 
,by T. Davies, in 1774, in 3 vols. 12mo, with a life of 
him, written by Davies, with the assistance of Dr. Johnson 
and Dr. Farmer. 

Though Dr. Eachard's works abound with wit and hu- 
mour, be is said to have failed remarkably when he at- 
tempted to write in a serious manner. Mr. Baker, of St. 
John's college, Cambridge, in a blank leaf of his copy of 
•Eachard's " Letter to R. L," observes, that he went to St. 
.Mary's with great expectation to hear him preach, but was 
never more disappointed. And dean Swift says, " I have 
-known men happy enough at ridicule, who, upon grave 
.subjects, were perfectly stupid ; of which Dr. Eachard, of 
Cambridge, who writ « The Contempt of the Clergy,' was 
a great instance." It is remarked by Mr. Granger, and 
Dr. Warton, that the works of Dr. Eachard had been 
evidently studied by Swift. Dr. Eachard's wit, however, 
wa* applied to the best of purposes; for although some 

E A C HARD. 3 

parts of his " Grounds of the Contempt, &c." may be 
mistaken^ he cannot be too highly praised for turning the 
philosophy of Hobbes into contempt. 

In the catalogue of the .printed books in the British 
museum, a piece is attributed to Dr. Eachard, which was 
published in 1673, in 12 mo, under the following title: "A 
free and impartial enquiry into the causes of that very great 
esteem and honour that the Nonconforming Preachers are 
generally in with their followers* In a letter to his ho- 
noured friend, H. M. By a lover of the church of Eng- 
land* and unfeigned piety." But if written by Dr. Eachard, 
it certainly has not his wit, or his manner. l 


EADMER, or EDMER, the faithful friend and histo- 
rian of archbishop Anselm, was an Englishman, who flou- 
rished in the twelfth century, but we have no information 
respecting his parents, or the particular time and place of 
his nativity. He received a learned education, and very 
early discovered a taste for history, by recording every 
remarkable event that came to his knowledge. Being a 
.monk in the cathedral of Canterbury, he had the happiness 
to become the bosom friend and inseparable companion of 
the two archbishops of that see, St Anselm, and his suc- 
cessor Ralph. To the former of these he was appointed 
spiritual director by the pope ; and that prelate would do 
nothing without his permission. In 1120 he was elected 
bishop of St. Andrew's, by the particular desire of Alex- 
ander I. king of Scotland ; but on the very day after his 
election, an unhappy dispute arose between the king and 
him respecting his consecration. Eadmer would be con- 
secrated by the archbishop of Canterbury, whom he re- 
garded as primate of all Britain, while Alexander con- 
tended that the see of Canterbury had no pre-eminence 
.over that of St. Andrew's. After many conferences, their 
dispute becoming more warm, Eadmer abandoned his 
.bishopric, and returned to England, where he was kindly 
.received by the archbishop and clergy of Canterbury, who 
yet thought him too precipitate in leaving his bishopric. 
Eadmer at last appears to have been of the same opinion, 
and wrote a long and submissive letter to the king of Scot- 
land, but without producing the desired effect. . Whartoft 
fixes bis death in 1124, which was not long after this 

i Life prefixed to his work»»— Biog. Brit. ~ ' l 

B 2 

• E A D M E R. 

affair, and the vtery ytear in whteh the MahdpHc of St. Ah-t 
draw's was fitted up. E&dther is nb# best kttbwn for his 
history of the affairs tof England in fefa otoh time, from 
lOfcfe to 1120, in Whfch he. has inserted thahy original 
papers* Hud preserved Wiatty important facts that are wo- 
*hene telse to be fonttd. This work basbeen highly torn* 
inended-, both by ancient and modern writers, for its au- 
thewtrcity, & well as for regularity of composition and pn± 
rity xyf style. Ik n indeed wore free from tegfchdary tales 
than ady Other work of this period, and affords Many pfooft 
6f the lteartaing, good setise> sincerity and candour of its 
author. The blest edition is that by Seldeti, under thfe titte 
of " Eadmeri fribnachi Cantuarensis Historic Novornm, 
•ive sui SKfculi» Libri Stex*'* U>»U 1623, fol. His ether 
works ate, 1. A Life of St. Anselm, flroiri 1093 to 1 109, ofteft 
printed with the works of that archbishop, and by Whartoft 
in the " Angli* Sacto." 2. The Lives of St. Wilfrid, St. 
Oswald, St. Dtmstan, &e. &c. and others inserted in the 
" Angha. Sacra*" Or enntaerated by his biographers, as ift 
print or manuscript. 1 

EARLE (Jabee)* a dissenting minister 6f considerable 
teote, was born about 1676, and educated among the dis<- 
aenters. Of bis personal history Wte have Httte information. 
lie officiated in the meetings in London between sixty and 
aevfenty years-, and died hi 1Y6&. Durihg thishtfig life* he 
bad never experienced a moment's ill health. He would 
scarcely have known what pain was, had W not once brt&lce 
his arm. He preached to tfote last Sunday of his life, and 
died suddenly in his chair* without a groan or sigh. AH 
his faculties continued in great perfection, excepting hte 
eye* sight, which failed htm some time before his death. 
He was remarkable for a vivacity and cheerfulness of tem- 
per, which never forsook him to his latest breath ; and he 
abounded in pleasant stories. He had published in hh 
earlier days several occasional serMons* some of them 
preached at Salters'-hall meeting, a " Treatise on the Sa»- 
crament," 1707, 8vo, and a small collection of poeibs, in 
.Latin and English. His chief excellence, as a scholar, 
was in classical learning. When he was above ninety years, 
old, he would repeat, with the greatest readiness and 
fluency, a hundred verses or More from Homer, Virgil, 


1 Tanner* — Bale.— Pits.— Moreri.— Selden'i Preface.— Henry's UisU of Great 

E A R L E. f 

Horace, Juvenal, or others of the ancient poets, upon 
their being at any time occasionally mentioned, ! 

EARL& or EARLES (John), successively bishop of 
Worcester and'Salisbury, was born at York in the year itiKU, 
and entered of Merton-college, Oxford, in 16?0, where 
he became M. A. in 1624, was senior proctor in 1631, 
and about that time was created chaplain to Philip 
earl of PembYoke, who presented him with the living of 
ftishopston, in Wiltshire. He was afterwards appointed 
chaplain and tutor to prince Charles, and chancellor of the 
cathedral of Salisbury. For his steady adherence to th? 
royal cause, 'he was deprived of every thing he possessed^ 
and at length was compelled to fly into exile with Charles 
II. who made him his chaplain, and deck of the close* 
He was intimate with Dr. Morley, afterwards bishop of 
Winchester, and lived with him a year at Antwerp, in sir. 
Charles Cotterel's house, whq was master of the ceremo* 
nies ; thence he went into France, and attended Jaiqes, 
duke of York. On the restoration he wsp made dean of 
Westminster, and on Nov. 30, 166?, was consecrated bi- 
shop of Worcester, and in Sepjt of the following year, was 
removed to the see of Salisbury, om the translation of Dr. 
Henchman to London. In 1665 he attended the king an4 
queen to Oxford, who had left London on account of the 
plague. Here he lodged in University-college, and diect 
Nov. 1 7, of the same year. He was buried in Mertqu* 
college chapel, near the high altar, where, on a monu- 
ment of black and white marble, is a Latin inscription tq 
his memory. Waltqn sums up his character by saying 
that since the death of the celebrated Hooker, none have 
lived " whom God hath West with more innocent wisdom, 
more sanctified learning, or a more pious, peaceable, pri- 
mitive temper/' Wheu the nonconformist clergy stepped 
forward to administer to the relief of the dying in the great 
plague, what is called the Five-mile Act was, parsed, for- 
bidding them, unless they took an oath against taking up 
arms on any pretence whatever, &c. to come within five 
miles of any city or town- Qur prelate before his death 
declared himself much against this act. Burnet, who in* 
forms us of this, ad4s, thai " he was the man of all th$ 
clergy for whom the king had the greatest esteem." 
Bishop Earle wrote an " Elegy upon Mr. Fraacis Beau- 

* Biog. Brit. vol. I. p. 177. 

6 E A K L E. 

jnont," afterwards printed at the end of Beaumont's Poems, 
London, 1640, 4to. He translated also from the English 
into Latin, the " Eikon Basilike," which he entitled 
" Imago regis Caroli, in illis suis .ALrumnis et Solitudine," 
Hague, 1649, and Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity, which 
was destroyed by the carelessness of his servants. But his 
principal work, of which a very neat and accurate edition 
was lately superintended by Mr. Philip Bliss, fellow of St. 
John's college, Oxford, and published in 1811, is his 
" Microcosmographie, or a Peece of the World discovered^ 
in essays and characters," a work of great humour and 
knowledge of the world, and which throws much light on 
the manners of the times. It appears to have been in his 
Kfe-time uncommonly popular, as a sixth edition was pub- 
lished in 1630. As his name was not to it, Langbaine at- 
tributed it to Edward Blount, a bookseller in St. Paul's 
Church-yard, who was only the publisher. 1 

EARLE (William Benson), a very munificent bene- 
factor, was born at Shaftesbury, July 7, 1740. He was 
possessed of literary endowments of the highest order; 
well versed in the whole circle of the belles lettres ; and 
bad an exquisite taste for music ; yet while his time and 
talents seemed devoted to these engaging pursuits, amidst 
them he forgot not the humble and lowly, but was ever re- 
lieving their necessities, and lessening their wants. The 
following bequests afford striking proofs of his extensive 
liberality. To the matrons of Bishop Seth Ward's col- 
lege in the Close, he bequeathed the sum of two thousand 
guineas. To St. George's hospital, Hyde-park-corner, to 
Hetheringham's charity for the relief of the blind, to the Phi- 
lanthropic society, and to the fund for the relief of decayed 
Musicians, a contingent legacy of one thousand guineas each* 
To the three hospitals established in Winchester, Salisbury, 
and Bristol, one hundred guineas each. To the respective 
parishes of the Close, St. Edmund, St Thomas, and St 
Martin in Salisbury, fifty guineas each. For different cha- 
ritable purposes in the parish of Grately, Hants, the sum 
of four hundred guineas; and to the poor cottagers in 
Grately, his tenants, the fee simple of their cottages ; and 
to the parish of North Stoke, in Somersetshire, thirty gui- 

' 1 Ath. Ox. vol. II.— -Burnet's. Own Times. — Salmon's Ijves of the Bishops.— 
Cens. Lit. vol. II. — Lloyd's Memoirs, 604.— Dean Barwick's Life; see Index.-— 
Life of Lord Clarendon, P r 40, Svo e4it.-p-i*tterf from the Bodleian Library, 
*$13, 8vq. . 

E A R L E, 7 

neas. As a man of literature, and a friend to the arts, be 
also bequeathed to the royal society, two hundred guineas; 
to the society of antiquaries, two hundred guineas ; and 
to the president of the society for the encouragement of 
arts, manufactures, &c. two hundred guineas, all for the 
purchase of hooks for the public libraries of those three 
respectable societies. To the Bath agricultural society be 
gave one hundred guineas. Wishing to add a beauty to 
the many which now adorn one of the finest Gothic struc- 
tures in the world, he also bequeathed the sum of four 
hundred guineas for erecting a window of paiuted glass in 
the great west nave of Salisbury cathedral. To encourage 
the art he loved, and give a grateful testimony of his par** 
tiality to the Salisbury concert, he left an annual subscrip- 
tion of five guineas for ten years, towards its support'; and 
a further sum of one hundred and fifty guineas for the 
three next triennial musical festivals at Salisbury, after 
his decease. Besides the above public legacies, he amply, 
remembered his friencb, and bequeathed many others, with 
a view to the encouragement of merit, and the reward of 
industry and goodness. He died the 21st of March, 1796, 
at his house in the Close, Salisbury ; and on the 30th his 
remains were privately interred in the parish-church of 
Newton Toney, near those of his ancestors, his own po- 
sitive injunctions having prevented those public marks 
of respect to his memory, which would otherwise have 
been paid on the melancholy occasion by his numerous 

In 1775, Mr. Earle • reprinted from a scarce pamphlet, 
u An exact relation of the famous earthquake and eruption 
of Mount i£tna, in 1669," to which he added a letter from 
himself to lord Lyttelton, containing a description of the 
"late great eruption of Mount ^tna, in 1766." Of this 
he had been an eye-witness, and his description is minute, 
classical, and elegant. 1 

EATON (John), an English divine, reckoned by some 
the founder of Antinomiahism, was a native of Kent; 
where he was born in 1575, and studied at Oxford, being 
the first of Blount's exhibitioners in Trinity-college, to 
which he was admitted in 1590. He took his degree of 
M. A. in 1603, and entering into holy orders, officiated as 
a curate for several years, and at length, in 1625, w^s 

. • ..■•*■* 

i Gent. Mag. 1796. 

^ EATO; N f 

m^de minister afld preacher $t Wickbanj Market, in Suf* 
folk, where hp died ^nd was buried in 1641. JJis wqrks, 
are, 1. " The discovery of a n^pst dangerous dead faith,'* 
Lond. 1641, 12mo; and 2. " The Honeycomb of freja 
justification," Lond. 1642, 4to, published by Robert Lan- 
caster, w bp informs us in his, preface that " the author's 
faith, ze^l, «tnd diligence in doing his calling* and hiq 
f;ajth, patience* and cheerfulness in suffering for the s^me," 
were highly exenqplary. If appears that he was imprisqned, 
ip the Gate- house, Westminster, for his book op ju^tifip^- t 
tion ; anfl Neal admits that 1)£ committed some mistakes in 
his assertions about the doctrines of gr^ce. Ecbard gives, 
him in other respects a favourable chapter. 1 

EBERHARD (JQHK[ Ay^usTiNE), a Swedish divine, who, 
became professor of philosophy at the university of HalXe, t 
and died at Stockholm, Jan. 6, 1796, in the sjxty-njnth, 
year of his age, w§s a member of several learned societies,,. 
3nd owed much of bis reputation to a work he published 
in (jerqism., called " An Inquiry into the doqtrinp respect-, 
ipg fhe ^alyation of Heathen^*" or " The Ne«y apology 
for Socrates," which w^s transmitted from Qerman into ( 
French by Pumas, $nd published aj Amsterdam in 1773* 
$yo. It contains, also, q, defenpe pf Marmontel's " Belisa- 
riu3," which at that time hy\ occasioned a controversy in 
Hpllaud ano" Germany. Eberb?rd had among his country- 
men the reputation of a man who was a powerful advocate, 
fpr revealed religiop in. its original simplicity. 2 

EBERT (John Arnold), who was born at Hamburgh 
Feb. 8, 1725, is yapked ajnpng thp revivers of true literary 
taste in Germany, in which undertaking, he assppiated 
yitb Gartner, Schlegel, Grander, Gellert, Rabener, Schmid^ 
Klopstoc^ &c. who used to cpmmunicate their worlds tq 
ieach o|her, and diffuse various knowledge by means of 
periodical papers. Ebert \yas professor of the Carolinean 
Institute at Brunswick, and in high esteem wjth the duke* 
who m^de tyjn a cftnon of St. Cyriap, and afterwards con- 
ferred on hjm the tjtle of counseJlpr. lie wrote with equal, 
elegauc^ in prose and verse, and fiis songs 3re much es- 
teemed ip Germany. Besides many contributions, to the 
periodical journals, he published two, volumes of "Poems" 
3£ Hamburgh, the que in 17§9, and the otl^er in 1795. 8vo, 

' * Atb. Ox. tol. n.— Neai's Puritans.— Edur4's Hist, of England, 
? J>iqt, Hist, 

K 9 & $ T- 9 

He was well acquainted with the ^nglisl* language and 
English literature, arjd translated into German, Young'* 
a Night Thoughts," and Glover's " Leonidas," both which, 
we are told, are well executed. This writer died at 
Brunswick March 19, 1795. 1 

EBERTUS (Theodpke), a learned professor, at^ Frauq- 
fort upon Oder, in the seventeenth century, and rector of 
t{iat university in 1618 and 1627, acquired a considerable 
name, among oriental scholars particularly, by his works ;, 
the principal of which are: " Juvenilia philosophic^," 
Franc. 1616, 4to; "Poetica Hebraica," Lips. 1628, 8vo;^ 
" Elogia Jurisconsultprum et politicoruro centum illus-, 
trium, qui Sanctam Hebream Linguam aliasque ejus pro-, 
pagines orien tales propagarunt, auxerunt, promoverunt," 
Lips. 1628, 8vo 9 &c. He had a great enthusiasm for tlje 
study of the Hebrew language, and the other oriental Ian-, 
guages connected with it, and wrote this collection of eulo- 
gies in compliment to other eminent scholars who had suc- 
ceeded in the same pursuit. Moreri mentions another of 
his. works, but without giving the date, entitled " Specu- 
lum Morale." 8 

EBERUS (Paul), one of the early reformers, was born 
at Kitzingen in Franconia, Nov. 8, 1511, and v^as first 
educated in the college at Anspach. In 1525 he went to 
Nuremberg, and in 1532 the senate of that city sent him 
to Witfcemherg, where he took his master's degree in 1536. 
As he wrote a fair hand, Melancthon employed him as his 
amanuensis, and finding in him talents of a superior order, 
consulted him on all his undertakings, which made fyim; 
b,e called by some, " Philip's Repertory." }n 1544 he was, 
apppinted to the professorship of philosophy, and in 1556. 
to that of Hebrew, and this last year he took orders. Som$ ; 
time a,fter he was sent to the college of Worms, along with 
fyfelancthon ; and in 1558 was appointed first pastor of 
Wittemberg, \x\ the room of Bugenbagius. He took the, 
degree of doctor in 1559, and jn 1568 went to Anspach^ 
with jfaui Crellius, to allay some disputes that had arisen 
among the clergy of that place. In this attempt he gave, 
so much satisfaction to prince George Frederick, that he 
revyaxd/ed him liberally, and settled a pension on his son,. 
He died Dec. 20, 1589.. After the death of Melancthon^ 
hp vv ( as regarded ^s th^e Jjr$t $f his disciples who wer$> 

* Pick ]$fk * L'Avpca^-rMorexi. 


IO E B E R U S. 

usually called Crypto- Calvinists, from being somewhat 
tacit and moderate in their principles. He was a man of 
great learning, and an eloquent preacher. The only works 
mentioned by his biographers are: " Expositio Evangelior. 
Dommicalium ;" " Calendarium Historicum," Wittem* 
1550, 8vo, reprinted at Basil the same year; " Historia 
populi Judaici a reditu Babylonico ad Hierosolymse exci- 
dium ;" and " Hymni sacri vemacule editi," for the use of 
bis church, where they long continued to be sung. l 

EBION, from whom the sect of the Ebiouites are called, 
lived about the year 72, and against him, as some say, St. 
John wrote his gospel. Others are of opinion, that they 
did not derive their name from the head of their sect, but 
from the Hebrew word ebion, which signifies a poor de- 
spicable man ; either because they were poor themselves, 
or because they had low and dishonourable sentiments of 
Jesus Christ. Irenacus, in describing the heresy of the 
Ebionites, takes no notice of Ebion : and the silence of 
this father, together with the testimonies of Eusebius and 
Origen, make it probable that Ebion is only an imaginary 
name, or might possibly belong to Cerinthus. For Epipha- 
nius, speaking of Ebion, tells the same story of him that is 
told of Cerintfrus, viz. that of St. John's hastening out of 
the bath when Cerinthus came in, for fear the building 
should fall upon him ; and assures us also of his preaching 
in Palestine and Asia, which likewise agrees with Cerin- 
thus' s history. 

The Ebionites maintained, that Jesus Christ was only a 
mere man, descended from Joseph and Mary. They re- 
ceived no other gospel than that of St. Matthew, which 
they had in Hebrew, but very maimed and interpolated ; 
And this they called the Gospel according to the Hebrews. 
They rejected the rest of the New Testament, and espe- 
cially the epistles of Paul,- looking upon this apostle as an 
apostate from the law : for they held, that every body was 
obliged to observe the Mosaic law. They made Saturday 
and Sunday equal holidays : they bathed themselves every 
day like the Jews, and worshipped Jerusalem as the house 
6f God. They called their meetings synagogues, and not 
churches ; and celebrated their mysteries every year with 
unleavened bread. They received the Pentateuch for 
canonical scripture, but not all of it. They had a venera* 

1 Mekhior Adam.-~Freheri Theatrum.-— Moreti, 

E B I O N. II 

tion for the old patriarchs, but despised the prophet*. 
They made use of forged Acts of the Apostles, as St. 
Peter's travels, and many other apocryphal books. They 
held also the superstitions of their ancestors, and the cere- 
monies and traditions which the Pharisees presumptuously 
added to the law. The learned Mr. Jones looked upon the 
Ebionites and Nazarenes as differing very little from ona 
another. He attributes to them both much the same doc- 
trines, and alleges, that the Ebionites had only made some 
small additions to the old Nazarene system. * 

ECCARD, or ECKHARD (John George), a German 
historian and antiquary, was born at Duingen in the duchy 
of Brunswick, Sept 7, 1674. After studying for some 
time at Brunswick and Helmstadt, where he made very 
distinguished progress in the belles lettres and history, he 
became secretary to the count de Flemming in Poland; 
and there became acquainted with the celebrated Leibnitz, 
by whose interest he was appointed professor of history at 
Helmstadt. After Leibnitz's death, be was appointed pro- 
fessor at Hanover, where he published some of his works. 
Although this place was lucrative, he here contracted debts, 
and his creditors having laid hold of a part of his salary to 
liquidate some of these, he privately quitted Hanover in 
1723, where he left his family, and the following year 
embraced the religion of popery at Cologne. He then 
passed some time in the monastery of Corvey in West- 
phalia ; and the Jesuits being very proud of their convert, 
sent him advantageous offers to settle at Vienna, Passau, 
or Wurtzbourg. He chose the latter, and was appointed 
the bishop's counsel, historiographer, and keeper of the 
archives and library, and the emperor afterwards granted 
him letters of nobility. Pope Innocent XIII. seems also 
to have been delighted with his conversion, although his 
embarrassed circumstances appear to have been the chief 
cause of it. He died in the month of February 1730 ; and 
whatever may be thought of his religious principles, no 
doubt can be entertained of bis extensive learning and 
knowledge of history. He wrote, 1. " Historia studii ety- 
mologici linguae Germanics," Hanover, 1711, 8vo. 2. 
" De usu et prsestantia studii ety mologici linguae Ger- 
manics*." 3. " Corpus historicum medii aevi," Leipsic, 
1723, 2 vols. fol. a work on which the abb6 Lenglet be- 

« terdq^i Worfe-^Mothttim's Ck. gist fcc 

12 E C C A R D. 

$tows hi$h praise, as very curious and Well-digested. 4. 
" Qrigines HabsbqrgQ-Austripca?," Leipsic, 1721, folio. 
5. " Leges F ran cor urn et Ripuariorum," &c. ibid. 1730, 
fol. 6. '< Historia genealogica principum Saxoniae supe- 
rior^, Becnon origines Anhaltinse et Sabaudicsp," ibid. 
1722, fol, 7. " Cathecbesis thgotisca rnonachi Weissea- 
burgensis, interpretation^ illpstrafca." 8. " Leibnitzii col- 
lectanea, etynaolbgica." 9. " Rreyis ad bistoriam Germa- 
nise introductio." 10. " Programma de antiquissirao 
Helmstadii statu," Helmstadt, 1709. 11, " De diplomate 
C^roli magni pro scholis Osnaburgensibus Greecis et La- 
tinis," J?. " Animadversiones historic^ et criticae in 
Joa,nn;s Frederici Sel^annati dioecesjm et hjerarcbiam FuU 
tlensetn," 13. " Annates Francias orientalis et episcopatus 
Wurceburgensis," 2 vols. 1731. 14. " De origine Gen* 
manonjro," Gottingen, 1750, 4to. He wrote also some 
jiumismatical tracts, &C. 1 

JECCHELLENSIS (Abraham), a learned Maronite of 
'the seventeenth century, was professor of Syriac and Ara- 
bic in the royal college at Paris, to which city he had been 
invited from Rome by M. le Jay, that he might supply the 
pjace of Gabriel Sionita, another Maronite, whom he had 
employed in. his edition of the Polyglot Bible. Gabriel 
$ionita complained to the parliament, abused his country- 
man, and involved hini in difficulties, which made much 
noise. The abilities of Eccheliensis were also attacked by 
M. de Flavigny, a learned doctor of ,the house and society 
of the $orbonne, and they wrote with much unbecoming 
warmth against each other. There is, however, no doubt 
but that Eccheliensis was well acquainted with the Arabic 
$nd Syriac languages. The congregation de propaganda 
Fidti associated him, 1636, with those whom they em r 
ployed to translate tbe Bible into Arabic; and, recalling him 
from Paris* appointed him professor of Oriental languages 
at Rome. It was at that time that the grand duke, Ferdi- 
nand II. engaged Eccheliensis to translate the 5th, 6tb, 
and 7 th books of the Conies of Apollonius from Arabic 
into Latin, in which he was assisted by the celebrated John 
Alphonso Qorelli, who added commentaries to them. The 
whole is printed with Archipaede* ** De Assumptis," Flo- 
rence, 1661, fol. Abraham Eccheliensis died at Rome* 
1664* leaving many other works, in which he combines the 

1 Mojreri.— SaxiiOflom^Ucon. 

E C C tt E I L E N S I S. ii 

sentiments of the Orientals with those of the church of 
Rome against the Protestants ; " Euthychius vindicatus," 
against Selden and Hottinger, Rome, 1661, 4to; "Re- 
marks on the Catalogue of Chaldee Writers composed by 
Ebed-jesu, and published at Rome*" 1653; " Chronitoh 
Orientaile," printed at the Louvre, 1651, fol. which is 
joined to the Byzantine ; "Institutio ling. Syriacee," Romfc; 
1628, 12 mo; " Synopsis Philosophise Orieritalium," Paris, 
1641, 4to; "Vetsio Durrhamani de medicis virtutibui 
Animaliutn, Plantarum, et Gemmarum," Paris, 1647, 8vo. f 
ECCLES (Solomon), an English musician, was much 
admired for many years for his surprising skill on several 
instruments* bilt while in the eenith of his fame, became & 
quaker, and practised so many follies in this new ptofefc* 
won that he was the ridicule of the whdle town. He burrit 
his lute and his violins, and by meditation found out a nfetf 
expedient for ascertaining the true rdigioh *; this wafc, to 
Collect und£r one froof the most virtuous meft of the seve- 
ral sects that divide Christianity ; who should unatritirousty 
fell to prayiei* for seven days Without taking afcy nourish- 
ment. " Then," *ald he, «• those on wham the spirit of God 
•hall manifest itself ift a sensible manner, that is to say, 
by the trembling <rf the limbs, and interior illuminations, 
may oblige the test to subscribe to their decisions." Hfe 
found) however, none that would put this strange Conceit 
16 the trial $ artd While he persisted in propagating his folly, 
his pVophecies> his invectives, hi* pretended miracles, only 
served to pass him from one prison into another: till at 
length, by this sort of discipline he Was brought to Confer 
the vanity of hte prophecies, atod he finished his life in 
tranquillity, but without religion. He <iied about the close 
of the seventeenth century. 3 

ECCLES (Joan) Was the son of the pffecedmg, and 
from the instruttiofts of his father became an eminent and 
popular composer for the theatre, fufnishing it with act 
tunes, dance tunes* and incidental songs, in most of the 
new comedies, after the death of Purcell. The air Which 
he set to " A Soldier and a Sailor," sung by &en, ift Con- 
grfcve's comedy of " Love for Love," is so truly original 
and characteristic, that it can never be superseded fol- any 
other ain He set an ode, written by Congreve for Sk 

* Moreri. — Gen. Diet, — Saxii Onomast. * Preceding edit, of this Diet, 

14 E C C L E 8. 

Cecilia's day in 1701. He likewise set Cougreve's u Jiiig* 
ment of Paris," when there was a contention for prizes, 
and gained the second, of 50 guineas. Several of his, 
single songs were the best of the time, and have still the 
merit of originality. In his slightest compositions, whe- 
ther catch, ballad, or .rope-dancing tune, there is some 
mark of genius. Upon the death of Dr. Staggins, about 
1693> Eccles, at a very early period of his professional 
life, was appointed master of queen Anne's band ; and 
after the decease of Dr. Crofts, in 1727, he seems only to 
have set the odes, and to have retired from all other pro- 
fessional employments to Kingston, for the convenience of 
angling, in which amusement he appears to have been as 
much delighted as Walton. He died in 1735, and wa* 
succeeded as master of the king's band, and composer to 
bis majesty, by Dr. Green. 

Eccles had two brothers : Henry, a performer on the 
violin, said to have been in the king of France's band, and 
to have been the author of twelve excellent solos for his 
own instrument, printed at Paris, 1720 ; and Thomas, who 
Jiad been taught the violin by Henry, and had the charac- 
ter of a very fine player, but preferred the life of a strol- 
ling fidler at taverns to that of a regular professor, and 
was more fond of driiiking than either of good company or 
clean linen. He seems to have been one of the last vagrant 
bards, who used to inquire at taverns if there were any 
gentlemen in the house who wished to hear music ? Sinfce 
smoking has been discontinued, few evenings are spent in 
taverns, which has diminished the number of modern min- 
strels, particularly such as are as well qualified to amuse 
good company and lovers of music as Tom Eccles, who 
used to regale his hearers with Corelli's solos and Handel's 
best opera songs, which he executed with precision and 
sweetness of tone, equal to the most eminent performers 
of the time. He survived his brother, John, more than 
twenty years; and continued to officiate as a priest of 
Bacchus to the last. l 

ECHARD (James), an useful French biographer, was 
born at Rouen, Sept. 22, 1644, and entered among the 
Pominicans in 1660, whose order he has celebrated to 
posterity byAvriting the lives of their authors, under the 
title " Scriptores ordinis Praedicatorum recensiti, notisque 

» Hawkins'M History of Music— Recs's Cyclopedia. 

E C H A R D. 15 

bistoricis et criticis illustratii," Paris, 1719 — 1721, 2 vols. 
foL It is a work of great accuracy, as he inserted nothing 
without referring to good authority, and he is very correct 
in the bibliographical part. Quetif, also a Dominican, 
who died in 1 698, had begun this work, but had made so ' 
little progress, that the whole merit may be ascribed to 
father Ecbard, who died at Paris, March 15, 1724. 1 

ECHARD (Laurence), a clergyman, and author of se- 
veral historical and other works, was nearly related to Dr. 
John Eachard, although they chose to spell the name dif- 
ferently. He was born at Cassam, near Beccles, in Suf- 
folk, about 1671, and was the son of a clergyman, who, 
by the death of an elder brother, became possessed of a 
good estate in that county. Having passed through a 
course of grammar-learning, he was sent to Christ's college, 
Cambridge, and, in 1691, be took the degree of bachelor 
of arts, and that of master in 1 695. He afterwards entered 
into holy orders, and was ordained by More, bishop of 
Norwich, being presented for ordination by Whiston, thea 
the bishop's chaplain, who says that his character was un- 
exceptionable. Ecbard then was promoted to the living* 
of Weltou and Elkinton, in Lincolnshire, where he spent 
above twenty years of his life ; and, during that time, be 
published a variety of works. One of his first publications 
was, " The Roman History, from the building of the City 
to the perfect Settlement of the Empire by Augustus Cie- 
sar." This was so well received, that the fourth edition, 
in one volume Svo, was published in 1699. He also pub- 
lished " The History, from the Settlement of the Empire, 
by Augustus Caesar, to the removal of the Imperial Seat 
of Constanttne the Great," said to be " for the use of his 
highness the duke of Gloucester," to whom it was dedi- 
cated ; and the second edition, in 8vo, was printed in 1699. 
Two continuations of this work, one of which was revised 
by Mr. Ecbard, were afterwards published in 3 vols. 8vo. 
In 1702, our author published, in folio, with a dedication 
-to queen Anne, " A General Ecclesiastical History, from 
the Nativity of our blessed iSaviour to the first establish- 
ment of Christianity by Human Laws, under the emperor 
Ponstantine the Great. Containing the spaoe of about 3 1 3 
years. With. so much of the Jewish and Roman History 
as is necessary and convenient to illustrate the work. To 

* . 

1 Morert 

U £ G H A R D. 

which is added, a large chronological tftbld of all the 
Roman and Ecclesiastical affairs, included in the same 
period of time." This work toas so well received, that the 
*ixth edition* of it was published in 1722, in 2 Vols. 8?d. 
-Bean Prideaux says, that it is the best of its kind in the 
English tongue. 

In 170*7, when he was become prebendary of Lincoln, 
and chaplain to the bishop of that diocese, he published, 
in onfe volume folio, "The rlistory of England : from thfe 
first eh trance of Julius Ceesar and the Romans to the end 
of the reign of king Jam£s the First," dedicated to the 
-duke df Ormbrid ; by whom, he informs us in the dedica- 
tion, he was excited to engage in the undertaking. In 
hid preface, he gives so nle account of the materials and 
authors from which his Work Was collected; He particu- 
larly enumerates the Roman, Saxon, English* and monkish 
historians ; together with Hill, Grafton,- Polydore Vergil, 
Holinshed, Stow, Speed* Baker, Brady, arid Tyrrell; Aftd, 
among the writers of particular lives arid reign's, he men- 
tions Barnes* Howard, Gdodwth* Camden, Bacon, Herbert, 
and Habingtori. " From all these several Writers," says 
he, " and many others, I have collected and formed this 
present histdry ; always taking the liberty either to Copy 
or to imitate any parts of them* if I foHnd them really eon<- 
duoing to the usefulness dr the ornament of my" work. 
And, from all these, I have compiled aft history as full, 
comprehensive, and complete, as I could bring into tbfe 
compass of the proposed size and bigness. And, thdt 
nothing might be wanting, I have all thfe way enriched 
it with the best and wisest sayings of great men, that 
I could find in larger Volumes, and likewise with sUeh 
short moral reflections, arid such proper characters of 
men, as might give life as well as add instruction to thfe 

In 1712, Mr. Eehard was installed archdeacon of Stowfc; 
and, in 1718, he published the second and third volumes 
of his History of England, which brings it down to the re*- 
volutioh. To these volumes he prefixed a dedication t& 
king George the First. The same yefar, Dr. Edmund Calamt 
published, in*8vo, " A Letter to Mr; arehdeacon E chard, 
Upon occasion df his History of England : wherein th6 
true principles of the Revolution are defended, the Whigs 
and Dissenters vindicated, several persons of distinction 
cleared from aspersions, and a number of historical mistakes 

E C H A R D. 17 


rectified." In this piece the author has made a variety of 
what he reckons remarks on the misrepresentations in 
Echard's History ; though he acknowledges it to be, in 
several respects, a work of considerable merit. " When I 
became your reader," says he, " I was ready to make all 
the candid allowances you can desire* According to your 
own motion, I perused your work in order as it was written ; 
and not by leaps, and starts, and distant parcels. And, 
bow I have gone through the whole, am so little inclined 
to detract from you* that I can freely say a great deal in 
your commendation. The clearness of your method, and 
the perspicuity of your language, are two very great ex- 
cellencies, which 1 admire. I am singularly pleased with 
the refreshing divisions of your matter, and thfe chronolo- 
gical distinction of the several parts of your history,, I 
* neither make any objections against the form of it as irre- 
gular or disproportionate, nor the general method as intri- 
cate and confused, nor the colouring as weak and unaf- 
fecting, nor the style as mean, flat, and insipid; which 
are the things about which you appear peculiarly con- 
cerned. And yet I thought a public animadversion both 
proper and necessary, and can meet with none of your 
readers; how different soever in their sentiments, views, 
and principles, but what herein agree. 9 ' Dr. Calamy also 
speaks of the " smooth and polite way 9 ' in which. Mr* 
Echard's History is written ; and says, that it has several 
beauties above many that had gone before him. But he 
adds, that he reckons his first volume to be by much the best 
of tlie three. It was also attacked, but with less candour, 
by Oldmixon in his " Critical History of England," and 
his " History of the Stuarts." 

This History of England was at first, in general, well 
received, and passed through several editions ; but it ap- 
pears to have greatly sunk in reputation after the publica- 
tion of Rapin. Echard related facts with perspicuity, 
whatever objection may be made to his political bias; and 
his work is rendered the more entertaining by short cha- 
racters of the most eminent literary men in the different 
periods of his history. 

In 1719 he published, in a thin volume, 9vo, " Maxims 
and Discourses, moral and divine: taken from the works 
of archbishop Tillotson, and methodized and connected." 
He was presented by king George I. to the livings of Ren* 
dlesham, Sudborn, and Afford, in Suffolk; at which places 

Vol. XIII. C 


be lived about eight years ; but . in a continual ill state of 
health. Finding himself grow worse, and being advised to 
go to Scarborough for the benefit of the waters, he set out, 
but, declining very fast, he was unable to proceed farther 
than Lincoln, where soon after his arrival, going out to 
take the air, he died in his chariot, on the 1 6th of August, 
1730, and was interred in the chancel of St. Mary Mag- 
dalen's church, but without any monument or memorial of 
him. He was a member of the Society of Antiquaries. 
He married two wives; first, Jane, daughter to the rev. 
Mr. Potter, of Yorkshire ; and, secondly, a daughter of 
Mr. Robert Wooley, a gentleman of Lincolnshire : but he 
had no children by either of them. 

Besides the works already mentioned, Mr. Echard was also 
the author of " A History of the Revolution in 1688," one 
volume, 8vo ; of " The Gazetteer's or Newsman's Inter- 
preter, being a Geographical Index of all the considerable 
cities, &c. in Europe," &c. of which the eleventh edition, 
in 12 mo, was published in 1716; and of " A Description 
of Ireland," Lond. 1691, l2mo. He likewise published a 
translation of three comedies of Plautus, being the Am- 
phitryon, Epidicus, and Rudens. Of this the second edi- 
tion was published in 1716. He had also some share in a 
translation of Terence, but the language of this and of his 
Plautus is vulgar and degrading. The ninth edition of the 
translation of Terence, which is said to be " by Mr. Law- 
rence Echard, and others," was published in 12 mo, in 
1741. l 

ECKHEL (Joseph Hilary), an eminent antiquary and 
medallist, was born at Entzesfield in Austria, Jan. 13, 1737, 
and in 1751 entered the order of the Jesuits at Vienna, 
with whom he studied philosophy, mathematics, divinity, 
and' the learned languages. His skill in medals, which 
appeared very early, induced his' superiors to give him the 
place of keeper of their cabinet of medals and coins. In 
1772, he was sent to Rome, where Leopold II. grand duke 
of Florence, employed him to arrange his collection, and 
on his return in 1774, he was appointed director of the 
imperial cabinet of medals at Vienna, and professor of an- 
tiquities. In 1775 he published his first valuable work, 
under the title of " Nummi veteres anecdoti est museis 
Csesareo Vindobonensi, Florehtino magni Due is Etruriae, 

1 Bio j. Brit. 

E C K H E L. 19 

Granelliano nunc Ceesareo, aliisque," Vienna, 4to, in which 
he arranges the various articles according to the new system 
which he had formed, and which promises to be advan- 
tageous from its simplicity, although it has some trifling 
rnconveniencies. This was followed by his " Catalogue 
Musei Caesarei Vindobonensis Nummorum yeterum," Vi- 
enna, 1779, 2 vols. fol. This has only eight plates, con- 
taining such articles as had never been published, or were 
not noticed in his preceding work. In 1786 he published, 
" Sylloge nummorum veterum anecdotorum thesauri Cee- 
sarei," Vienna, 4to, and " Descriptio nummorum Antio- 
chae Syriae, sive specimen artis criticae numerariae," ibid. 
In 1787 he published, in German, a small elementary 
work on coins for the use of schools, but which has been 
thought better adapted to give young persons a taste for 
the science than to initiate them in it. This was followed, 
in 1788, by his " Explanation of the Gems" in the Im- 
perial collection, a very magnificent book. In 1792 he 
published the first volume of his great work on numismati- 
cal history, entitled " Doctrina nummorum veterum," and 
the eighth and last volume in 1798 ; the excellent method 
and style of this work, and the vast erudition displayed, 
place him at the head of modern writers on this subject, 
and have occasioned the remark that he is the Linnaeus of 
his science. This very eminent antiquary died May 16, 
1798. ' 

ECKIUS (John), a learned divine, and professor in the 
university of Ingoldstadt, was born in Suabia, in 1483. 
He is memorable for promoting the reformation by the 
weakness of the opposition he gave to Luther, Melanc- 
thon, Carolostadius, and other leading protestants in Ger- 
many ; and for his disputes and writings against them in 
defence of his own communion, all which terminated in 
bis defeat, and in exciting a spirit of inquiry and discus- 
sion which eminently advanced the reformation. In 1518 
he disputed with Luther at Leipsic, about the supremacy 
of the pope, penance, purgatory, and indulgences, be- 
fore George duke of Saxony ; at which time even the Lu- 
therans were ready to grant that he acquitted himself as 
Well as a man could do in the support of such a cause, and 
were not a little pleased that they were able to answer its 
greatest supporter. He disputed the year after, against 

I Diet. Hif^Satii Onomasticou, *ol. VIU, 

C ? 

80 ECKIU S, 


Carolos tad ius, on tbe subject of free will. He appeared 
at tbe diet of Augsburg in 1538, where be argued against 
the protestant confession ; and in 1541 he disputed for 
three days with Melancthou and other divines at Worms, 
concerning the continuance of original sin after baptism. 
This conference, by the emperor's command, was adjourned 
to Ratisbon ; where he dissented again from Pflug and 
Gropper, with reference to the articles of union. He was 
the most conspicuous orator in all the public disputes which 
the Roman catholics had with the Lutherans and Zwing- 
lians. He wrote a great many polemical tracts ; and, 
among the rest, a Manual of Controversies, in which be 
discourses upon most of the heads contested between the 
papists and protestants. This book was printed at Ingold- 
stadt, in 1535. He wrote another tract against the articles 
proposed at the conference at Ratisbon, printed at Paris 
in 1543. He composed likewise two discourses upon the 
sacrifice of the mass ; some other controversial pieces ; an 
exposition upon the prophet Haggai ; and several homilies. 
Upon the whole, he was a person of uncommon parts, un- 
common learning, and uncommon zeal ; and to his perse- 
verance in the cause of popery, the reformers were greatly 
indebted. He died at I n golds tad t, in 1543, aged sixty 
years, ! 

ECLUSE (Charles), in Latin Clusius, an eminent bov 
tanist, was born at Arras, in French Flanders, on Feb. 19, 
1526, and was educated at Ghent and Louvain, in the 
languages, jurisprudence, and medicine, in which last fa* 
culty he took a degree, but without any view to practice. 
At the age of twenty-three he began his travels, and pur- 
sued in them all the study of botany, to which he was ex- 
tremely partial. He visited England three times, and in 
all his journeys cultivated the acquaintance of the learned 
in his favourite science. He also not only collected and 
described a number of new plants, but made drawings of 
several with his own hand. In 1573 he was invited to 
Vienna, by the emperor Maximilian II. with whom, 
as well as with his son, afterwards the emperor Ro- 
dolphus II. he was in great favour, and was honoured 
by the former with the rank of nobility. In 1593, the 
sixty-eighth year of his age, he was chosen professor of 
botany at Leyden, where he resided in great reputation 

> Mosheimj and particular! j Milner'i Church Hist; vol. IV. p. 377.— Moreri 

E C L U S E. 31 

till his death, April 4, 1609. At his funeral, in St. Mary's 
church, Leyden, a Latin oration in his praise was deli- 
vered by the rector of the university. With respect to 
bodily health, Ecluse was unfortunate beyond the usual 
lot of humanity. In his youth he was afflicted with dan- 
gerous fevers, and afterwards with a dropsy. He broke 
his right arm and leg by a fall from his horse in Spain, and 
dislocated, as well as fractured his left ankle at Vienna. 
In his sixty-third year he dislocated his right thigh, which, 
being at first neglected, could never afterwards be re- 
duced, and be became totally unable to walk. Calculous 
disorders, in consequence of his sedentary life, accompa- 
nied with colic and a hernia, close the catalogue of , his 
afflictions. Yet his cheerful temper and ardour for science 
never forsook him, nor did any man ever enjoy more re- 
spect and esteem from those who knew him. 

Although not like his great contemporary, Conrad Ges- 
ner, a systematic genius, Ecluse was one of the best prac- 
tical botanists. He discriminated plants very happily, and 
his histories of them are rendered interesting by innume- 
rable remarks and anecdotes. He introduced the cherry- 
laurel and horse-chesnut, now so common and so orna- 
mental, which he received, among many other plants, from 
the Imperial ambassador at the Porte, in 1576. As all the 
rest of the cargo perished, it is but just that his memory 
ihould be perpetuated along with those two beautiful trees, 
with which all botanists of taste ought for ever to associate 
his name. 

The principal publications of Ecluse are, 1. " Rariorum 
aliquot Stirpium per Hispanias observatarum Historia," 
Antwerp, 1576, 8vo, with above 220 wooden cuts^ admi- 
rably executed. 2. " Rariorum aliquot Stirpium per 
Pannoniam, Austriam, et vicinas quasdam Provincias ob- 
servatarum Historia," Antwerp, 1583, 8vo, with above 
350 wooden cuts. 3. The foregoing were republished with 
the title of f4 Rariorum Plantarum Historia," in folio, at 
Antwerp, in 1601. This is the edition in common use, 
and most generally quoted. 4. " Exoticorum Libri de- 
cern," Antwerp, 1605, folio, with numerous cuts of ani- 
mals, exotic fruits, and gums. 5. <f Curse Posteriores,'* 
Antwerp, 1611, folio. This posthumous work is generally 
bound with the last. It consists of a few excellent figures 
and descriptions of rare, plants. The funeral oration of 
Ecluse, with various poetical tributes to his memory, are 

22 E C L U S E. 

commonly annexed to this volume, and among them, * 
short account of bis life, from BoissarcPs " Portraits of 
Illustrious Men." To this list may be added various trans- 
lations and editions of other writers on Botany, or Materia 
Medica. A manuscript of Ecluse on fungi is said to exist 
in the library at Ley den. 1 

EDELINCK (Gerard), an eminent engraver, was born 
at Antwerp in 1641, and there learnt the first .elements of. 
drawing and engraving ; but it was in France that he made 
the full display of his talents, being invited thither by the 
munificence of Louis XIV, about 1665. He was made- 
choice of to engrave two pieces of the highest reputation ;> 
the picture of the Holy Family, by Raphael, and that of 
Alexander in the Tent of Darius, by Le Brim. Edelinck 
surpassed expectation in the execution of these master- 
pieces; and the copies were as much applauded as the 
originals. It is impossible not to admire in them, as in all 
his other productions, a neatness of touch, a plumpness, 
and a shade that are inimitable. The ease and assiduity 
with which he worked procured the public a great number 
of estimable pieces. He succeeded equally well in the 
portraits of the most famous"personages of his time, among 
whom he might reckon himself. This excellent artist died* 
in 1707, at the age of sixty-six, in the hotel royal of the 
Gobelins, where he had apartments, with the title of en* 
graver in ordinary to the king, and counsellor in the royal 
academy of painting. In the list of his plates may be no- 
ticed that of Mary Magdalen renouncing the vanities of 
the world, from a painting by Le Brun, remarkable for the 
beauty of the work, ^nd the delicacy of the expression. 
He had a son and a brother, both engravers, briefly no- 
ticed by Mr.*Strutt, but inferior in reputation.* 

EDEMA (Gerard), a Dutch painter, thought to be a 
native of Friesland, painted landscapes justly held in great 
esteem. He went over to Surinam, for the purpose of 
drawing insects and plants ; this department, however, 
appearing to him too confined, he quitted it for the taking 
of views, drawing trees, &c. He then went to the English 
colonies in America, where he applied to all manner of sub- 
jects; and painted several pictures which he brought with, 
him to London about 1670. Whatever he put out of his 

1 Moreri. — Haller. But principally from Beet's Cyclopaedia, 
* Diet. Hiit,— Strutt. 

EDEMA. 23 

Aaod, waft well coloured, and finished with spirit. His 
pictures found a quick reception here in England, as re- 
presenting prospects of a continent in which the public was 
so highly interested. Edema took his advantage of this 
taste tpr his works, and became famous for painting land- 
scapes, in which be exhibited a variety of scenes of hor^ 
ror, such as rocks, mountains, precipices, cataracts, and 
other marks of savage nature. He would have died more 
wealthy, and perhaps would have lived longer, had he nQt 
been too fond of wine. He died about 1700. 1 

EDGEWORTH (Roger), residentiary and chancellor 
6f Wells, was born at Holt- castle, on the borders of Wales. 
He went to Oxford about 1503, took a degree in arts in 
1507, and the year after was elected fellow of Oriel-col- 
lege, on the foundation of bishop Smyth, being the first 
elected to that fellowship, and was himself a benefactor to 
this college at the time of his death. Afterwards he took 
orders, and was reputed a noted preacher in the university 
and elsewhere. In 1519 he was admitted to the readirrg 
of the sentences, and was promoted afterwards to be canon 
of Salisbury, Wells, and Bristol, and residentiary, and in, 
1554 chancellor of Wells, lie was also vicar of St. Cuth- 
bert's church, in Wells, to which he was admitted Oct, 3, 
1543. During the commencement of the reformation in 
the reigns of Henry VIII. and Edward VI. he behaved 
with singular moderation ; but when queen Mary suc- 
ceeded, he threw off the mask, and appeared what he 
really was, a violent Roman catholic. He died in the ba» 
ginning of 1560, and was buried in the cathedral of Wells, 
He published a volume of " Sermons fruitful, godly, and 
learned," Lond. 1557, 4to, or according to Herbert, 8vo. 
He wrote also, which may be seen among the records to 
Burnet's History of the Reformation, " Resolutions con- 
cerning the Sacraments," and " Resolution? of sopie ques- 
tions relating to bishops and priests, and of other matters 
I tending to the reformation of ihe church made by king 

Henry VIII."* ' • . 


mas), knt. memorable for his embassies at several courts, 
was born at Plymouth, in Devonshire, about 1563. He 


I ' PHkiogtoo. — Walpole't Anecdotes. — Descamps, vol. IV. 

• Ath. Ox. new edit 1813.— Strype's Craomer, p. 77, - 

* i 


was the fifth and youngest son of ThomaS Edniondes, 
head customer of that port, and of Fowey, in Cornwall, 
by Joan his wife, daughter of Antony Delabare, of Sher- 
borne, in Dorsetshire, esq. who was third son of Henry 
Edmondes, of New Sarum, gent, by Juliana his wife, 
daughter of William Brandon, of the same place. Where 
he had his education is not known. But we are informed 
that be was introduced to court by his name-sake, sir 
Thomas Edmonds, comptroller of the queen's household ; 
and, being initiated into public business under that most 
accomplished statesman, sir Francis Walsingham, secre- 
tary of state, he was, undoubtedly through his recommen- 
dation, employed by queen Elizabeth in several embassies. 
In 1592, she appointed him her resident at the court of 
France, or rather agent for her affairs in relation to king 
Henry IV. with a salary of twenty shillings a day, a sum 
so ill paid, and so insufficient, that we find him complain- 
ing to the lord treasurer, in a letter dated 159S, of the 
greatest pecuniary distress. The queen, however, in May 
1596, made him a grant of the office of secretary to her 
majesty for the French tongue, " in consideration of his 
faithful and acceptable service heretofore done." Towards 
the end of that year he returned to England, when sir 
Anthony Mild may was sent ambassador to king Henry ; 
but he went back again to France in the beginning of May 
following, and in less than a month returned to London. 
In October, 1597, he was dispatched again as agent for 
her majesty to the king of France ; and returned to Eng- 
land about the beginning of May 1598, where his stay 
was extremely short, for he was at Paris in the July fol- 
lowing. But, upon sir Henry Neville being appointed 
ambassador to the French cQurt, he was recalled, to his 
great satisfaction, and arrived at London in June 1599. 
Sir Henry Seville gave him a very great character, and 
recommended him to the queen in the strongest terms. 
About December the 2Gth of that year, he was sent to 
archduke Albert, governor of the Netherlands, with a 
letter of credence, and instructions to treat of a peace. 
The archduke received him with great respect ; but not 
being willing to send commissioners to England, as the 
queen desired, Mr. Edmondes went to Paris, and, having 
obtained of king Henry IV. Boulogne for the place of 
treaty, he returned to England, and arrived at court on 
Sunday morning, February 17. The 11th of March foK 


lowing, he embarked again for Brussels; and, on the 22d, 
had an audience of the archduke, whom having prevailed 
upon to treat with the queen, he returned home, April 
9, 1 600, and was received by her majesty with great fa- 
vour, and highly Commended for his sufficiency in bis ne- 
gotiation. Soon after he was appointed one of the com- 
missitfners for the treaty of Boulogne, together with sir 
Henry Neville, the queen's ambassador in France, John 
Herbert, esq. her majesty's second secretary, and Robert 
Beale, esq. secretary to the council in the North ; their 
commission being dated the 10th of May, 1600. The two 
last, with Mr. Edmondes, left London the 12th of that 
month, and arrived at Boulogne the 16th, as sir Henry 
Neville did the same day from Paris. But, after the com- 
missioners had been above three months upon the place, 
they parted, July 28th, without ever assembling, owing 
to a dispute, about precedency between England and Spain. 
Mr. Edmondes, not long after his return, was appointed 
one of the clerks of the privy-council ; and, in the end of 
June 1601, was sent to the French king to complain of 
the many acts of injustice committed by his subjects 
against the English merchants. He soon after returned to 
England ; but, towards the end of August, went again, 
and waited upon king Henry IV. then at Calais ; to whom 
he proposed some measures, both for the relief of Ostend, 
then besieged by the Spaniards, and for an offensive alliance 
against Spain. After his return to England he was appointed 
one of the commissioners for settling, with the two French 
ambassadors, the depredations between England and 
France, and preventing them for the future. The 20th of 
May, 1603, he was knighted by king James I; and, upon 
the conclusion of the peace with Spain, on the 18th of 
August, 1604, was appointed ambassador to the archduke 
at Brussels. He set out for that place the 19th of April, 
1605; having first obtained a reversionary grant of the 
office of clerk of the. crown: and, though absent, was 
chosen one of the representatives for the Burgh of Wilton, 
in the parliament which was to have met at Westminster, 
Nov. 5, 1605, but was prevented by the discovery of the. 
gunpowder-plot. During his embassy he promoted, to the 
utmost of his power, an accommodation between the king 
of Spain and the States-General of the United Provinces *. 

* It appears from some of bis dis- tremely. averse to an accommodation ; 
patches, that prince Maurice was ex- and used all the efforts imaginable, to 


He was recalled in 1609, and came back to England about 
the end of August, or the beginning of September. In 
April 1610, he was employed as one of the assistant-corn* 
mission ers, to conclude a defensive league with the crown 
of France; and, having been designed, ever since 1608, 
to be sent ambassador into that kingdom *, he was dis- 
patched thither in all haste, in May 1610, upon the fiews 
of the execrable murder of king Henry IV. jn order to 
learn the state of affairs there. He arrived at Paris, May 
24th, where he was very civilly received ; and on the 27th 
of June, had his audience of Mary de Medicis, queen 
regent; the young king (Lewis XIII.) being present In 
November following he caused an Italian to be appre- 
hended at Paris for harbouring a treasonable design against 
his master, king James I. There being, Jn 1613, a com- 
petition between him and the Spanish ambassador about 
precedency, we are told that be went to Rome privately, 
and brought a certificate out of the pope's ceremonial, 
shewing that the king of England is to precede the king of 
Castile. He was employed the same year in treating of a 
marriage between Henry prince of Wales and the princess 
Christine, sister of Lewis XIII. king of France ; but the 
death of that prince, on the 6th of November 1612, put 
an end to this negotiation. And yet, on the 9th of the 
same month, orders were sent him to propose a marriage 
between the said princess and our prince Charles, but he 
very wisely declined opening such an affair so soon after 

persuade Henry IV. to prevent the sac- takes notice in a letter to their ambas- 

cess of the treaty about the truce, sadbr in England, that they would g*t 

tnd, while it was negotiating, he was nothing by having him in the room of 

f a very craving humour; for, not sir George Carew, since sir Thomas 

satisfied with the large treatments Edmondes understood them too well, 

granted by the State?, not contented " If be should be sent," adds Mr. de 

with the restitution from the archdukes Puisieux, " it is only with a design to 

of all the prince of Orange's land in make a fuller discovery of our affairs. 

Burgundy, and the Netherlands, he We cannot nor ought to oppose openly 

farther demanded satisfaction for cer- the appointment of him ; but whoever 

tain pretensions, grounded upon grants can underhand divert this stroke would, 

to his father from the States of Bra- in my opinion, do a good service." 

bant and Flanders,, which carried with And secretary de Villeroy, in a letter 

them no show of equity. In his con- to the above-mentioned ambassador, 

duct he appeared to have been of a has these words: " Let me know,— 

very warm temper; apt to fly out upon whether there is a means of procuring 

contradiction, and to embrace hasty sir Thomas Edmondes to be employed 

resolutions, from which he was after- elsewhere ; which wouJd be a great relief 

wards obliged to recede, in a manner to the queen. — However, I am not of 

that did him no credit. opinion that you should make this 

* It is no small compliment to sir proposal ; for, if it does not succeed, 

Thomas, that he was not a favourite at it will only serve to exasperate this little 

the French court. Mr. de Puisieux, man, who has spirit and courage 

one of the French prime ministers, enough." 


the brother's death. About the end of December 1613, 
sir Thomas desired leave to return to England, but was 
denied till he should have received the final resolution of 
the court of France about the treaty of marriage; which 
being accomplished, he came to England towards the end 
of January 1613-14. Though the privy- council strenuously 
opposed this match because they had not sooner been 
made acquainted with so important an affair, yet, so zealous 
was the king for it, that he sent sir Thomas again to Paris 
with instructions, dated July 20, 1614, for bringing it to 
a conclusion. But, after all, it appeared that the court of 
France were not sincere in this affair, and only proposed it 
to amuse the protestants in general. In 1616 sir Thomas 
assisted at the conference at Loudun, between the pro-, 
testants and the opposite party ; and, by his journey to 
Rochelle, disposed the protestants to accept of the terms 
offered them, and was of great use in settling the pacifica- 
tion. About the end of October, in the same year, he 
was ordered to England ; not to quit bis charge, but, after 
he should have kissed the king's hand, and received such 
honour as his majesty was resolved to confer upon him, in 
acknowledgment of his long, painful, and faithful services, 
then to go and resume his charge; and continue in France, 
till the affairs of that kingdom, which then were in an un- 
certain state, should be better established. Accordingly 
he came over to England in December; and, on the 21st 
of that month, was made comptroller of the king's house-* 
hold; and, the next day, sworn a privy ^counsellor. He 
returned to the court of France in April 1617 ; but took 
his leave of it towards the latter end of the same year. 
And, on the 19th of January, 1617-18, was advanced to 
the place of treasurer of the household ; and in 1620 was 
appointed clerk of the crown in the court of king's bench, 
and might have well deserved the post of secretary of state 
that he had been recommended for, which none was better- 
qualified to discharge. He was elected one of the burgesses 
for the university of Oxford, in the first parliament of kin? 
Charles I. which met June IS, 1625, and was also returned 
for the same in the next parliament,, which assembled at 
Westminster the 26th of February following; but his elec- 
tion being declared vend, he was chosen for another place* 
Some of the speeches which he made in parliament are 
printed. On the llth of June 1629, he was commissioned 
to go ambassador to the French court, on purpose to carry 
king Charles's ratification, and to receive Lewis the Xllltn's 


oath, for the performance of the treaty of peace, then 
newly concluded between England and France : which he 
did in September following, and with this honourable com- 
mission concluded all his foreign employments. Having, 
after this, enjoyec] a creditable and peaceful retreat for 
about ten years, he departed this life, September 20, 1639. 
His lady was Magdalen, one of the daughters and co-heirs 
of sir John Wood, knight, clerk of the signet, by whom 
he had one son, and three daughters. She died at Paris, 
December 31, 1614, with a character amiable and exem- 
plary in all respects. Sir Jliomas had with her the manor 
of Albins, in the parishes of Stapleford-Abbot, and Nave- 
stoke in Essex, where Inigo Jones built for him a mansion* 
house, delightfully situated in a park, now the seat of the 
Abdy family. Sir Thomas was small of stature, but great 
in understanding. He was a man of uncommon sagacity, 
and indefatigable industry in his employments abroad; 
always attentive to the motions of the courts where he 
resided, and punctual and exact in reporting them to his 
own ; of a firm and unshaken resolution in the discharge of 
bis duty, and beyond the influence of terror, flattery, or 
corruption. The French court, in particular, dreaded his 
experience and abilities; and the popish and Spanish 
party there could scarcely disguise their hatred of so 
zealous a supporter of the protestant interest in that king- 
dom. His letters and papers; in twelve volumes in folio, 
were once in the possession of secretary Thurloe, and 
afterwards of the lord chancellor Somers. The style of 
them is clear, strong, and masculine, and entirely free 
from the pedantry and puerilities which infected the 
most applauded writers of that age. Several of them, 
together with abstracts from the rest, were published by 
Dr. Birch in a work entitled u An historical view of the 
Negotiations between the Courts of England, France, and 
Brussels, from the year 1592 to 1617. Extracted chiefly 
from the MS State-papers of sir Thomas Edmondes, kc 
ambassador in France, &c. and of Anthony Bacon, esq. 
brother to the lord chancellor Bacon," London, 1749,-8vo* 
Several extracts of letters, written by him in the early 
part of his* political life, occur in Birch's " Memoirs of 
queen Elizabeth/' and other letters are in Lodge's " Illus- 
trations of British History. 1 

» i 

. i Biog, Brit— Lloyd's State Worthies.— Prince's Worthies.— Lome's IUu*» 


EDMONDES (Clement), son to sir Thomas Edmondes, 
mentioned as the patron of the preceding sir Thomas, was 
born in Shropshire in 1566 ; and in 1585 became either 
clerk or chorister of All Souls' college; took one degree 
in arts, and then was chosen fellow of the house in 1590. 
Four years after, he proceeded in that faculty ; and then 
leaving the college, was, mostly by his father's endeavours, 
made successively secretary, as it is said, for the French 
tongue to queen Elizabeth about 1601, remembrancer of 
the city of London, master of the requests, muster-master 
at Brie), in Zealand, one of the clerks of the council, and 
in 1617, a knight. He was a learned person, was generally 
skilled in all arts and sciences, and famous as well for mili- 
tary as for politic affairs ; and therefore esteemed by all an 
ornament to his degree and profession. He published 
" Observations on the five first books of Caesar's Commen- 
taries of the civil wars," London, 1600, folio; u Observa- 
tions on the sixth and seventh books of Caesar's Commen- 
taries," &c. London, 1600, folio; "Observations on 
Caesar's Commentaries of the civil wars, in three books," 
London, 1609, folio. On which, or the former observa- 
tions, Ben Joiison has two epigrams. All, or most, of these 
observations, are reprinted with an addition of an eighth 
commentary by Hirtius Pansa, with our author's (Ed- 
mondes) short observations upon them, London, 1677, fol. 
Before which edition is the Life of Caesar, &c. 

Our learned author died in St. Martin's in the fields, 
London, Oct. 12, 1622, and was buried in the little chapel 
belonging to his manor of Preston, near Northampton. 
Over his grave is a fair monument erected, with an English 
and Latin epitaph. That in English is as follows : " Here 
lieth sir Clement Edmondes, knt. one of the clerks of his 
majesty's most honourable privy council. His dextrous 
pen made him most worthily esteemed in his own vocation; 
and in the art military, by Caesar's confession, an under- 
standing soldier. He lived faithfully industrious in his 
place, and died religiously constant in the belief of the 
resurrection," &c. ' 

EDMONDSON (Henry), a learned schoolmaster, who 
«tyled himself Henricus Edmundus ab Edmundo, was born 
in Cumberland in 1607, and in 1622 entered a student in 
Queen's college, Oxford, in the inferior rank of tabarder, 

i Ath. Ox. vol. I.—Lloyxi's State Worthies.— Fuller's Worthies. 


from which he probably rose by his talents, as he toot his 
degrees in arts, and obtained a fellowship. Afterwards he 
was employed as usher of Tuhbridge school ; and in 1655* 
was appointed, by the provost and fellows of Queen's col- 
lege, master of the free school at Northleach in Glouces- 
tershire, which he retained until his death, July 15, 1659, 
leaving the character of a learned an v d successful teacher. 
He published at least two school books ; the one entitled 
u Lingua linguarum," London, 1655, 8vo ; and the other 
" Homonyma et Synonyma Linguae Latinas conjuticta et 
distincta," Oxon. 1661, 8vo. * 

EDMONDSON (Joseph), Mowbray herald extraordi- 
nary, F. S. A. and an able heraldic writer, was a man who 
raised himself by dint of ingenuity and perseverance from 
a very humble station to considerable celebrity. He was 
originally an apprentice to a barber, but discovering some 
knowledge of the art, became an herald painter, and was 
much employed in emblazoning arms upon carriages. This 
led him to study heraldry as a science, which imperceptibly 
led him also to genealogical researches, and his progress 
in both was rapid and successful. When the baronets of 
England wished for some augmentation to their privileges, 
as appendages to their titles (in which, however, they were 
-not successful), they chose Mr. Edmondson their secretary. 
In 1764 he was appointed Mowbray herald extraordinary. 
He died in Warwick- street, Golden -square, Feb. 17, 1786, 
and was buried in the church-yard of St. James's, Picca- 
dilly. He was a man of good sense as well as skill in his 
profession, and maintained an excellent private character. 
His works, which will convey his name to posterity with 
great credit, were, l: "Historical account of the Greville 
Family, with an account of Warwick Castle," Lond. 1766, 
$vo. 2. " A Companion to the Peerage of Great Britain 
and Ireland," ibid. 1776, 8vo. 3. " A Complete Body of 
Heraldry," ibid. 1780, 2 vols, folio; and 4. his very mag- 
nificent work, entitled a Baronagium Genealogicumj or 
The Pedigree of English Peers," 176*— 84, 6 vols, folio. • 

EDWARD VI. king of England, deserves notice here 
, as a young prince of great promise and high accomplish- 
ments, rather than as a sovereign, although in the latter 
character he afforded every presage of excellence, had his 
life been spared. He was the only son of Henry VIII. by 

* Ath. Ox. vol. II. f Noble's Hist, of the College of Arm*. 

E D W A R D VI. *l 

queen Jane Seymour, and was born in 1538. From his 
maternal uncle, the duke of Somerset, he imbibed a zeal 
for the progress of the reformation. The ambitious policy 
of his courtiers, however, rendered his reign upon the 
whole turbulent, although his own disposition was pecu- 
liarly mild "and benevolent, and amidst all these confusions, 
the reformation of religion made very great progress. He 
was at last, when in his sixteenth year, seized with the 
measles, and afterwards with the small-pox, the effects of 
which he probably never quite recovered ; and as he was 
making a progress through some parts of the kingdom, he 
was afflicted with a cough, which proved obstinate, and 
which gave way neither, to regimen nor medicines. Several 
fatal symptoms of a consumption appeared, and though it 
was hoped, that as the season advanced, his youth and 
temperance might get the better of the malady, his sub- 
jects saw, with great concern, his bloom and vigour sen- 
sibly .decay. After the settlement of the crown, which 
had been effected with the greatest difficulty, his health 
rapidly declined, and scarcely a hope was entertained of 
his recovery. His physicians were dismissed by the earl of 
Northumberland's advice, and the young king was en- 
trusted to the hands of an ignorant woman, who undertook 
to restore him to health in a very short time ; but the medi- 
cines prescribed were found useless : violent symptoms 
were greatly aggravated ; and on the 6th of July, 1553, he 
expired at Greenwich, in the sixteenth year of his age, 
and the seventh of his reign. The excellent disposition of 
this young prince, and his piety and zeal in the protestant 
cause, have rendered his memory dear to the nation. He 
possessed mildness of disposition, application to study and 
business, a capacity to learn and judge, and an attachment 
to equity and justice. He is to this day commemorated as 
the founder of some of the most splendid charities in the 

Many authors have preserved accounts of this prince's 
writings. Cardan talks much of bis parts and learning. 
Holland affirms that he not only wrote notes from the lee- 
Aires or sermons he heard, but composed a comedy, en- 
titled " The Whore of Babylon," in Latin. It is more 
certain, however, that he wrote u The Sum of a conference 
with the Lord Admiral,' 9 which, in his own hand, is extant 
Among the Ashmolean MSS. ; " A method for the pro- 
ceedings in the council," in the Cottonian library; and 

%i E D W A R D VI. 

"King Edward Vlth's own arguments against the pope's 
supremacy, &c." translated out of the original, written 
with the king's 6wn hand in French, and still preserved. 
To which are added some remarks upon his life and reign, 
in vindication of his memory from Dr. Heylin's severe and 
unjust censure, Lond. 1682. He drew himself the rough 
draught of a sumptuary law, which is preserved by Strype ; 
and an account of a progress he made, which he sent to 
one of his particular favourites, called Barnaby Fitzpatrick, 
then in France. , The same author has given some speci- 
mens of his Latin epistles and orations, and an account of 
two books written by him; the first before he was twelve 
years of age, called " L'Encontre les Abus du Monde, 1 ' a 
tract of thirty-seven leaves in French, against the abuses 
of popery ; it is dedicated to the protector, his uncle ; is 
corrected by his French tutor, and attested by him to be of 
the king's own composition. An original copy of this 
tract is now in the British Museum. The other, preserved 
in the library of Trinity college, Cambridge, is, " A Trans- 
lation into French of several passages of Scripture, which 
forbid idolatry, or worshipping of false gods." Tanner 
gives a list of Edward's letters that are extant ; and there is 
a large folio MS. in the British Museum, containing his 
exercises in Greek, Latin, and English, with his signature 
to each of them, as king of England. Cardan says, that at 
the age of fifteen, our prince had learned seven languages, * 
and was perfect in English, French, and Latin. Cardan 
adds, " he spoke Latin with as much readiness and ele- 
gance as myself. He was a pretty good logician ; he un- 
derstood natural philosophy and music, and played upon 
the lute. The good and the learned had formed the highest 
expectations of bim, from the sweetness of his disposition, 
and the excellence of his talents. He bad beaun to favour 
learning before he was a great scholar himself, and to be 
acquainted with it before he could make use of it. Alas ! 
how prophetically did he once repeat to me, 

' Immodicis brevis est aetas, et rara senectusV* 

Bishop Burnet adds to this high character the following 
pleasing anecdote. King Edward VI. gave very early in- 
dications ^f a good disposition to learning, and of a most 
wonderful probity of mind, and above all, of great respect 
to religion, and every thing relating to it ; so that when he 
was once in! one of his childish diversions, somewhat being 


to be reached at, that he and his companions were too low 
for* dne of them laid on the floor a great Bible that was in 
the room, to step on, which he beholding with great in- 
dignation* took up the Bible himself, and gave over his 
play for that time. The same historian has printed a new 
service, which was translated by the young monarch from 
English into Latin, with a view to abolish certain supersti- 
tious ceremonies used at the installation of the knights of 
the garter. Burnet has also published, what does Edward 
most credit of all, his " Diary or Journal." In this we 
have a clear «proof of his sense, knowledge, and goodness, 
far beyond what could have been expected at bis years. It 
gives, says lord Orford, hopes of his proving a good king, 
as in so green an age he seemed resolved to be acquainted 
with his subjects and his kingdom. The original of this is 
in the Cottonian library, with the paper already mentioned, 
in the king's hand-writing, which contains hints and direc- 
tions delivered to the privy council, Jan. 19, 1551. Mr ? 
Park hasreprinted this curious paper in his edition of the 
" Royal and Noble Authors," to which this article is con- 
siderably indebted. 1 

EDWARDS (Bryan), the very able and accurate histo- 
rian of the West Indies, was born May 21, 1743, at West- 
bury in Wiltshire. His father inherited a small paternal 
estate in the neighbourhood, of about 100/. per annum, 
which proving insufficient for the maintenance of aSarge 
family, he undertook to deal in corn and malt, in which he 
had but little success. He died in 1756, leaving a widow 
and six children in distressed circumstances. Mrs. Edwards, 
however, had two opulent brothers in the West Indies, 
one of them a wise and worthy man, of a liberal mind, and 
princely fortune. This was Zachary Bayly, of the island 
of Jamaica, who took the family under his protection ; and 
as the subject of this article was the eldest, directed that 
he should be well educated. He had been placed before 
by his father at the school of a dissenting minister in Bris- 
tol, where he learned writing, arithmetic, and English 
grammar. His master, whose name was Foot, had an ex- 
cellent method of making the boys write letters to him on 
different subjects, such as the beauty and dignity of truth, 
the obligation of a religious life, the benefits of good edu- 

1 Hist, of England. — Burnet's Reformation. — Seward's Anecdotes. — Park's 
Royal and Noble Author*. 

Vol. XIII. B 


cation, the mischiefs of idleness, &c. previously stating to 
them the chief arguments to be used ; and insisting ou 
correctness in orthography and grammar. In this employ- 
ment Mr. Edwards sometimes excelled the other boys, and 
on such occasions, his master never failed to praise him 
Very libetally before them all; and would frequently 
transmit his letters to his father and mother. This excited 
in bis mind a spirit of emulation, and gave him the first 
taste for correct and elegant Composition, in which Mr. 
Edwards, it must be confessed, attained considerable faei* 
lity. All this time, however, he informs us that he attained 
but very little learning, and when his uncle took him under 
his protection, his agent in Bristol considered him as neg- 
lected by Mr. Foot, and immediately removed him to a 
French boarding-school in the same city, where he soon 
obtained the French language, and having access to a cir- 
culating library, acquired a passion for books, which after- 
wards became the solace of his life. 

In 1759, a younger, and the only brother of his good 
uncle, came to England, and settling in London, took biitt 
to reside with hinl, in a high add elegant style of life* He 
was a representative in parliament for Abingdon, and 
% afterward for his native town. This gentleman, in the 
latter -end of the same year, sent him to Jamaica; which 
proved the happiest and most fortunate change in his life; 
as bxi uncle, to the most enlarged and enlightened mind* 
added the sweetest temper, and the most generous dispo- 
sition. His tenderness toward Mr. Edwards was excessive, 
and he in return regarded him with more than filial affection 
and veneration. Observing his passion for books, and 
thinking favourably of his capacity, his uncle engaged a 
clergyman, a Mr. Teale, to reside in his family, chiefly to 
supply by his instructions Mr. Edwards's deficiency in the 
learned languages. Mr. Teale had been master of a free 
grammar school, and beside being a most accomplished 
scholar, possessed an exquisite taste for poetry, of which 
the reader will be convinced by referring to the Gentle* 
man's Magazine for August 1771, the beautiful copy of 
verses, there first published, called " The Compliment of 
the Day," being of his composition. Mr. Edwards, how-* 
ever, according to his own account, did not make any great 
progress in the languages under his tuition. He acquired 
" small Latin, and less Greek ;" and never found it easy to 
read the tyoman poet* in their own language. Not haying 


been grounded in the Latin grammar at an early period of 
life, be found the study of it iasupportably disgusting, 
after he bad acquired a taste for the beauties of fine writ* 
ing. Poetry* however, was their chief amusement; for 
Mr. Teale, as well as himself, preferred the charms of 
Dryden and Pope, to the dull drudgery of poring over 
syntax and prosody. Tbey preferred belle* lettres; and 
laughed away many an hour over the plays of M oliere, and 
wrote verses on local and temporary subjects, which they 
sometimes published in the Colonial newspapers. Yet the 
Latin classics were not altogether neglected ; Mr. Teale 
delighted to point out to his pupil the beauties of Horace, 
and would frequently impose on bim the task of translating 
an ode into English verse, which, with his assistance in 
construing the words, he sometimes accomplished. 

In course of time, Mr. Edwards, who succeeded his 
uncle, and, in 1773, was left beir to the great property of 
a Mr. Hume of Jamaica, became an opulent merchant, re* 
turned to England, and in 1796 took his seat in parliament 
for the borough of Grampound, which he represented until 
his death, which happened at his house, Polygon, near 
"Southampton, July 15, 1800. His first publication was a 
pamphlet, entitled " Thoughts on the Proceedings of Go- 
vernment respecting the Trade of the West India islands 
with the United States of America," 1784. This was fol- 
lowed by a " Speech delivered by him at a free conference 
between the council and assembly at Jamaica, held on the 
25th of November 1789, on the subject of Mr. Wilber- 
force's propositions in the house of commons, concerning 
the Slave Trade." But his most distinguished performance 
is his " History, civil and commercial, of the British Co- 
lonies in the West Indies," 1793, 2 vols. 4to, a work of 
very superior merit, and of the highest authority, parti- 
cularly in the commercial part. To a new edition of this 
work, published in 1801, 3 vols. 8vo, and including his 
u History of St. Domingo," is prefixed a short memoir of 
his early life, written by himself. In 1796 Mr. Edwards 
published " The proceedings of the governor and assembly 
of Jamaica, in regard to the Maroon Negroes," 8vo. In 
all these works Mr. Edwards's style is easy and elegant, 
and many .of his remarks highly valuable as the result of 
long experience and observation. 1 

. Life written by bims«1f.—G*Bt. Mag, 180Q,' 

J) 2 


EDWARDS (Edward), the late teacher of perspective 
in the royal academy, was born March 7, 1738, in Castle^ 
street* Leicester-fields, where his father was a chair-maker 
and carver, and educated at a protectant school established 
for the children of French refugees. When fifteen years 
of age he assisted his father, who intended hint for his own 
business, but discovering in him some inclination to draw* 
ang, permitted him to take some lessons at a drawing* 
school, and in 1759, young Edwards was admitted a stu- 
dent at the duke of Richmond's gallery. On the death of 
his father, in the following year, he found himself without 
employment j and with a view to his support* and that of 
his mother* and a brother and sister, opened an evening 
school at bis lodgings, where he taught drawing. In 1761 
he was admitted a member of the academy in Peter-court, 
St. Martin's-lane* where he studied the human figure with 
the principal artists of that period* and made such progress 
-as to obtain a premium for a drawing from the society for 
the encouragement of arts, manufactures* and commerce. 
In 1763 he was employed by the late Boydell to make some 
drawings for his publication of engravings from the old 
masters } and in 1764 obtained another premium from the 
society, of arts* &C. for the best historical picture in chiaro 
oscuro ; and became a member (and frequent exhibiter) of 
the incorporated society of artists. In 1770 he was em- 
ployed by the society of antiquaries to make a large draw- 
ing from the picture at Windsor of the interview between 
Henry VIII. and Francis I. at Calais. 

In all this time, although his character advanced, his 
profits were but moderate, and he was obliged to ' under- 
take employment of various kinds to maintain himself and 
family, which he contrived to do by constant industry and 
frugality. In 1771 he exhibited at the royal academy* 
which in 1773, in consideration of his abilities* elected 
him an associate. Having about the same time heen em- 
ployed by Mr. Udny, this gentleman enabled him to pay 
a visit to Italy in 1775, which he had long wished to ac- 
complish ; and during a tour of thirteen months* Mr. Ed- 
wards profited by the careful inspection of whatever was 
most remarkable both in nature and art in that celebrated 

On his arrival in London, he again established himself 
in his profession. He had seen much, and his opinions, 
which were given with undeviating integrity* were always 



respected, but his productions seldom excited touch ap* 
probation, nor have there been many instances where an 
artist, with so much general capacity and vigour of mind, 
has not been able to make greater proficiency. In 1781 
he obtained a premium from the society of tfurts for aland-; 
6cape painting ; and the same year he presented to the 
royal society a paper on the storm at Roebampton, accom- 
panied by drawings made by himself of the singular effects 
of it. In June 1782, he went to Bath, where be was 
employed to paint three arabesque ceilings, in the house 
of the honourable Charles Hamilton. This was one of the 
greatest commissions he ever received, and occupied him 
till March 1783 ; and the politeness and liberality of Mr* 
Hamilton made his time pass very agreeably. He soon. 
after met with less liberal treatment from Horace Walpole, 
who gave him some commissions until 1784, when their 
intercourse ceased. Walpole bad been, as he thought, 
charged too much for a cabinet made by a person recom» 
mended by Edwards, and expressed himself on the sub* 
ject with so much petulance and coarseness as to provoke. 
Edwards to reply with proper indignation* 

Qf Mr. Edwards's commissions after this, we shall only 
notice his picture of a hunting party for Mr. Estcourt, ia 
1786 ; a collection of etchings, fifty-two in number, pub* 
lished by Leigh and Sotheby in 1799 ; his " Commemo*- 
r#tion of Handel in Westminster-abbey ;" and his picture 
from the " Two Gentlemen of Verona," for the Shak- 
speare gallery. To enumerate further would be only ai* 
account of variops small commissions which always gave 
satisfaction, but were not attended by the fame or profit 
of his more successful brethren. In 1788, he was ap- 
pointed teacher of perspective in the royal academy, and 
was continued in that situation during the remainder of his 
life. For this he had qualified himself by long study, the 
fruits o£ which were given to the public in a " Treatise on 
Perspective," 18103, 4to, with forty plates, a work, not. 
certainly without defects, but upon the whole, judicious, 
comprehensive, and useful. 

In 1800 he lost his mother, whom he had hitherto main* 
tained with true filial piety, at the age of ninety-three. 
His sister continued to reside with him; and his prudence* 
juded by her economy and good management, enabled 
him to subsist with credit with a very small income, which 
. was gradually becoming less. Still his spirits were u»U 


formly cheerful, and in society be was to the last lively 
and agreeable. His conduct had been virttious and irre- 
proachable, and his religious sentiments supported him 
amidst every adversity. He had failed in nothing but in 
his endeavour to acquire greater power in the fert to Which 
he bad devoted himself; and in this, all that depended 
upon himself bad been done. The employment of hid 
latter years was superintending at the press his " Anec- 
dotes of Painters,'* intended as a supplement to lord Or- 
, ford's work. . For this he bad long been collecting ma* 
terials, and although his criticisms may not on every occa* 
sion accord with the general opinion, he is accurate in hi* 
facts, which he took much pains to ascertain from an ac- 
quaintance with all the members of his profession for 
nearly half a century. 

He died of a very short illness, .and indeed almost sud- 
denly, Dec. 19, 1806, and his funeral at St. Pancrgs church- 
yard, was attended by many members of the royal -aca- 
demy, who paid an unfeigned tribute of respect to the 
memory of his useful and blameless life. ' 
. EDWARDS (George), an eminent English naturalist, 
pras born April 3, 1693, at Stratford, a hamlet belonging 
to West-Ham, in Esses. Some of his early years were 
passed under the tuition of two clergymen, one of whom 
kept a school at Laytpnstone, and the other at Brentwood, 
$fter which, being designed by his parents for business, lie 
was put apprentice to a tradesman in Fench arch-street. 
He was particularly happy in his master,, who treated him 
with great kindness and civility; and who, besides his 
being a man of a strict regard to religion, had the uncom- 
mon qualification .of being well skilled in the learned lan- 
guages. About the middle of the term of Mr. Edwards's 
apprenticeship, an event happened, which gave a direc- 
tion to his future studies. Upon the death of Dr. Nicholas, 
a person of eminence in the physical world, and a relation 
of Edwards's piaster, the doctor's books, which were very 
numerous, were removed to our apprentice's apartment. 
So unexpected an opportunity of acquiring knowledge he 
embraced with eagerness, and passed all the leisure of the 
day, and not unfrequently a considerable part of the night, 
in turning over Dr. Nicholas 9 collections of natural history, 
sculpture, painting, astronomy, and antiquities. From this 

1 Memoir* preftxe4 to his " Anecdote* of peters," published ii* 1803, 4tq, 


time, he lost what little relish he had for trade, and on 
the expiration of his servitude, formed the design of tra- 
velling into foreign countries for the purpose of improving 
bis taste, and enlarging his mind. His first voyage was to 
-Holland in 1716, when he visited most of the principal 
towps of the United Provinces. He then returned to Eng- 
land, and continued two years unemployed in London and 
its neighbourhood, though not without increasing his ac- 
quaintance with natural history. His next voyage was to 
Norway, where an Active and philosophic mind, like his, 
could not fail to be highly gratified both with the stupend- 
ous scenery of nature, and with the manners of the inha- 
bitants. In an excursion to Frederickstadt, he was not far 
distant from the cannon of Charles XII. of Sweden, who 
was then engaged in the siege of that place, before which 
be lost bis life. By this circumstance Mr. Edwards was 
prevented from visiting Sweden, the Swedish army being 
particularly watchful against strangers. Notwithstanding 
all his precaution, and his solicitude to give no offence on 
either side, be was once confined by tbe Danish guard, 
who supposed him to be a spy employed by the enemy to 
procure intelligence of their designs. Upon obtaining 
testimonials, however, of bis innocence, a release was 

In July 1718, he embarked for England, and soon after 
his arrival, retired to his native place, where he spent the 
winter. But being desirous of visiting France, he went thither 
in 1719, and after viewing the curiosities of Paris, took a 
lodging in a village situated in the great park of Versailles. 
His view was to enlarge his knowledge of natural history, 
but, to bis great mortification, there was not at that time a 
living creature in the? menagerie. As the court, during 
the king's minority, did not reside at Versailles, the fa- 
mous collection of animals had been so totally neglected, 
that they were all either dead or dispersed. To relieve 
his disappointment, Mr. Edwards amused himself in sur- 
veying the several churches and religipus houses, and 
especially the statues and pictures in the public buildings. 
While be resided in France, be made two journeys of*a 
hundred miles each. The first was to Chalons in Cham- 
pagne, in May 1720 ; tbe second was on foot, to Orleans 
and Blois. This was performed in a -disguised habit that 
he might avoid being robbed, but the scheme happened 
to be peculiarly hazardous ; for an edict had recently beea 


issued to secure vagrants, in order to transport them to 
America, the hanks of the Missisippi standing in need of 
population ; and our philosopher narrowly escaped a west* 
ern voyage. 

On his return to England, he closely pursued his fa- 
vourite study of natural history ; applying himself ta the 
drawing and colouring of such animals as fell under his 
notice. His earliest care was rather to preserve natural 
than picturesque beauty. Birds first engaged his particular 
attention ; and some of the hest pictures of these subjects 
being purchased by him, he was induced to make a 
few drawings of his own. These were admired by the 
curious, who, by paying a good price for them, encou- 
raged him in labours which now procured him a decent 
subsistence and a large acquaintance: In 1731 he was 
enabled to remit his industry, and, in company with two 
of his relations, made an excursion to Holland and Bra- 
bant, where he collected several scarce books and prints* 
and had an opportunity of examining the original pictures 
of various great masters, at Antwerp, Brussels, Utrecht, 
and other large cities. In December 1733, by the recom- 
mendation of sir Hans Sloane, president of the college of 
physicians, he was chosen their librarian, and had apart* 
merits assigned him in the college. This, which was the 
principal epocha of his private life, fixed him in an office 
that was particularly agreeable to his taste and inclination. 
He bad now an opportunity of a constant recourse to 
a valuable library, filled with scarce and curious books 
on those subjects of natural history which be most assidu- 
ously studied. By degrees be became one of the most 

. eminent ornithologists in our own or any other couutry, 
and in acquiring this character, such was his scrupulous 
industry, that he never trusted to others what he could 

, perform himself ;* and when he found it difficult to give 
satisfaction to his own mind, frequently made three or 

•four drawings to delineate the object in its most lively 
character, attitude, and representation. 

In 1743, he exhibited to the world an admirable speci- 
men of his labours, in the first volume of bis " History of 
Birds." It was published in 4to, on royal paper, and 

. contains sixty-one birds, and two quadrupeds, most of 
which had been neither delineated nor described before. 
They are engraved on fifty-ttwo plates, from original draw- 
ings, exactly coloured/ with full and accurate descriptions 


m French and English. This .volume is dedicated to tbe 
president ?md fellows of tl>e royal college of physicians. 
His subscribers having exceeded his most sanguine expec- 
tations, a second volume appeared in 1747, dedicated to 
sir Hans Sloane, and a third in 1750, dedicated to the 
royal society. His fourth volume came from the press in 
1751, and was the last which at that time he intended to 
publish. It was accompanied by the extraordinary circunir 
stance of being dedicated to the Supreme Being, \i\ the 
following words : 

" To GOD, 
" The One Eternal ! the Incomprehensible ! the Omni- 
present, the Omniscient, and Almighty Creator of all 
Things that exist ! from Orbs immeasurably great, to the 
miojutest points of matter, this Atom is dedicated and de- 
voted, with all possible Gratitude, Humiliation, ..Worship* 
*nd the highest Adoration both of Body and Mind, 

By his most resigned, 

low, and bumble, Creature, « 
George Edwards." 

This dedication, we doubt not, was piously designed, 
.but it cannot be commended. Such ap assumption, it has 
-been observed, is too great for any human creature, and 
.the few instances of the kind that have occurred in the 
history of literature have always been justly disapproved. 
Jt is not, however, the only instance we have to record of 
the peculiar turn of his religious affections. 

But with this work it soon appeared that he did not 
mean to discontinue his labours ; his mind was too active, 
and bis love of knowledge too ardent, for him to rest satis- 
fied with what he had already done. Accordingly, in 1758, 
he published his first volume of " Gleanings of Natural 
History," exhibiting seventy different birds, fishes, insects, 
*nd plants, most of which were before non-descripts, ca* 
loured from nature, on fifty copper-plates. This work 
jpuch increased bis fame as a natural historian, and as a>u 
artist. In 1760, a second volume.appeared, dedicated to 
•$ie ljite earl of Bute, whose studious attachment to natural 
'history, particularly to botany, was then well known. 
.The third part of the " Gleanings," which constituted the 
7th and last. volume of Mr. Edwards's works, was published 
in 1763(, and was dedicated to earl Ferrers, who, when 
captain Shirley, had taken in a French prize, a great num- 
ber of birds, intended for madame Pompadour, mistress. 


of Louts XV. These he communicated to our naturalist, 
who was hence enabled more completely to add to the 
Value of his labours. Thus, after a .long series of years, 
the most studious application, and a very extensive cor* 
respondence with every quarter of the world, Mr. Edwards 
concluded a work, which in 7 vols. 4to, contains engravings 
and descriptions of more than an hundred subjects in na- 
tural history, not before described or delineated, and "ati 
the productions of his own hand. We have already men- 
tioned his scrupulous exactness, and may now confirm it 
in his own words. In the third volume of his " Gleanings" 
he says, " It often happens that my figures on the cop- 
per-plates differ from my original drawings ; for sometimes 
the originals have not altogether pleased me as to their 
attitudes or actions. In such cases I have made thrae ofr 
/our, sometimes six sketches, or outlines, and hate deli- 
berately considered them all, and then fixed upon that 
which I judged most free and natural, to be engraven on 
my plate." He added to the whole a general index in 
English and French, which is npw perfectly completed, 
with the Linnanan names, by Linnaeus himself, who fre- 
quently honoured him with his friendship and correspond*- 
ence. Upon Mr. Edwards' completing his great work, we 
find him making the following singular declaration, or ra- 
ther petition, in which he seems afraid that his passion for 
his favourite subject of natural history, should get the 
better of a nobler pursuit, viz. the contemplation of his 

" My petition to God (if petitions to God are not pre* 
sumptuous) is, that he would remove from me all desire 
of pursuing natural history or any other study, and inspire 
me with as much knowledge of his divine nature as my im- 
perfect state is capable of; that I may conduct myself, for 
the remainder of my days* in a manner most agreeable to 
bis will, which must consequently be most happy to my* 
$^lf. What my condition may be ih futurity, is known 
only to the wise disposer of all things ; yet my present de- 
sires are (perhaps vain, and inconsistent with the nature of 
things!) that I may become an intelligent spirit, void of 
gross matter, gravity, and levity ; endowed with a volun- 
tary motive-power, either to pierce infinitely into Hbound* 
less ethereal space, or into solid bodies ; to see and know- 
how the parts of the great universe are connected with 
each other, and by what amazing mechanism they are put 


and kept in regular and perpetual motion. But, O vain 
and daring presumption of thought : I most humbly sub- 
mit my future existence to the supreme will of the One 

Several occasional papers upon natural history were 
communicated by Mr. Edwards to the royal society, and 
inserted in the Philosophical Transactions *. In a few 
instances, he corresponded with other periodical publica- 
tions. The prefaces and introductions to many of his vo- 
lumes contain some curious and ingenious essays relative 
to the object of his principal pursuit ; and he has given, 
likewise, a brief and general idea of drawing and painting 
in water-colours, with instructions for etching on copper- 
plates ; and reflections on the passages of birds. In 1770 
thes$ essays were selected and published by our author, 
in one vol. 8vo, his design in doing which was to accom- 
modate those persons who could not afford the expence 
of bis great work. 

Seventeen years after Mr. Edwards had been appointed 
librarian to the college of physicians, he was honoured 
by the president and council of the royal society with the 
donation of sir Godfrey Copley's medal. This was on St. 
Andrew's day, 1750, and the honour was conferred upon 
him in consideration of his having just then completed his 
" History of Birds," though the last volume had not yet 
been published His sensibility of this distinction was 
shown by him in causing a copy of the medal to be en* 
graved, and placed under the general title in the first 
volume of bis history. On the 10th of November, 1757, 
he was chosen a fellow of the royal society ; and he was 
afterward elected into the society of antiquaries. He had 
likewise the honour of being made a member of many of 
the academies of science and learning in different parts of^ 
Europe. In return for such marks of estimation, he pre- 
sented elegant coloured copies of his works to the royal 
college of physicians, to the royal and antiquarian so* 
cieties, and the British museum. Having made the same 
present to the royal academy of sciences at Paris, he re- 
ceived a most polite letter of thanks written by their then 
secretary, Defouchy* 

. After the last publication of his " Gleanings," being 
arrived at his seventieth year, he found that bis sight be- 

* These were reprinted and added to the Memoir? of Ju» life and Writing*) 
WW, 4lo. 


gan to fail him, and that his hand lost its steadiness. Ha 
continued, however, some years afterward in his office of 
librarian ; but finding his infirmities to increase, he retired 
in 1769 from public employment, to a small house which 
he bad purchased at Plaistow ; previously to which he dis- 
posed of all the copies, as well as plates, of bis-works to 
the late Mr. Robson, bookseller in New Bond-street, who 
published the Linns&an Index, his papers from the Philo- 
sophical Transactions, with the plates relative to these 
subjects all new engraved, in 1776, in a proper size to 
bind with his other works, the whole of which he assigned 
to Mr. Robson solely, and addressed a letter to the public 
upon the occasion, dated May 1, 1769. His collection of 
drawings, amounting to upwards of nine hundred, had 
before been purchased by the earl of Bute. The conver- 
sation of a few select friends, and the perusal of. a fevv 
choice books, were his amusement in the evening of hi* 
life, and he occasionally made excursions to some of the 
principal cities in England. During bis residence at Plais- 
tow, however, he delineated some scarce animals, which 
were afterwards engraved. His latter years were much 
embittered by a cancerous complaint which deprived him 
of the sight of one of his eyes, and by the stone, to which 
be had been subject at different periods of his life. It 
was nevertheless remarked, that in the severest paroxysms 
of misery, he was scarcely known to utter a single com- 
plaint. Having completed his eightieth year, and become 
emaciated with age and sickness, he died on the 23d of 
July, 1773, and was interred in the church-yard of West* 
Ham, his native parish, where bis executors erected a 
stone with a plain inscription, to perpetuate his talents as 
an artist and zoologist. Dying a bachelor, he left his for- 
tune to two sisters, who did not long survive him. 

With regard to his person, he was of a middle stature, 
rather inclining to corpulence. The turn of his mind was 
liberal and cheerful. The benevolence of his temper was 
experienced by all his acquaintance, and his poor neigh- 
bours frequently partook of his bounty* From the diffi- 
dence and humility which were always apparent in his be- 
haviour, he was not calculated for shining in general conver- 
sation ; but to persons who bad a taste for studies congenial 
to his own, he was a npost entertaining as well as commu- 
nicative companion. How much his works continue to be 
. held in estimation, is apparent from the high price at which 


» ( 


they are commonly sold. His proper and distinct charac- 
ter is, that he far excelled all the English ornithologists 
who had gone before him. The immense accessions which, 
since 1763, have been made to natural knowledge, and 
the higher degree of taste and elegance to which the art , 
of engraving has been carried, may give to future produc- 
tions an eminence and reputation superior to what our 
author has attained. But that he should be exceeded by 
those who come after him, will be no diminution to his 
just fame, or prevent his memory from being handed down . 
to posterity with honour and applause. 1 

EDWARDS (Thomas), a famous presbyterian writer 

in the seventeenth century, and a bitter enemy to the in** 

-dependents, who then bore sway in this kingdom, was 

educated in Trinity-college, in Cambridge, where he took 

the degree of B. A. in 1605, and that of M. A. in 1609. 

He was incorporated M. A. at Oxford, July 14, 1623. 

Where and what his preferments were, we do not find ; 

but we learn from himself, that though he conformed, yet 

he was always a puritan in his heart. He exercised his 

ministry, chiefly as a lecturer, at Hertford, and at several 

places in and about London ; and was sometimes brought 

into trouble for opposing the received doctrines, or not - 

complying duly with the established church. When the 

long parliament declared against Charles J. our author 

espoused their cause, and by all bis actions, sermons* 

prayers, praises, and discourses, earnestly promoted their 

interest. But, when the independent party began to. as? 

sume the supreme authority, he became as furious against 

them as he had been against the royalists, and wrote the 

following pieces against them: 1. " Reasons against the 

independent Government of particular Congregations,", 

&c. Lond. ,1641, 4to ; which was answered the same year 

by a woman called Catherine Chidley. 2. " Antapologia," 

or a full answer to the " Apologeticall Narration of Mr* 

Goodwin, Mr. Nye, Mr.. Simpson, Mr. Burroughs, Mr* 

3ridge, members of the assembly of divines. Wherein i$- 

handled many of the controversies of there times ; viz. I. 

Of a particular visible-church. II. Of classes and synods. 

HI. Of the Scriptures, how farre a rule for church go* 

vernment. I V* Of formes of prayer. V. Of the qualifi- 

Biog. Brit.*— Ann. Register for 1 776! —Nichols's Bowyer, 


cations of church members. 6. " Of submission and non- 
communion. VII. Of excommunication. VIII. Of the 
power of the civil I magistrate in ecclesiastical*. IX. Of 
separation and schisme. X. Of tolerations, and particu- 
larly of the toleration of independencie. XI. Of suspen- 
sion from the Lord's supper. XII. Of ordination of mi- 
nisters by the people. XIII. Of church covenant. XI V. 
Of non-residencie of church-members,'* Lond. 1644, 4tO- 
3. " Gangrsena : or a catalogue and discovery of many of 
the errours, heresies, blasphemies, and pernicious prac- 
tices of the sectaries of this time, vented and acted in Eng- 
land in these four last years ; as also a particular narration 
of divers stories, remarkable passages, letters ; an extract 
of many letters, concerning the present sects; together 
with some observations upon, and corollaries from, all the 
forenamed premisses," Lond. 1646, 4to, reprinted after- 
wards. 4. " The second part of Gangraena," &c. Lond. 
1646, 4to. 5. " The third part of Gangrena ; or, Anew 
and higher discovery of the errors, heresies, blasphemies, 
and insolent proceedings of the sectaries of these times ; 
with some animadversions, by way of confutation, upon 
many of the errors and heresies named. 99 In these three 
parts of Gangrtena, he gives catalogues of the errors of the 
independents, and exposes the errors of the other sectaries 
of his time, in a manner which could not fail to render him 
particularly obnoxious to them, but at the same time in 
such a spirit of bitter invective, as must render many of 
his facts doubtful, He also published, 6. " The casting 
down of the last and strongest hold of Satan ; or, a Trea- 
tise against Toleration," Part I. Lond. 1647, 4to. 7. "Of 
the particular visibility of the Church." 8. "A treatise 
of the Civil Power of Ecclesiasticals, and of suspension 
from the Lord's supper," Lond. 1642, 1644. He pro- 
mised several other pieces, but it does not appear that he 
published them; particularly, 1. A fourth Part of his 
Gangraena. 2. An Historical Narration of all the pro- 
ceedings and ways of the English Sectaries. 3. Catalogue 
of the Judgments of God upon the Sectaries within these 
four years last past. 4. Many Tractates against the errors 
of the times. He promised likewise to resemble that tree 
spoken of in the Revelation, to yield fruit every month ; 
t e. to be often setting forth one tractate or other ; but we 
do not hear of more than have been enumerated. As for 


bis character, be professes himself " a plain, Open-hearted 
mtpi, who hated tricks, reserves, and designs;" zealous 
for the assembly pf divines, the directory, the use of the 
Lord's Prayer, singing of Psalms, &c. and so earnest for 
what he took to be truth, that he was usually called in 
Cambridge, young Luther. 

He died Aug. 24, 1647, in Holland, whither he had 
fled to avoid the resentment of the independents, after 
Cromwell bad made his triumphal entrance into London, 
with his army, * 

EDWARDS (John), an eminent English divine and 
voluminous writer, the son of the preceding Thomas Ed- 
wards, was born at Hertford, February 26, 1637. His 
father, as we have already noticed, died in 16*47, and by 
his wife, who was an heiress of a very considerable fortune, 
he left one daughter and four sons, the second of whom 
was John, the subject of the present narrative. After 
having received his grammatical education at Merchant- 
taylors' school, in London, he was removed in 1653 to the 
university of Cambridge, and was admitted of St John's 
college, then under the government of Dr. Anthony Tuck* 
ney, a presby terian divine of acknowledged character and 
learning, and particularly distinguished for the wise and 
exact discipline of his college. Mr. Edwards, . soon after 
bis admission, was chosen scholar of the house, and was 
quickly taken notice of for his exercises, both in his tutor's 
chamber, and in his college-hall. Towards the close of 
his undergraduateship, the senior proctor being then of 
the college, he was appointed one of the moderators for 
the year. When he was middle bachelor, he was elected 
a fellow of his college, for which he was principally in- 
debted to the exertions of Dr. Tuckney in his behalf. 
During the time of his senior bachelorship he was again 
chosen moderator in the schools, and bis performance* 
were long remembered with esteem and praise. In 1661 
he was admitted to the degree of M. A. ; and soon after sir 
Robert Carr presented him to Dr. Sanderson, bishop of 
Lincoln, who conferred upon him the order of deacon; 
That learned prelate engaged him, at the same time, to 
preach a sermon at the next ordination, when with the 
other candidates, be was ordained priest. In 1664, hd 
undertook the duty of Trinity- church, in Cambridge, and 

1 Bioy. Brit. 


went through the whole both parts of the day. In hit 
preaching, without affecting eloquence, he studied fo 
be plain, intelligible, and practical ; and his 'church was 
much frequented by the gown, and by persons of consider- 
able standing in the university. Dr. Sparrow, master of 
Queen's, Dr. Beaumont, master of Peterhouse, and Dvj 
Pearson, master of Trinity-college, were often heard to 
applaud his pulpit performances; In 1665, during th£ 
time of the plague, he quitted his residence in the college, 
and dwelt all that year, and part of the next, in the town, 
that he might devote himself entirely to the edification and 
comfort of the parishioners of Trinity church, in that 
season of calamity. A little after this, sir Edward Atkins 
offered him a good living near Cirencester, in Gloucester-) 
shire, but he chose to continue in his station at Cambridge. 
In 1668 he was admitted to the degree of B. D. About 
the same time, through the interest of sir Robert Carr 
with sir Thomas Harvey, Mr. .Edwards was unanimously 
chosen lecturer at St. Edmund's Bury, with a salary of 
300/. a year. This office he discharged with great repu- 
tation and acceptance, notwithstanding which, after a pe- 
riod of twelve months, he resigned it, and returned to hi$ 
college, where* however, his situation was uneasy to him. 
He had net been upon the best terms with Dr. Peter Gun- 
ning, the former master of St. John's, and being still m&tiF 
dissatisfied with Dr. Francis Turner, Gunning's successor, 
who had somehow offended him, he determined to resign 
his fellowship. On quitting h'is college, he was presented 
by the fellows with a testimonial of his worthy and laudable 
behaviour among them. From St. John's he removed to 
Trinity-hall, where he entered himself as a fellow-corn* 
moner, and performed the regular exercises in the civil 
law. Being willing to be employed in the offices of his 
clerical function, he accepted of the invitation of the pa- 
rishioners of St. Sepulchre, in Cambridge, to be their mi- 
nister ; and his sermons there were as much attended by 
persons of consequent in the university as they had for- 
merly been at Trinity church. In 1676 Mr. Edwards mar- 
ried Mrs. Lane, the widow of Mr, Lane, who had been an 
alderman, a justice of peace, and an eminent attorney in 
the town, " This gentlewoman," says his biographer, 
?' was an extraordinary person, of unusual accomplishments 
and singular graces ; but had the unhappiness (as spine 
others of that sex) to be misrepresented to the world. She 

'*Jr ."*^.x;, . 


Wing naturally of a high and generous spirit, and not 
framed to low observances and vulgar compliances, incur* 
red thereby the imputation of pride and superciliousness 
among vulgar minds. Butthose who were no strangers to 
good breeding, and knew bow to make distinction of per* 
sons, admired the agreeableness of her conversation, and 
saw those excellent and worthy things in her deportment 
which they could find but in very few of her sex. She 
understood herself and her duty, and all the rules of civil 
and religious behaviour.'* 

Soon after Mr. Edwards's marriage, his friend sir Robert 
Carr, generously offered him the presentation of two con- 
siderable benefices then vacant in Norfolk, which he as 
generously* declined, being willing that those livings should 
be bestowed upon some other person or persons who 
needed them. About the same time he accepted a pre- 
ferment less valuable, that of St. Peter's church in Col- 
Chester, merely from the prospect of extensive usefulness. 
Thither he accordingly removed with his family, and wa» 
highly acceptable to his parishioners, but quitted the place 
at the end of three years, and removed to Cambridgeshire. 
To this he was induced by the unkind usage which (as he 
thought) he met with from the clergy of the town, by the 
sickly habit of his wife, and by an apoplectic and convul- 
sive fit with which he was himself visited. Upon his re- 
moval into the county of Cambridge, being afflicted with 
bodily pains and weaknesses, and especially the gout, 
which prevented him from appearing in public, he em- 
ployed himself in presenting a succession of publications 
to the world. About 1697, he removed with his family to 
Cambridge, for the convenience of the university library. 
Our author had often been solicited by his friends to take 
his degree of D. D. but he did not comply with their mo- 
tion till 1699, Upon this occasion he had not the oppor* 
tunity of keeping an act, there being none, on account 
of the illness of the divinity professor, to moderate and 
determine. He only preached an English sermon at the 
commencement, and a Concio ad Clerum ; besides which 
he made a determination in Latin, in the schools, on a 
theological question. In 1701, Dr. Edwards lost his lady, 
and, after a decent time, married again, a niece of alder* 
man Lane, who had been brought up several years undor 
Mrs. Edwards before her marriage to the doctor, 
Voi* XIII. E 


It is remarkable, that, notwithstanding lib numerous* 
publications, he was never possessed of a library; some 
bibles, lexicons, dictionaries, and other works of a similar 
nature and constant use, excepted. The university And 
college libraries furnished him with alt the classic authors, 
and Greek and Latin fathers, and indeed with whatever 
related to ancient learning. These he either perused in 
the places where they were kept, or had them brought to 
his chamber; and his method was, from the early part 
of his life, to make adversaria and collections out of the 
boojts which he read, and all along to frame notes, obser- 
vations, inferences, and reflections, from and on them, 
and to reduce them to the particular heads and subjects on 
which he designed to treat. He never had a common- 
place book. With regard to modern authors, his practice 
was to procure the loan of them from the booksellers, at 
the price of sixpence for an $vo, a shilling for a 4to, and 
two shillings for a folio. By this good husbandry, he was 
forced to read the works which he borrowed within the 
time prefixed ; whereas, otherwise he might perhaps never 
have perused them thoroughly. Dr. Edwards continued' 
in his course of diligent study and repeated publications 
till near the period of his decease, April 16, 1716, in the 
Seventy- ninth year of his age. 

Catharine, his second wife, who is said to have been 
adorned with every Christian grace and virtue, survived 
bar husband nearly thirty-nine years. She died on the 
14th of January, 1744-5, aged eighty-one. 

Of Dr. Edwards's piety, a high, and we doubt not, a just 
character is given by his biographer: the only thing which 
his brethren objected to him, was his great zeal for the 
CaKinistic doctrines, and his maintaining a close connec- 
tion between Arminianism and Popery. That he was a 
man of extensive learning cannot be denied ; and by bis* 
admirers he was said to have been the Paul, the Augustine/ 
the Bradwardine, the Calvin, and one of the most valuable 
writers of his age. 

Besides several single sermons, Mr.- Edwards published* 
1. "An enquiry into four remarkable texts of the New* 
Testament," 1692, 8vo. 2. " A farther enquiry intoseve-* . 
rai remarkable texts of the Old and New Testament,' 
1632, Svo. 3. " Of the truth and authority of Scripture,' 
1693. 4. "Of the Style of Scripture," 1694. 5. "Of 
the excellency and perfection of Scripture," 1695. .6* 


, u Thoughts concerning the caused and occasions of Athe- 
ism," 1695/ 7. "A Demonstration of the Existence and 
Providence of God," 1696. 8. " Socinianism unmasked ; 
or the unreasonableness of the opinion concerning one 
article of faith only." 9. " A brief Vindication of the 
fundamental Articles of the Christian faith ;" and a dis- 
course, entitled "The .Socinian Qreed," 1696 and 1697. 
These three pieces, together with some part of the treatise 
concerning " The causes and occasions of Atheism," were 
occasioned by Mr. Locke's publication of " The Reason- 
ableness of Christianity, as delivered in the Scriptures," 
and by the writings of some professed Socinians. Mr. 
Edwards was the first person that encountered what he ap- 
prehended to be Mr. Locke's dangerous notions of the 
" One sole Article of Faith." This he did, in the begin- 
ning of the dispute, in a manner very respectful to Mr. 
Locke's person and parts. But Mr. Locke, in his two 
Vindications of his doctrine, having treated our author 
'With severity, he assumed, in his replies, an air of mirth and 
pleasantness, and chastised his antagonist with some smart* 
ness, and his attack upon Mr. Locke was approved and 
applauded by a number of learned men, both at home and 
abroad. He published also, 10. "Remarks on Mr. Whis- 
ton's Theory of the Earth," 1697. 11." Twelve Sermons 
on special occasions and subjects," 1698, 8vo. 12. "A 
Survey of the different dispensations of Religion, from the 
beginning of the world to the consummation of all things," 
in two volumes, 1699. 13. " Exercitations, critical, phi- 
losophical, historical, theological, on several important 
places in the Old and New Testament," in two parts, 1702, 
8vo. 14. " The Preacher," the first part, 1705 ; the se- 
cond part, 1706. 15. "Veritas redux, or evangelical 
truths restored," 1707. 16. " Treatise of Faith and Justi- 
fication," 1708. ,17. "The Preacher," the third part, 
1709. 18. " Remarks on the archbishop of Dublin's ser- 
mon,'* 1710. 19. " An Answer to Dr. Whitby, concern- 
ing the Arminian doctrines," 1711. 20. "Observations 
and reflections on Mr. Whiston's Primitive Christianity," 
1712. 21. "Animadversions on Dr. Clarke's Scripture 
Doctrine of the Trinity," 1712, with a Supplement, 1713. 
22. u Theologia Reformata, or the substance and body of 
the Christian religion," 1713, 2 vols, folio. A third vo- 
lume, in folio, was published in 1726, ten years after our 
author's decease. 23. « Remains," 1713, 8vo* Th« writ- 

e 2 


ings which Dr. Edwards left behind him in manuscript, 
were nearly, as many as those which hafe already been 
framed. By some of his contemporaries he was censured 
for appearing too frequently from the press, while others 
*aid, that those who were just estimators of things cleared 
him of the imputation of writing too often, when they ob- 
served, that what he continually published exceeded rather 
than fell short of his former performances. * 

EDWARDS (Jonathan), an English divine and able 
writer against Socinianism, was born at Wrexham in Den- 
bighshire in 1629 ; and in 1655 became a servitor of Christ 
church; Oxford, where he was admitted B. A. in Oct. 1659 ; 
elected fellow of Jesus college in 1662, 'and took his ba- 
chelor's degree in divinity in March 1669. He was after- 
Wards rector of Kiddington in Oxfordshire, which he ex- 
changed, in 1681, for Hinton in .Hampshire. On Nov. 2, 
1686, be was unanimously, elected principal of Jesus college, 
and became treasurer of Llandaff in 1687. He took bis 
degree of D. D. immediately after his election as principal, 
and served the office of vice-chancellor in the years 1689, 
1690, and 1691. He held two other livings, one in An- 
glesea and the other in Caernarvonshire. He was also 
proctor in the convocation, 1 702, for the chapter of Llan- 
daff. He died July 20, 1712, and was buried in the cha- 
jpel of his college, where is an inscription celebrating his 
learning, usefulness as principal, and his munificence as a 
benefactor. Besides many books given in his life-time, he 
bequeathed his own collection of upwards of 1000 volumes 
to the college library, and gave near 1000/. to the repairs 
of the chapel, &c. What he wrote against the Socinians 
ia entitled " A Preservative against Socinianism," in four 
parts, 4 to, published from 1693 to 1703. s 

EDWARDS (Jonathan), president of the college of 
New Jersey, and a divine of very considerable fame in 
America, was descended from English parents who emi- 
grated in the reign of queen Elizabeth, and was born, 
Oct. 5, 1703, at Windsor, in the province of Connecticut 
in North- America. In 1716 he became a student of Yale 
college, and received the degree of B. A. in 1720, before 
he had completed his seventeenth year. His mental powers 
are said to have opened themselves so early and so strong,, 
that he read Locke's " Essay on the Human Understand-* 

1 Biog. Brit 

4 Ati, Ox. vol. II.~ Wood's Colleges and HalJi.^Nichrti'i Atterbuiy. ' 

EDWA R D &• « 

iig" with delight, in his second year at- this college* 
After taking bit bachelor's degree he remained two years 
more at college preparing himself for the ministry, and 
after the usual trials, was licensed to preach. In August 
1722 he was invited to preach to the English presbyterians 
at New York, where he continued with approbation above 
eight months; but as this society was too small to maintain 
a preacher, he returned in the spring of 1723 to his fa- 
ther's house at Connecticut, where, for some time, he ap- 
plied to his studies with great industry and perseverance ;, 
and severe application became habitual to bim, although 
he was of a delicate constitution. In the spring of 1724, 
having taken his master's degree, be was appointed tutor 
of Yale college, and notwithstanding his youth, and the 
time necessary to be devoted to his own improvement, he 
filled this office for two years in a manner which afforded 
his superiors no reason to repent of their choice. He 
would probably have remained longer here, had he not re- 
ceived, in Sept. 1726, an invitation from the people of 
Northampton in Connecticut, to become assistant to his 
mother's father, Mr. Stoddard, who was the settled minister 
of the town. Having accepted this offer, he was ordained 
colleague to Mr. Stoddard, Feb. 15, 1727, when only in 
bis twenty-fourth year, and continued pastor of this con- 
gregation until June 1750, at which time his congregation 
dismissed him with every mark Of contempt and insult. 
This, however, will appear to reflect no discredit on Mr. 
Edwards, when the reader is told that the first cause of 
complaint against him was, bis having detected and endea- 
voured to expose a combination of youths who had im- 
ported obscene books, and were corrupting one another's 
principles with great eagerness. So many of these young 
men were connected with the best families, that the parents 
declared their children should not be called to an account, 
and all inquiry was stifled. Still, however, they could not 
have proceeded to expel their preacher, if they had not 
soon afterwards laid hold of another pretext, which arose 
from Mr. Edwards's refusing to administer the sacrament 
. to persons of notoriously loose lives. Meetiugs were held, 
in which he endeavoured to justify his opinions ; but upon 
a decision, on the question of continuing him their pastor, 
he was left in a minority of 180, after a residence among 
them of twenty-fotfr years, and a character of unimpeach- 
able integrity and piety. 


As it is impossible to suppose that all bis hearers joined 
in the above decision, be appears to have -been supported 
for some time, by the kindness of those who admired his 
character, until sent on a mission to the Indians at Stock- 
bridge, in the western part of Massachusetts bay, about 
sixty miles from his formpr residence. Here he arrived in 
J 751, and enjoying a quiet retirement, employed himself 
at his leisure hours in composing the principal part of his 
works, until 1757, "when, on the death of Mr. Aaron Burr, 
he was chosen president of New Jersey college* He had 
not, however, long commenced the business of his new 
pffiqe when the small-pox raging with great virulence, he 
caught the infection, although after inoculation, and died 
of the disorder March 22, 1758. Mr. Edwards was a man 
of extensive learning, principally in theology, and his 
avidity for knowledge was insatiable. He commonly spent 
thirteen hours a day in his study, and yet did not neglect 
the necessary exercises of walking and riding. He read 
all the books, especially in divinity, that he could procure, 
from which he could hope to get any help in his pursuit of 
knowledge. And in this, he did not confine himself to 
authors, of any particular sect or denomination.; but took 
much pains to procure the works of the most noted writers 
who advanced a scheme of divinity most contrary to hk 
own, which was nearly that termed Calvinistio. 

His works consist of several volumes of sermons, printed 
at various times, and often reprinted in this country as 
well as in America. To one of these, consisting of eighteen 
Sermons, reprinted at Glasgow in 1785, is prefixed his 
life written by Dr. Hopkins. Besides these he wrote, 1. u A 
Treatise concerning religious Affections," 1746, 8vo. 
2. " An Account of the Life of the Rev. David Brainerd," 
1749, 8 vo. 3. "An Inquiry into the Qualifications for 
full communion in the Visible Church," 1749, intended as 
a vindication of his principles in the matter which occa- 
sioned his dismission from Northampton. 4. " A careful 
and strict inquiry into the modern prevailing notion of that 
Freeojom of Will, which is supposed to be essential to moral 
agency," 1754. 5. "The great Christian doctrine of 
Original Sin defended, containing a reply to the objections 
of Dr. John Taylor," 1758. A very recent critic, white he 
censures with much asperity Mr. Edwards's treatise on 
original sin, asserts at the same time that his treatise on 
free will deserves to be regarded* as one of the inost stu* 


yendous monuments of metaphysical argument ever Erected 
by the human understanding. 6. " An History of Re- 
demption." 7. " Miscellaneous Observations on impor- 
tant Theological Subjects," London, 1793. 8. w Remarki 
on important Theological Controversies," ibid. 1796: 
Some of these were posthumous, as were a few pther tract* 
of lesser importance written by him. 1 
- EDWARDS (Richard), one of our ancient English 
poets, .was born in Somersetshire in 1523, and admitted 
scholar of Corpus Christi college, Oxford, under the tuitiott 
of George Etheridge, May 11, 1540, and probationer fel- 
low Aug. 11, 1544. In 1547, when .Christ church wa4 
founded by Henry VIII. be wds admitted student of the 
upper table, and the same year took his master's degree* 
Warton cites a passage from his poems to prove that in his 
early years, he was employed in some department about 
the court. In the British Museum there is a small set of 
manuscript sonnets, signed with his initials, addressed to 
some of the beauties pf the courts of queen Mary and 
queen Elisabeth. He therefore probably did not remain 
long at the university. In the beginning of Elizabeth's 
reign, he was made one of the gentlemen of her chapel, and 
master of the children there, having the character of not 
only being an excellent musician, but an exact poet, as 
many of bis compositions in music and poetry testify; For 
these be was highly valued, by those who knew him, espe- 
cially his associates in Lincoln's- Inn (of which be was a 
member), and much lamented by them when he died. 
This event, according to sir. John Hawkins, happened Oct* 
31, 1556, but others say in 1566. He wrote "Damon 
and Pythias,' 9 a comedy, acted at court and in the univer- 
sity, first printed in 1570, or perhaps in 1565 9 and " Pa- 
lamon and Arcyte," another comedy in two parts, proba* 
bly never printed, but acted in Christ-church hall, 1566, 
before queen Elizabeth, of which performance Wood gives 
a curious account. Warton thinks it probable that he 
wrote many other dramatic pieces now lost. He is men- 
tioned by Puttenbam, as gaining the prize for comedy and 
interlude. Besides being a writer of regular dramas, be 
appears to have been' a contriver of masques, and a com- 
poser of poetry for pageants. In a word, he united all 
those arts and accomplishments which ministered to popu- 
lar pleasantry, in an age when the taste of the courtiers 

• Life by Hopkins,-— Protestant Dissenters' Magazine, vol. IV. 



was not of a much higher order than that of the vulgar inr 
our time. His English poems, for he wrote also Latin 
poetry, are for the most part extant in " The Paradise of 
Dainty Devises, 1 ' Lond. 1578, 4to, lately reprinted in the 
" Bibliographer," where, as well as in our other authori- 
ties, are some farther notices' of Edwards. It is justly ob- 
served by Wafton, that his popularity seems to have alto-' 
gether arisen from those pleasing talents* of which no spe- 
cimens transmitted to posterity, and which pre- 
judiced his partial contemporaries in favour ef his poetry. 1 
EDWARDS (Thomas), a critic and poetical writer, was 
born in 1699, in or near the city of London, and was a 
younger son of Edwards, esq. a gentleman in the 

profession of the law. His grandfather had been of the 
same profession. The principal part of his grammatical 
education he is said to have received at a private school, 
and never was a member of either of the universities. At 
a proper age he was entered of Lincoln's Inn ; and, in due 
time, was called to the bar ; but* having a considerable 
hesitation in his speech, he was discouraged from engaging 
much in the practice of the law. Although he never ap- 
pears to have fallen into that dissipation which is sometimes 
chargeable upon young gentlemen of the inns of court, it 
may be conjectured, from his subsequent publications, that 
lie applied himself more assiduously to the cultivation of 
the belles lettres than to the severer studies belonging to 
his profession. Shakspeare, in particular, was the object 
of bis warmest admiration and most sedulous attention ; 
and to this circumstance Mr. Edwards is principally in- 
debted for his literary reputation. His first appearance 
from the press was in a pamphlet published, in 1744, and 
entitled " A Letter to the author of a late Epistolary De- 
dication, addressed to Mr. Warburton." This was the be- 
ginning of our author's attack upon that famous writer; 
which was followed, in 1747, by " A Supplement to Mr. 
Warburton's edition of Shakspeare," a performance so well 
received, that two impressions of it were printed in the 
same year. A third edition of it appeared in 1748, under 
the title of " The Canons of Criticism, and a Glossary, 
being a Supplement to Mr. Warburton's edition of Shak- 
speare. Collected from the notes in that celebrated work, 

l Ath. Ox. to). I. edition by Bliss, 1813.— -War ton's Hist, of Poetry.— Wood'jj 
Annals.— Philips'* Theatrum, by sir E. Brydges. — Bibliographer, vol. IU«— • 
U wkins> JJigfe. of Mu6ic.i-EUi« , » Specimens,— Biographia prunatic** 


and proper to be bound up with it. By the other gentle* 
man of Lincoln's Inn ;" which title the book has ever since 
retained. The expression of " the other gentleman of 
Lincoln's Inn," refers to a previous controversy of War- 
burton's, upon a different topic, with another member of 
that society. Mr. Warburton, in the preface to bis edi- 
tion of Shakspeare, declares that it had been once his 
design to give the reader a body of canons for literary cri- 
ticism, drawn out in form, together with a glossary ; but 
that he had laid aside his purpose, as these uses might be 
well supplied by what he had occasionally said upon the 
subject in the course of his remarks. This idea Mr. Ed- 
wards humourously took up, and from the notes and cor- 
rections of Warburton's Shakspeare, has framed a set of 
canons ridiculously absurd, each of which is confirmed and 
illustrated by examples taken from the edition in question; 
and it cannot be denied that Mr. Edwards has perfectly 
succeeded in his attempt, and that through the whole of 
his work he has displayed his wit, his learning, and his 
intimate acquaintance with Shakspeare; but such. an attack 
upon Warburton, though conducted with pleasantry rather . 
than ill-nature, was too formidable to avoid exciting re- 
sentment. Accordingly, Warburton introduced Mr. Ed- 
wards into the next edition of Pope's " Dunciad" in a note 
under the following lines in the fourth book of that work : 

Next bidding all draw near on bended knees, 
The queen confers her titles and degrees. 
Her children first of more distinguished sort, 
Who study Shakspeare at the inns of court. 

" 111," says, our annotator, " would that scholiast discharge 
his duty, who should neglect to honour those whom Dul- 
ness has distinguished ; or suffer them to lie forgotten^ 
when their rare modesty would have left them nameless. 
Let us not, therefore, overlook the services which have 
been done her cause, by one Mr. Thomas Edwards, a 
gentleman, as he is pleased to call himself, of Lincoln's 
Inn ; but, in reality, a gentleman only of the Dunciad ; 
or, to speak him better, in the plain language of our honest 
ancestors to such mushrooms, a gentleman of the last 
edition : who, nobly eluding* the solicitude of. his careful 
father, very early retained himself in the cause of Dulness 
against Shakspeare, and with the wit and learning of bis 
ancestor Tom Thimble in the ' Rehearsal, 9 and with the 
air of good-nature and politeness of Caliban ia the ^ Ten* 


pest,' hath now happily finished the Duncg's progress, in 
personal abuse. For, a libeller is nothing but a Grub- 
street critic run to seed." 

• Mr. Edwards, who had inflicted so deep a wound on 
War bur ton' g edition of Shakspeare, and who could be do 
stranger to the irascibility of his literary temper, was by 
no means prepared for such an attack, which was felt 
by him in a very sensible degree ; and he was particularly 
burt at what he thought a reflection upon his birth. His 
resentment on this occasion was strongly expressed in a 
preface which he prefixed' to a new impression of the 

* Canons of Criticism ;" but in one respect Mr. Edwards 
appears to have been mistaken. Warburton had no re- 
ference to his parental origin ; which circumstance he con- 
descended to explain in an additional note, though in very 
uncourtiy language. " Lamentable,'* says be, " is the 
dulness of these gentlemen of the Dunciad. This Fun- 
goso and his friends, who are all gentlemen, have exclaimed 
much against us for reflecting on his birth, in the words, 
a gentleman of the last edition, which we hereby declare 
concern not his birth, but his adoption only ; and mean no 
more than that he is become a gentleman of the last edi* 
tion of the Dunciad. Since gentlemen then are so cap-* 
tious, we think it proper to declare that Mr. Thomas Ed- 
wards's ancestor is only related to him by the muse's side.' ? 
Mr. Edwards, besides answering Warburton in prose, at- 
tacked him with sonnets, but had more ample cause for 
satisfaction in the repeated impressions of his work, in the 
approbation of his friends, and in an elegant ode addressed 
*o him by Dr. Akenside. 

To the seventh edition of the " Canons- of Criticism,'* 
which was published in 1765, is annexed a small piece, en* 
titled " An Account of the Trial of the Letter T, alias Y," 
the design of which was to put gentlemen of learning and 
leisure in mind of settling the orthography of our language. 
It is a sensible* performance, and displays, in a pleasing 
manner, Mr. Edwards's skill in English criticism; a study, 
of which he was particularly fond, and in which few have 
jshewn a more exact taste. The two chief things hinted at 
in the piece are uniformity in spelling, where the reasons 
from derivation are the same ; and, preserving, as muGh 
as may be, the marks of etymology. In the same publi- 
cation are given fifty of our author's sonnets, in the style 
and manper of Spenser, twenty-seven of which bad never 


before been printed. The rest, two excepted, bad pre- 
viously appeared in Dodsley's and Pearch's collections of 
poems. Two more original sonnets, together with an ode, 
occasioned by a lady's being burnt with curling-irons, may 
be seen in the sixth volume of Nichols's Select Collection; 
but as a poet, he has not been so highly esteemed as in his 
critical capacity, although it has been said that his sonnet* 
are formed upon the mqdel of the Italians of the good age, 
and of their imitators among us, Spenser and MiltofH 
They discover, however, the traces of an elegant mind. 
, The eauly part of Mr. Edwards's life was chiefly spent ifl 
town, and at Pitzhanger in Middlesex. But in 1739 he 
purchased an estate at Turnck, in the parish of Elles-* 
bocough, in Buckinghamshire, where he resided till his 
decease. This," however* did not prevent his frequent 
mixture witu his literary friends, who were numerous and 
respectable, both in rank and character. It appears that 
he was acquainted with Richard Owen Cambridge, esq: 
the honourable Philip Yorke (afterwards second earl of 
Hardwicke), Daniel Wray, esq. the honourable Charles 
Yorke, Isaac Hawkins Browne, esq. the lord chancellor 
Hardwicke, archbishop Herring, lord Willoughby of Par* 
ham, Mr. Samuel Richardson, George Onslow, esq. (now 
lord Onslow), Dr./ Heberden, the right honourable Arthut 
Onslow, Mr. Highiiiore the painter, and other accom- 
plished gentlemen. Dr. Akenside's regard for him has 
already been displayed. Three of his letter to Dr. Birch 
onay be perused in the fifty-third volume of the Gentle-* 
man's Magazine ;?' and Mrs. Chapone, when Miss Mulso, 
addressed an elegant ode to him, which he answered by a 

Mr. Edwards's most intimate friend seems to have been 
Richard Roderick, esq. of Queen's college in the univei> 
sity of Cambridge, M. A. and a fellow of the royal society* 
and of ihe society of antiquaries. This gentleman assisted 
Mr. Edwards in his " Canons of Criticism ;" and they af- 
terwards corresponded together concerning their favourite 
bard; the result of which was, the " Remarks on Shak- 
speare," annexed to the last edition of the " Canons.* 
In Mr. Edwards's ninety-ninth sonnet, Mr. Roderick is 
celebrated as possessed of very considerable poetical ta* 
lents, and some of his poetical pieces are in the second 
Volume of Dodsley's collection. 

Mr, Edwards departed this life on the third of January, 


1757, whilst he was upon a visit at his friend Mr. Ricnardr 
son's, at Parson's Green, and was buried ia the church** 
yard of Ellesborougb, where a monument is erected to his 
memory, containing a delineation of his character, com- 
posed by Daniel Wray, esq. 

In 1761 was published a small tract, which had been 
written by our author, entitled " Free and candid thoughts 
on the doctrine of Predestination, 91 which contained no- 
thing new. l 

EDWARDS (Thomas), a learned divine^of the church 
of England, was born at Coventry, August 10, O.S. 1729, 
and was the son of. the Rev. Thomas Edwards, M. A. vicar 
of St. Michael's in that city, and of Katharine his wife. 
His grammatical education he received partly under the 
tuition of Edward Jackson, D. D. master of the free gram- 
mar-school in Coventry, but principally under the care 
of his own father ; and such was his eagerness for the ac- 
quisition of knowledge, that he seldom engaged in the 
diversions common to boys. In 1747, at the age of eighteen, 
he was matriculated at the university of Cambridge, and 
entered of Clare hall, where he took the degree of B. A. 
in 1750, and of M. A. in 1754. He was likewise a fellow 
of his college. In the younger part of his life he was a 
•elf- taught musician, and became no mean performer on 
the spinnet and the bass-viol : but, finding that this amuse- 
ment encroached too much upon his studies, he entirely 
relinquished it. On the 22d of September, 1751, he was 
ordained deacon, and on the 23d of September, 1753, he 
was ordained priest, both which orders he received from 
the hands of Dr. Frederick Cornwallis, at that time bishop 
of Litchfield and Coventry. In the spring of 1755, when 
Mr. Edwards was not yet twenty-six years of age, he gave 
a striking proof of the diligence with which he applied 
himself to the study of the learned languages, and the ac- 
quisition of sacred literature. This was his publication of 
" A new English Translation of the Psalms from the ori- 
ginal Hebrew, reduced to metre by the late bishop Hare ; 
with notes, critical and explanatory, illustrations of many 
passages, drawn from the classics, and a preliminary dis- 
sertation, in which the truth and certainty of that learned 
prelate's happy discovery is stated, and proved at large,'* 

* Bio;. Brit.— Nicb«lt»i Bowyer. — Richardson's Correspondence, ia which 
there are many of Mr. Edwards's letters. 


f vo. It was Mr. Edwards's design to make Dr. Hare's sys± 
tern of Hebrew metre better known, aud to prove, that, by 
a judicious application of it, great light might be thrown 
upon the poetical parts of the Hebrew scriptures. He was 
of opinion that Dr. Hare's hypothesis was rejected by 
many persons, partly from an over-hasty determination, 
and partly from too scrupulous a veneration for the Hebrew 
text. The notes, which comprehend more than one third 
of this book, chiefly contain emendations of the Hebrew 
text, pointed out by the metre, and illustrations of some 
passages, drawn from the classics, together with an ex- 
planation of the most difficult places. Considerable use is 
made by our author of Hare and Mudge, but with no 
servile adherence to their authority. Mr. Edwards's next 
publication was only a single sermon, which he had 
preached at^ St. Michael's in Coventry, on the 6th of 
February, 1756. On the 2d of May,' 1758, he was nomi- 
nated, by the corporation of Coventry, master of the free 
grammar-school, and presented to the rectory of St John 
the Baptist in that city. This promotion was followed by 
his marriage, November 27th, in the same year, to Anne 
Parrott, daughter of Stonyer Parrott, esq. of v Hawkesbury, 
in the parish of Foleshill, in the county of Warwick, by 
whom he had one son, Dr. Edwards of Cambridge* Early 
in 1759, Mr. Edwards published one of his principal works, 
" The doctrine of irresistible Qrace proved to have no 
foundation in the writings of the New Testament." This 
was levelled at the opinions of the Calvinists on that sub* 
ject. Our author's next publication, which appeared in 
1762, was entitled " Prolegomena in Libros Veteris Testa- 
menu Poeticos; sive dissertatio, in qua viri eruditissimi 
Francisci Harii nuper Episcopi Cicestriensis de antiqua 
Hebraeorum poesi hypothesin ratione et veritate niti, fuse 
ostenditur, atque ad objecta qbsedam respondetur.— — 
Subjicitur Metric® Lowthianae Confutatio, cum indictbus 
necessariis," 8vo. This attack upon Dr. Lowth's " Me- 
trics Harianas brevis Confutatio," which had been an-* 
nexed to the first edition of bis admirable " Pralectione* 
de sacra Poesi Hebreorum," did not pass unnoticed by 
that gentleman. In the second edition of his " Praelec- 
tiones" he added a note, in which. he strenuously main- 
tained his own opinion, in opposition to that of Mr. Ed- 
wards. In reply to this note our author published, in 1765, 
*' £pistola ad docti^simum Robertum Lowthium, S. T. P. 


In qua noiinulla, quae ad nuperae'sure desacfe HebraporutO 
Poesi Praelectionum edition is calceua habet, expenduntur." 
In this he indulged himself in some severity of language* 
which the subject did not merit, and which ought not to 
have been used towards such an antagonist as Dr.. Lowth. 
The doctor thought the " Epktola" of consequence enough 
to deserve a reply ; and therefore he printed, in 1 766, 
"A larger Confutation of bishop Hare's System of Hebrew 
Metre : in a letter to the reverend Dr. Edwards ; in an- 
swer to his Latin epistle," Svo. Here the controversy 
ended ; and the general opinion of the learned world gave 
the preference to Dr. Lowth's arguments. 

In 1766, Mr. Edwards was admitted to the degree of 
doctor in diviriity ;not long after which (early in 1767) he 
published " Two Dissertations : the first, on the absurdity 
and injustice of religious bigotry and persecution ; their 
utter contrariety to the tamper and conduct of Christ and 
his Apostles ; and their mischievous and fatal consequences : 
the second, on the principal qualifications and canons, ne~ 
eessary for the right and accurate interpretation of the 
New Testament," Svo. These dissertations reflect just 
credit on our author's reputation. The first of them shows 
him to have been possessed, of an enlarged and liberal 
mind ; and the second contains a variety of judicious and 
useful directions to theological students, and to such per- 
sons in general as are desirous of attaining an exact and 
critical knowledge of the evangelical and apostolical writ- 
ings. Dr. Edwards's next publication was in Latin, being 
'.< Duae Dissertationes : in quarum priore probatur, va~ 
riantes lectiones et menda, quce in Sacram Scripturam 
irrepserunt, non labefactare ejus auctoritatem in rebus 
quae ad fidem et mores pertinent : in posteriore vero, prae- 
destinationem Paulinam ad Gentilium vocationem totam 
spectare," 1768, 8vo; both, particularly the first, written 
with great ability. The latter is on a subject which will 
ever be contested. 

In 1770, he was presented by the crown to the valuable 
vicarage of Nuneaton in Warwickshire; which preferment 
he is understood to have obtained through the interest of 
N the corporation of Coventry, and some private friends, 
with the earl of Hertford, lord lieutenant of the county.- 
Our author, in 1773, published a sermon, entitled "The 
indispensable Duty of contending for the Faith which was 
once delivered to the Saints," preached before the umver- 

Edwards; «* 

sity of Cambridge, on the 29th of June, 1766, being com-- 
raencement Sunday. In 1779, he resigned the mastership 
of the free grammar-school of Coventry, and the rectory' 
of St. John's, and retired to Nuneaton, where he resided 
during the remainder of his life. His last publication was 
given to the world in the same year. The title of it is 
*' Selecta quaedam Tbeocriti ldyilia. Recensuit, variorum 
notas adjecit, suasque animadversiones, partim Latine, 
partial Anglice, scriptas immiscuit, Thomas Edwards, 
S. T. P." 8vo. This work reflects honour on the accuracy 
and extent of our author's classical literature. Though* 
the original text of what is selected from Theocritus con- 
sists only of about three hundred and fifty lines, the notes- 
are extended through upwards of two hundred and fifty 
pages, besides more than twenty pages, consisting of ad- 
denda, corrigenda, collationes, &c. Dr. Edwards's reason 
for his being so minute and particular in many of his ani- 
madversions, was, that he might give every possible kind 
of assistance to young persons, for whom the book was 
principally intended. Having written the notes sometimes 
in Latin, and sometimes in English, as chance or inclina- 
tion 'directed, he thought proper to publish them in that 
promiscuous form. It would, however, undoubtedly have 
been preferable uniformly to have composed them in the 
Latin language. There are two appendiculse at the end of 
the volume ; one containing the editor's reasons for not 
prefixing the accentual marks to his own and Mr. WartonV 
notes ; and the other affording hints of a new method which' 
he had discovered, of scanning Greek and Latin hexa- 
meters, the usual mode oY doing it being, as he thought, 
erroneous. A fuller explanation of his system was in- 
tended to be given by him in a Work which he had in con- 4 
temptation, designed to be entitled " Miscellanea Critica," 
but which was not carried into execution. He had also 
made collections for an edition of Qumtus Curtius. 

In May 1784, Dr. Edwards lost his wife, a lady of dis- 
tinguished good sense, and of the most engaging manners; 
and he, Who had passed his life in his study, and was to- 
tally unacquainted with domestic concerns, and indeed 
with worldly affairs of every kind, never enjoyed himself 
after this event. What aggravated his distress was, that, 
previously to Mrs, Edwards's death, he had been afflicted 
with a stroke of the palsy, from which, however, he so far 
recovered as to be capable of discharging part of his paro- 


chial duties. But, within a few months after her decease, 
he had a second stroke, for which he was advised to go to 
Bath, but received no benefit from his journey. He de- 
parted this life at Nuneaton, on the 30th of June, 1785, 
in the fifty *sixth year of his age ; and on the ith of July, 
was interred in the church-yard belonging to the parish of 
Foleshill, in the same grave with his wife. An inscription' 
on a mural marble, contains nothing of moment excepting 
the dates already specified. 

In his temper, Dr. Edwards was sometimes subject to 
starts of anger*; but otherwise he was remarkably mild, 
benevolent, and humane. His generosity was great and 
extensive ; and his dealings with others were conducted on 
the principles of the most rigid honesty and integrity* 
Such. were his assiduity and ability in the instruction of 
youth, and so conscientious his discbarge of his parochial 
duties > that no praise can exceed his merits. He was fond 
of retirement, and went seldom from his place of abode ; ' 
on which account, though he occasionally corresponded 
with many of the literati, he was not in the habits of much 
intimacy with any. The person with whom he had most 
conversed was the late excellent and learned bishop of 
Carlisle, Dr. Edmund Law. Their sentimerita were con- 
genial, and their pursuits similar ; being principally de- 
voted to the prosecution and promotion of sacred literature. 1 

EDWARDS (William), a very skilful architect, and 
one of that class of geniuses who are usually said to be 
self-taught, was the son of a farmer in the parish of Eglwy- 
sila,n, in the county of Glamorgan, where he was born in 
1,71ft. In his fifteenth year be appears to have manifested 
his skill in repairing the stone fences so common in that 
country, and executed his work with such peculiar neat- 
ness, that his talents became in great request From thist 
humble beginning, he aspired to be a builder of houses ; 
and his first attempt was to build a small workshop for a 
neighbour, in the performance of which he gave great 
satisfaction. He was then employed to erect a mill, which 
Was admired by good judges as an excellent piece of ma- 
sonry; and while employed on this he became first ac- 
quainted with the principles of an arch, which led him to 
get higher undertakings. In 1746 he undertook to build a. 
new bridge over the river Taff, which he executed in a 
style superior to any thing of the kind in any part of Wales, 

* Biog. Brit. 

E D W A R D S. M 

for neatness of workmatiship and elegance of design. It 
consisted of three arches, elegantly light in their construe-, 
tion; : Th6 hewn stones were excellently well dressed* and 
closely jointed.. But this. river runs through ,a very tdeep 
vale, that is more than usually woody, and crowded about; 
with mountains. It is also to be considered* that many 
* other rivers, of no mean capacity, as the C rue, the Bargoed 
Taff, and .the Cunno, besides almost numberless brooks 
that run through long* : deep, a^d. wellr wooded y^les t or 
glens, fall, into tjbe Taff in its progress. The descents into, 
these vales from the mountains being in general very steep,, 
the water in long and heavy rains collects into these river* 
with gneat rapidity and force ; raising floods that in their, 
descriptions would appear absolutely incredible to tlje in- 
habitants. of open and flat countries. Such a flood unfor* 
tunately occurred after the completion of this undertaking* 
which tore up the largest trees by the roots, and carried 
them down the river to the bridge, where the arches wer* 
net sufficiently wide to admit of their passage, and in con- 
sequence of the obstruction to the flood, a thick and sjxo/ig 
dam, aa it were* was thus formed, and the streams being 
unable to get any farther, rose here to a prodigious height, 
pnd carried the bridge entirely away. As Edwards, bad 
given the most ample security for- the stability of the 
bridge during the space of seven years, he avas obliged tq 
erect another, which was of one arch, for the purpose of 
admitting freely under it whatever incumbrances the floods 
might bringdown. The span or chord, of this arch was 
one hundred and forty feet; its altitude thirty- Ave feet; 
the segment of a circle whose diameter was one hundred 
and seventy feet. The arch was finished, but the parapets 
not yet erected, when such was the pressure of the un- 
avoidable ponderous work over the haunches, that it sprung 
up in the middle, and the key-stones were forced out. 
This was-a severe blow to a man who had hitherto met 
with. nothing but misfortune in an enterprise which was to 
•establish or ruin him in his, profession. Edwards, bow- 
ever, engaged in it the third time ; and by means of three 
cylindrical holes through the work over the haunches, so 
reduced tfye weight oyer them, that there, was no longer 
<any danger from it. These holes or cylinders, rise above 
each other, ascending in the order of the arch, three at 
■each end, or over each of the haunches. The diameter 
yoL.XIIL , F . 

«« .fi B.W A R fi jz 

of the lowest is nine feet; df the second, si* feet) and of 
the uppermost, three feet They give the bridge an air of 
uncommon elegance. The second bridge fell in 1751. 
The third, which has stood ever since, was completed in' 
.1755.' • 

Hitherto the Rialto was esteemed the largest ai*ch in 
Europe, if not in the world. Its span or chord Was ninety-; 
eight feet. But New Bridge is forty-two feet wider; <ai\d 
is said to be the largest arch in the world, of which we 
have any authentic account. The fame; of this bridge in- 
troduced Edwards to public notice ; and he was employed 
to build many other bridges in South Wales. Oife of the 
next bridges that he constructed was Usk Bridge, over the 
river' Usk, at the town of Usk in Monmouthshire. It wa* 
a large and handsome work. He afterwards built the fol- 
lowing bridges, in the order of succession which is here 
assigned them. A bridge of three arches over the river 
^awy : t*ont ar Tawy, over the same river, about teu miles 
above the toVm of Swansea. This was of one*archj its 
chord eighty feet, with dne cylinder over the haunches. 
Bettws Bridge in Carmarthenshire, consisting of one arcfy 
forty-five feet in the span. Llandovery Bridge in the • 
same county, consisting of one arch, eighty-four feet ill 
the span, with one cylinder over the haunches. Wych* 
bree Bridge* over the river Tawy, about two miles above. 
Morriston : this has one arch, ninety-five feet in span> 
twenty feet in altitude, with two cylinders over each of 
the haunches to relieve them. He built Aberavbn Bridge 
in Glamorganshire, consisting of one arch, seventy feet in 
span, fifteen feet in altitude, but without cylinders. He 
likewise built Glasbury Bridge, near Hay, in Brecknock* 
shire, over the river Wye : it consists of five arches, and is* 
* light, elegant bridge. The arches are small segments of 
large circles on high piers, as best adapted to facilitate the 
passage of floods under the bridge, and travellers over it. 

Edwards devised very important improvements in the 
Art of bridge-building. His first bridges of one arch hfc ; 
found to be too high,- so as to be difficult for carriages', .. 
and even horses, to pass over. The steeps at each end of 
New Bridge in particular are very inconvenient, from the ( 
largeness and altitude of the arch. This peculiarity, it is ' 
true, adds much to its perspective effect as a part of the . 
landscape; hut the sober market-traveller is not recoin w : 
pensed for the toil of ascending and descending an arti- 


£cial mountain, by the comparison of a rainbow and the 
raptures of a draughtsman. He avoided this defect in hi* 
subsequent works ; but it was by a cautious gradation that 
he attempted to correct his early and erroneous principles, 
and to consult the ease of. the public, at the same time 
that he surmounted the greatest difficulties of his occupa- 
tion. At length he discovered, that, where the abutments, 
are secure from the danger of giving way, arches of much, 
less segments, and of far less altitude, than general opi- 
nion had hitherto required, are perfectly secure, and ren- 
der the bridges much easier for carriages to pass over, and 
in every respect adapt them better to the purposes of a 
ready and free communication. Impressed with the im- 
portance of those rules by which be had assiduously per- 
fected his own practice, he was in the habit of considering 
his own branch of architecture as reducible to three great 
requisites ; durability, the freedom of the water flowing 
under, and the ease of the traffic passing over. These are 
certainly maxims of peculiar importance in bridges of one 
arch, which are not only. the best adapted to situations 
where tremendous floods occur, but in many cases are the 
only bridges securely practicable in mountain valleys. 

The literary knowledge of William Edwards was at first 
confined to the Welsh language, which he could read and 
write from early youth. He was supposed to be rather 
obstinate when a boy ; an imputation which generally rests 
on genius, that sees beyond the scope of those by whom it 
is controlled. His own account of this alleged temper 
wa§, that he always considered whether any thing that was 
proposed to him, or any principle that he was required to 
act upon, coincided with his own ideas of rectitude. If he 
found that it did, be firmly persisted in it His general 
character wap that of uncommon resolution and inflexi- 
bility. He was very wild, as it is commonly reported of 
him, till about eighteen years of age., After that period, 
be became very steady and sedate. A neighbour instructed 
him a little in arithmetic. About the age of twenty or 
twenty-one, be undertook the building of a large iron forge 
at Cardiff, and lodged with a person named Walter Rosser, 
a .baker, and blind. This man taught English reading. 
William Edwards was alive to every opportunity of im- 
provement, and rapidly acquired what he eagerly pursued* 

After be had performed his engagement at Cardiff, ha 
built many good houses, with several forges and smelting- 

* 2 


Houses, dud was for Many years employed at works of ibid 
rtature by John Morris of Clasem^nt, esq. flow sir Johii 
Morris, bart. He studied much the remains of Caerphilly 
Castle, which is in bis. native parish, and his principled 
were formed oil those of its masonry, his manner of 
Hewing arid dressing his stones was exactly that 6f the old 
das tie-masons, and he put them together with a closeness, 
neatness, and f\rmness> that is never seen but in those an- 
cient edifices.  

To the ample employment which his skill iti architecture 
furnished, he added that of a farmer during the whole of 
his Kfe, and on Sunday exercised the functions of a Spi- 
ritual pastor amorig the independent dissenters. Re wa^ 
ordained in their coinmunion in 1*750, and Officiated for} 
forty years as minister of a congregation in hte native pa- 
rish. In his principles he was what is termed a moderate 
Calvinist. From his flock he regularly received his stipu- 
lated salary, but as regularly distributed the whole among 
the poor, with a considerable addition, where necessary, 
from his private fortune* Thus highly respected by all 
sects and parties, for his extraordinary talents, piety, and 
probity, he died, much lamented, in 1789, and was buried 
in the church-yard of Eglwysilan. He left a numerous 
family, of which David, his second son, inherits his father's 
skill in bridge-building, and the others are men of talents 
knd worth. ' 

EECKHOUT (Antony Vander), a celebrated painter, 
was born at Brussels in 1656, but it is n6t ascertained from 
What master he learned the art. ' He travelled to Italy with 
his brother-in-law Lewis Deyster, a very h emitieflt artist, 
With whom he painted iti conjunction, during the whole 
time of his, continuance abroad, Deyster executing tha 
figures, and Eeckhout the fruit and flowers, and with such 
perfect harmony and union, that the difference of their 
pencils was quite imperceptible. When he returned to 
Brussels, he received many marks of respect and distinc* 
lion, and also an appointment to a very honourable sta~ 
tion ; yet he soon forsook friends, honours, and a certainty 
of being enriched, and embarked for Italy, where he 
-wished to spend the remainder of his days. But chance 
conducted him to Lisbon, where his pictures sold for an 

> i From a rtry interesting account of this ingenious man f in Malkin't " Sc 
Utiy of South Walet," 3d<dit, 1807, y*l, J. p. J 32, 


B E C K H OUT. «? 

iiceejling high price, as he painted all his sy Ejects in the 
Italian taste, and, during his residence in Italy, he had 
taken pains to sketch so many elegant forms of fruits and 
flowers, that he had a sufficient number fpr all his future 
compositions. He had lived at Lisbon about two years* 
when he married a young lady of quality, and extremely 
rich, This splendid fortune probably raised him' rivals, 
who were jealous, of his prosperity. Being out one day hj 
his coach, he was shot with a ball, of which he instantly 
died, in 1695; but the cause of this assassination, or who 
were the authors jand perpetrators of it, was never dis- 
covered. ' . 

EECJSHOUT (Gerbrant, anpther artist,jsmi<- 
nent for the success with which he imitated Rembrandt, 
was born at Amsterdam, in 1621, and was a disciple of 
Rembrandt, whose manner of designings colouring, and 
penciling, he, imitated wonderfully. * But although it. is 
difficult to distinguish between several of his paintings, and 
those of his master, he is thought to have excelled him itt 
the extremities of his figures. His principal employment 
was for portraits, and he surpassed all his contemporaries 
in the power he had of painting the mind, in the counter- 
nance, His portrait of his own father had so much force, 
resemblance, and life, as to astonish even K^mbrandt him- 
self when he saw it But, although Eeckhout painted 
portraits with great success, he was much more pleased to 
paint historical subjects, and not less happy in his execu- 
tion, his composition being rich, and full. of judgment.; 
the distribution of his masses of light and shadow truly .ex- 
cellent; and in the opinion of some connoisseurs, he had 
more transparence in his colouring, and better expression 
than Rembrandt. His back-grounds are generally clearer 
than his, yet, if in this and other respects he attained to 
the perfections of Rembrandt, he also shared his defects; 
he .was often incorrect in design, elegance* and .grace* 
and was totally negligent of the costume. In the collec- 
. tioa of the elector Palatine, a picture of this master is 
mentioned, as having a strong and admirable expression ; 
thesjibject is " Christ amqng the Doctors ;" another pip* 
. ture of this master, representing " Simeon with Christ MX 
bis arms a " is a most excellent performance, and sir Robert 

I Pescamps, vol Itf.— Pilkingtou, 

■?• EECEH O U T. 

Strange had a third, the " Guard Room,** which he praised 
very highly. This artist died July 22, 1674. * 

EGEDE (Hans or John), an enterprising Danish mis- 
sionary, was a native of Denmark, .born Jan. 31, 1686, and 
was for some time a preacher at Trundbeim, in Norway. 
Having beard that long before his time some families of 
Norway bad established themselves in Greenland, where 
the Christian religion was propagated by them, and even 
churches and Convents built, be felt himself interested in 
the welfare of this colony, and curious to know its actual 
state ; and although he was told that the ice rendered that 
country intolerable, that the people were savages, and 
that- no traces were now to be found of the religion which 
they had been taught, he still persisted in his design of 
reviving an establishment there, and for some years made 
fnany unsuccessful attempts to procure the necessary means. 
At length Frederic IV. king of Denmark seemed disposed 
to second his efforts, and called together the body of mer« 
chants of Bergen, to know what assistance and what privi- 
leges they would -grant to a company disposed to make the 
experiment of establishing a colony in Greenland. But 
these merchants could not be made to comprehend thy 
utility of the plan, and nothing was done by them as a body. 
Egede, however, was not wholly disheartened, but visited 
the merchants individually, and by dint of solicitation, ob- 
tained a subscription amounting to 10,000 crowns, to 
which he added 300, which was the whole of his own 
property. He then built vessels fit for the voyage, and 
provided all necessaries ; the king appointed him mission- 
ary, with a salary of 300 crowns, and in May 1721, Egede 
$et sail with his wife and children, full of ardent hopes* 
After many dangers, he landed on the Baals river, in West 
Greenland, and built a house. He now endeavoured to 
gain the confidence of the natives by kind approaches ; 
be learned their language, and took every method to spften 
their manners, and enlighten their understandings. He 
also, as a very necessary step towards civilization, endear 
voured to form a commercial establishment with them, and, 
"some time after, the king sent other vessels and two more 
ecclesiastics id assist Egede in his undertaking. The cq« 
lony then began to prosper; above 150 children were bap- 


9 AifeaYillej vol. IIWDescamps, ▼»!, IL^PUkngtoaaiidStnife 

•TV; .' . > -...-• "  \ tJ 

EG E D E. fl 

t * • 


tised and taught the principles of the Christian religion, 
and every thing wore a promising appearance, when, on 
the accession of Christian VI. to the throne, an order came 
tp discontinue their proceedings. On this the greater part 
of the colonists returned home ; but Egede persisted in 
remaining on the .spot, and having persuaded about a 
dozen- seamen to share his lot, he renewed bis endeavour* 
.jdth. success, and the following year a vessel arrived from 
the mother-country with provisions and men, and an order 
to persevere in the objects of the mission. Every sue* 
ceeding year a vessel arrived with similar assistance, and 
Egede received 2000 crowns by each, for the annual ex- 
pences of the colony, in the promotion of which he con* 
tinned to labour with great zeal, until old age and infirmi- 
ties obliged him Jo desist, when his eldest son, Paul, was 
appointed his successor. After a residence of ' fifteen 
years, the good old man returned to Copenhagen, and 
employed the remainder of his days in teaching the Green* 
land language to young missionaries. He died in the; 
island of Ealster, Nov. 5 K 1758. A short time before this 
event, he published bis " Description and Natural His- 
tory of Greenland/ 9 of which there has been a French- 
translation by Roches de Parthenay, printed at Qeneva t 
1763, 8vo, and the same year a German translation by 
Krunitz. There is also a German translation of '* The 
Journal of his Mission," printed at Hamburgh, 1740, 4to» 
His son Paul, who died in 1789, wrote an " Account of 
his own Mission," which appeared in 1789, Svo. 1 

EGERTON (Thomas), lord Ellesmere, an eminent 
English statesman andJawyer, the sob of sir Richard Eger*' 
ton, of Ridley, in Cheshire, was bom in Cheshire, about' 
die year 1540. In 1556 he was admitted a commoner of 
Brasenose college, in Oxford, where he continued about' 
tjiree years ; gpd having laid a good foundation of classical 
and logical learning, he removed thence to LincolnVinn, 
and applied himself with such success to the study of the r 

law, that he soon became a noted counsellor*. The supe- 


* Diet. Hist. 

* There is a tradition that one of the which it appeared, that three graziery 

frst public occasions which created an had vested a joint deposit of a sum q£ 

opinion of lord chancellor Egerton's money in the custody of a woman who> 

shrewdness and ability in his profession lived in Smithteld, upon condition 

was shortly after he removed to Lin- that she was to account for it upon* 

eeVs-hm. He happened to* be in their coming to demand it. together, 

coart whan a canst was trying, ia One of ^hegraaiers, by persuading' her 



rior abilities he displayed in the line of his profession, 
and his distinguished eminence at the bar, attracted the 
notice of queen Elizabeth, arid on June 28, 1581, .she ap- 
pointed him her solicitor-general : the year after he was 
chosen Lent reader of the society of LincolnVinn, and 
was made also one' of the governors of that society, in 
which office he continued for twelve years successively. 
His conduct and proficiency in the law, promoted him on 
June 2, 1594, to the office of attorney-general, and he was 
knighted soon after. On the 10th of April, 1393, he wis 
appointed master of the rolls, when he shewed bis great 
friendship to" Mr. Francis Bacon, afterwards lord Verulam, 
by assisting him with his own observations in regard to the 
office Of solicitor-general, then likely to become vacant by 
the advancement of Mr. Edward Coke to that of attorney- 
geheral, which was acknowledged by sir Robert Cecil as 
a favour done personally to' hitaself. Upon the death of 
sir John Puckering, be had -the great seal of England de- 
livered to him at Greenwich on the 6th of May, 1596, with 
the title of lord keeper, by the special choice and favour 
of the queen, without any mediator or competitor, and 
even against the interest 6f the prime minister and his son; 
and at the same time he was sworn of her majesty's privy- 
council. He was permitted to hold the mastership of the 
foils titl May 18, 1603, when James I. conferred it4>p Ed«< 
ward Bruce, afterwards baron of Kinloss. 

The integrity and abilities* of the lord keeper so con* ► 
ciliated the favour arid confidence of the queen, that she 

that he was commissioned to receive 
the mooey by his two partners, who 
were bargaining for some oxen, and 
only waiting for the money to conclude 
the purchase, prevailed upon her to 
entrust bim with it; and he imme- 
diately absconded. The two other 
partners began -a suit against Jthe wo* 
mau to recover their money. The. 
cause was brought on, and a verdict 
would probably have been given in fa- 
vour of the plaintiffs ; when Mr. Eger- 
ton stepped forward, and begged leave 
-to *pea£ ag " Amicus Curiae." Upon 
obtaining permission, he took dare to 
establish the conditions - upon which 
the defendant was entrusted with the 
money. These being readily allowed 
to be such as above stated; ."Then," 
said he, " the defendant is ready to 

oemply with the agreement The plain* 
tiffs . only may deservedly >e charged 
with attempting its" violation. Two of 
them have brought a suit against this 
woman to obljge her to pay thenv a, 
sum of money, which, by the agree- 
ment, she was to p*7 to those two and 
to the remaining partner jointly,; nam- 
ing together to demand, it^-where is 
fie ? why does not he appear ? why do 
not the plaintiffs bring their partner. 
along with them r when they do this, 
and fulfil the agreement on their part, 
she is ready to come up to the full ex- 
tent of it on hers ; till then, I appre* 
hend that she is by law to remain in quiet 
possession." This turned the cause, 
and a verdict was found for the dev 
fendant. * 

E G E R T O N. 7« 

tmployed him in her most weighty emergencies. In 1 598, 
lie was in commission for treating with the Dutch, and, ' 
jointly with the lord Buckhurst, Cecil, and others, signed 
a new treaty With their ambassadors in London, by which 
the queen was eased of an annual charge of 120,0001. In 
1600, he was again in commission with the lord treasurer 
Buckhurst and the earl of Essex, for negotiating affairs 
with the senate of Denmark. His conduct in regard to. the: 
unfortunate earl of Essex, whose name will for ever. dis- 
tinguish yet disgrace the annals of Elizabeth, exhibits 
his character both as a wise and loyal subject, and a sin- 
cere and honest friend. These illustrious men filled two 
of the hightest and most important offices of state at the 
same time, and with the most perfect harmony, although 
their characters were very different. Sensible, however, 
of Essex* s great merit as a soldier, and of his constitu- 
tional infirmity as a man, the lord keeper took every op- 
portunity to soften the violence and asperity x>f his dispo- 
sition, and to reclaim him to the dictates of reason and 
duty. An instance of his friendly interference, in the year 
1598, is given by Mr. Camden ; by which the high and 
resentful spirit of Essex, which disdained' to brook an in- 
sult from a queen, who, our readers will remember, struck 
him, was at length softened into a due submission to his. 
royal benefactress j in consequence of which he was par- 
doned, and again received into her favour. . (See Deve- 
REUX). From this unfortunate affair, however, his friends 
took an omen of his future ruin, under the conviction -that 
princes, once offepded, are seldom thoroughly reconciled* 
When on his hasty end unexpected return from the Irish 
expedition, he was summoned before the privy council, 
suspended from his offices, and committed to the custody- 
of the lord keeper, the latter rendered him every kind and 
friendly office ; and, in all bis future conduct to this un- 
fortunate man, tempered justice with compassion ; . pre** 
serving a proper medium between the duty of the magis«f 
trate, and the generosity of the friend. By the most po- 
pular and well-timed measures, he appeased, the minds of 
** a prejudiced people, who then became tumultuous from 
the injuries and indignities which they supposed .were, 
done to the person of their favourite general ; asserting 
the queen's. authority, and justifying the conduct of the* 
.public counsels, without heightening or exaggerating the* 
misconduct of the unfortunate earl Still as the minds o£ 

74 E&E1RT 0~W. 

the people remained dissatisfied, under a persuasion of hi* 
innocence, to remove the grounds of these suspicions, the 
queen resolved that bis cause should have an open hearing, 
not in the star-chamber, but m the lord keeper Egerton'a 
house, before the council, four earls, two barons, and four 
judges, in order that a censure might be formally passed 
upon him, but without charge of perfidy. On this occa- 
sion, when he began to excuse and justify his conduct, 
the lord keeper interrupted him in the most friendly man- 
ner, and advised him to throw himself upon the mercy and; 
goodness of the queen, and not, by an attempt to alleviate 
his offences, to extenuate her clemency. The issue of 
this trial it is unnecessary here to relate, as it maybe 
found in our account of this unfortunate nobleman. A* 
' far as the subject of the present article is concerned, it 
may be sufficient to add, that after the execution of Essex r 
with Cuflfe, Merrick, Danvers, and Blunt, principal con-i 
federates, the lord keeper was in a special commission* 
with others of the first dignity, to summon all their accom~: 
plices, in order to treat and compound with them for. the 
redemption of their estates ; and, on security being given 
for the payment of the fines assessed, their pardon and re-r 
demption were obtained. The next year, 1602, he wa*. 
again commissioned with others of the privy council, to, 
reprieve all such persons convicted of felony as they should 
think convenient, and to send them, for a certain time* to 
some of the queen's galleys. - And again* in the forty-fifth, 
year >of .Elizabeth, for putting the* laws in execution 
against the Jesuits and seminary priests, ordained acoorcU 
ing to the rites of the church of Rome. In. March 1603*. 
after the queen, oppressed with the infirmities of age, had. 
retired from Westminster to Richmond, the lord keeper 
and the lord admiral, accompanied by the secretary, were 
deputed by the rest of the privy council to wait upon her 
there, in order to remind her majesty of her intentions, m 
regard to her successor to the crown, whom she appointed 
to be her nearest kinsman, James of Scotland. After the 
queen's death, the care and administration of the kingdom, 
devolved upon the* lord keeper and. the o(her ministers of 
state, till the arrival of king James* her successor, from 
Scotland, who, by his sign manual, dated at Holy- rood 
house, Sth of April, 1603, signified to the privy eouncil, 
that it was his royal pleasure that sir Thomas Egertoii 
should exercise the office of lord keeper till farther orders* 

egejton; n 


On the 3d of May he watted upon the king at Brbxbourne 
in Hertfordshire, and resigned the great seal to his ma- 
jesty, who delivered it back again, confirming bis office, 
aftd commanding him to use it as he bad done before. On 
the 1 9th of July, king James caused the great seal to be 
broken, and put a new one into his hands, accompanied with 
a paper of his own writing, by which he created him " Baron 
of k lies mere for his good and faithful services, not only in 
the administration of justice, but also in council, both to the 
late queen and himself;" the patent for which title he caused 
to be dispatched the 21st of the same month. On the 
24th, the day before his coronation, he constituted him lord 
high chancellor of England, which high and important 
office of state he supported for more than twelve years, 
with equal dignity, learning, and impartiality. On the 
25th and 26th of November, Henry lord Cobham, and 
Thomas lord Grey de Wilton, were tried by their peers, 
the lord chancellor sitting as lord high steward. In 1604, 
he was, with certain other commissioners, authorized by 
act of parliament, to bring about an union between Eng~ 
land and Scotland, it being the king's desire, that, as the 
two crowns were united in one person, an union of the 
nations might be effected by naturalization. But, differ- 
ences arising between the house of lords and bouse of com* 
mons x*pon this point of the naturalization of the Scotch, a 
he was one of the lords appointed of the committee of 
conference between the two houses. The whole of this 
transaction, and the causes of its failure, are stated at large 
in the fifth volume of the Parliamentary History. In 1605, 
he was appointed high steward of the city of Oxford, and 
i& 1609, he was in commission to compound with all those, 
who, holding lapds by knight's service, &c. were to pay 
the aid for making the king's son a knight 

At the death of Dr. Bancroft, archbishop of Canterbury, 
who was chancellor of the university of Oxford, on the 2d 
of Nor. 1610, lord Ellesmere was the next day unani- 
mously elected into that honourable office; and on the 
10th, installed in the bishop of Durham's house in London. 
At this period, that university was in a very flourishing., 
state in point of the number of its members, which 
amounted to more than 2420; but many of them, and 
those of the senior part, were tainted with factious prin- 
ciples, both of a civil and religious nature. Convinced 
bow destructive these ideas and principles, inculcated cot 


the miftds of the youth of the' university, who were to be 
called forth to fill the several departments of church a»4 
state, would be of the future health and prosperity of the 
constitution, be bent his earliest attention to eradicate and 
correct them. 

' The fame of John Williams, fellow of St. John's college, 
in Cambridge, as an able scholar and accomplished 
preacher, came to the ear of the lord chancellor, who sent 
for him, and about Midsummer 1611, made him his chap- 
lain (the first chancellor since the reformation who had a 
domestic chaplain) ; and to this promotion, and the subse- 
quent friendship of his patron, this great prelate, after- 
wards archbishop of York, was indebted for all bis future 
success, The lord chancellor, indeed/ employed on all 
occasions the ablest servants and coadjutors, and his af- 
fection made choice of the most honourable and valuable 
friends. Besides the archbishop Williams, sir Francis 
Bacon lord Verulam was honoured hy his friendship, and 
promoted by his favour. . - 

Neither the infirmities of old age, nor the active exer- 
tions of a long and laborious life, devoted to the service of 
their country, are always a privilege which can shelter 
men from unmerited persecution. On tbe 1 9th of January, 
1615, the lord chancellor being much indisposed, and. now 
in bis seventy-fifth year, a professional; attack from that 
great lawyer the lord chief justice Coke, though unable to 
damp the firmness of bis spirit, threw a» additional, weight 
of anxiety upon his mind. Sir Edward Coke had -hear £ 
and determined a cause at common law, but there was 
some collusion in the matter; for, the witness that knew, 
and should have related the truth, was prevailed upon to 
absent himself, on condition that some person would under- 
take to excuse his non-appearance. A fellow of the party 
.undertook it, in a' whimsical manner : he went with the 
witness to a tavern, called for a gallon of sack, and bade 
him drink ; and, leaving him in the act of drinking, wen,t 
immediately into court. This witness was called for,' on 
whose evidence the issue of the cause depended, when the 
fellow answered upon oath, " that he left him in s\ich a 
conditipn, that, if be continued in it but a quarter of an 
hour, he was a dead man." This evidence of the witness's 
incapacity to appear in court lost the cause. The plaintiffs 
removed it into chancery ; and the defendants, having 
already had judgment at common law, refused to obey the 

-E (JERfO N. tt 

Orders of that cdtirt ; • on which the chancellor, foV con-* 
tern ^ t of court, committed them to prison. They pre- 
ferred two indictments agaiost his lordship the last day of 
Hilary term, and he was threatened with a praemunire in 
the star-chamber upon the statutes 27 Edw. III. and 
4 Hen. IV. The lord chancellor being recoterefd of his 
indisposition, pursued this affair in Easter Term with great 
spirit and alacrity ; and, it being brought to a hearing 
before the king as supreme judge of the jurisdiction of 
courts, he referred the matter to sir Francis Bacon and sir 
Henry Yelverton, his attorney and solicitor, sir Henry 
Montague and sir Ranulph Crewe, his Serjeants, and Mr. 
Walter, the prince's attorney, all eminent men in their 
profession, who, upon a serious consideration of the sta- . 
tutes, and the occasion of making them, and of the pre- 
cedents since that time, in April 1616 presented the king 
with their opinions and reasons why they conceived these 
statutes did not extend to the court of chancery. Conso- 
nant to this resolution, his majesty, upon farther advice, 
gave judgment in July following. — " That the statute of 
27 E. III. ch. 1. and 4 Hen. IV. did not extend to the 
court of chancery : for the first was enacted against those 
who sued at Rome, and the latter was designed to settje 
possessions against disturbances, and not to take away 
remedy in equity.", Upon this, Jiis. majesty ordered the 
case, the certificate, and the transactions thereupon, to 
be enrolled in the court of chancery *. 

The lord chancellor, having repelled, with, credit and 
success, this extraordinary attack, and beirjg recovered 
from his indisposition, was, on the 12th of May 1616, 
constituted lord high steward for the trial of Robert eart 
of Somerset and Frances his wife, for poisoning sir Thomas 
Overbury, who were both convicted. After their convic- 
tion the chancellor resolutely and consistently refused to 
affix the great seal to the very extraordinary pardon 
granted, and already signed by the too indulgent lenity of 

, * The chief point in controversy be- . since 1695 when sir Robert Alkyne 

tween lord chancellor Etlesmere and published an elaborate treatise against 

lord chief justice. Coke was, whether' the equitable jurisdiction of chancery 

. the Chancery can relieve by subpoena, (which produced no effect), that juri»- 

after a judgment at law in the same diction, as well after as before judg- 

matter. Coke on various occasions ment, has been uniformly exercised 

resisted the equitable interpositions ; without controversy or interruption.-— 

and during the seventeenth century, Part of a lone; note on the subject by 

the bounds of equitable jurisdiction Mr. Hargrave in Biog. Brit. vol. Y. 
were often -a- matter of dispute, but - p. 57 4>. 

the king, Which was copied fromfane granted by the p6p« 
to cardinal Wolsey, and which ran in these words i " That 
the king, of his mete motion and special favour, did paf« 
don all and all manner of treasons* misprisions of treasons, 
murders, felonies, and outrages whatsoever/ by the said 
Robert Carre, earl of Somerset, committed) or hereafter 
to be committed.* 9 

On the 20th of May following, he was constituted one 
t>f the commissioners to treat with sir Noel Caroon, knight; 
ambassador for the States General, concerning the ren- 
dition of the, cautionary towns into the bands of the States. 
On the 3d of June, the archbishop of Canterbury, and 
others, were appointed to inquire who were the authors of 
his being indicted of praemunire, which was the leading 
cause of sir Edward Coke's disgrace. He was one of the 
grand council, convened at Whitehall on the 6th of June, 
16 1 6, the king himself in council, before whom the twelve 
judges were summoned to appear, and accused of having, 
in the execution of their office, unconstitutionally trenched 
en the powers and prerogatives of the crown, in granting 
commendams. The king himself took an active part in this 
business, and, after a judicial discussion of the question, 
in which the opinion of sir Francis Paeon, the attorneys 
general, was seconded and confirmed by that of the chan- 
cellor, they were severely. censured for having grossly %nd 
wilfully erred both in the matter and manner, of their pro- 
ceedings ; particularly in not obeying the royal command 
delivered to them by the attorney general, and in not de- 
laying to proceed in a cause in which the prerogative \yas 
concerned till they had consulted his majesty, and known; 
his farther pleasure. They all submitted willingly, except 
the lord chief justice Coke (in the whole of which business 
he acted a very noble part), and were obliged to crave his 
majesty's gracious favour and pardon upon their knees. 
On the 20th, the king, in the star-chamber, asserted the 
authority of the chancellor as moVe especially his own j 
and on the 30th, lord chief justice Coke was degraded for 
several causes of offence, particularly those two which 
have been just mentioned, viz. his attack upon the chan*- •* 
cellor, and the affair.of the commendams. 

The lord chancellor was now more than seventy-six- 
years of age, and feeling both the powers of his mind and 
body shrink under the pressure of old age and' infirmity, 
by the most earnest solicitations he entreated the kuig tor 


give htm an honourable discharge from bis high office ; 
partly from a scrupulous apprehension and conscientious 
diffidence of being competent to bear the fatigues, and to 
discharge the duties of it as he ought ; but principally 
from an ardent, desire to retceat from the busy scenes of 
office, in order to devote the evening of a life, spent in 
the honest and faithful discharge of a high profession, to 
religious . meditation. These sentiments be conveyed to 
the king in two pathetic letters, who at last consented, 
though he, as well as the prince of Wales, had endea- 
voured to induce him, as much as possible, to remain in 
office. King James parted with an old and faithful servant 
with all imaginable tenderness, and, as a mark of his royal 
favour and approbation, advanced him to the dignity of 
viscount Brackley on the 7th of November, 1616. Though 
he then resigned the duties of that high and important 
office of state, the king let him, however, keep the seat in 
possession till the beginning of Hilary term following, 
when, according to Camden, on the 3d of March, 1617, 
his majesty went to visit the chancellor, and received it 
from his bands with tears of gratitude and respect. On 
the seventh it was committed to the custody of sir Francis 
Bacon, the person whom his lordship desired might sue* 
ceed him. Another author says, that the king sent secre- 
tary Winwood for the seal with this gracious messagey 
" That himself would be his underkeeper, and not dispose 
of it while he lived to bear the title of chancellor," and 
that no. one received it out of the king's sight till lord 
chancellor Egerton's death, which followed soon after :• 
these accounts are very reconcjleable, as the king might 
both receive it in form from the chancellor's hands and 
send bis secretary for it afterwards. On- the 24th of Ja- 
nuary he had, for the same reasons, resigned the office of 
chancellor of the university of Oxford, and was succeeded 
by the earl of Pembroke. 

. His lordship's illness increasing, the king, as a farther 
testimony of his affection and good- will, sent the 'earl of 
Buckingham and sir Francis Bacon on, the 15th of March 
tp. signify his intention of honouring him with an earldom, 
accompanied with an annual pension. These honours k£ . 
did tK>t live to receive, but the king conferred the former 
upon his son, John Egerton, afterwards created earl, of 
Bridgewater. The age in which he lived was a particular 
«ra,ofth* British annals, distinguished by many gceafcand , 



extraordinary public characters: but, whilst the miscon- 
duct or misfortune of a Devereux, a Raleigh* a Bacon* 
and a Coke, exposed them to public disgrace, or to aa 
ignominious death ; the prudence, discretion, and inte- 
grity of lord Ellesmere, seeded him a safe and honourable 
retreat from this life ; for* he died at York-house, in the 
Strand, oil the 15th of March, 1617, in his seventy -seventh 
year, " in a good old age, and full of virtuous fame," and 
in the words of Camden, " Forte quanto propius reipub- 
licae mala viderat, ut integer honestum finem voluit." To 
sum up his character, says bishop Hacket, the biographer 
of archbishop Williams, he was one " Qui nihil in vit& ' 
nisi laudandum aut fecit* aut dixit, aut sensit." He was 
buried at Doddleston, in Cheshire, on the 6th of April. 

His lordship left four manuscripts of choice collections* 
1. " The Prerogative Hoyal. 2. The Privileges of Parlia- * 
mtfnt. 3. Proceedings in Chancery. 4. The Power of 
the Star-Chamber ;" and, when he was lying upon lib 
death-bed^ to testify his affection to his chaplain Williams* 
lie desired him to chuse what most acceptable legacy he 
should leave him ; when Williams requested only these 
four books, and having been the principal instruments of 
his future fortunes, be so highly valued as to deem them & 
present fit to be offered to king James, to whom he gave 
them. In lord chancellor Eger ton's life-time was printed 
in quarto, in sixteen sheets, Lond. 1609, his " Speech \vf 
the Exchequer-chamber " in Robert Calvine's cause, son 
and heir-apparent of James lord Calvine* of Colcross, ia 
the realm of Scotland, commonly called the case of the 
postnati. In 1641 was printed at London "The Pre- 
yileges and Prerogatives of the high court of Chancery* * 
writteh by the right honourable Thomas lord Ellesmere, 
late lord chancellor of England." In 1651 there was pub- 
lished at London a small octavo book, entitled " Certaine 
Observations concerning the office of Lord Chancellor, 1 * 
composed by the right honourable and most learned Thomas 
lord Ellesmere, late lord chancellor of England, small 
octavo, extracted chiefly from records. And Mr. George 
Paul published some papers found amongst the manuscripts 
of Mr. Laughton, of Cambridge, which were said to have 
been written with the lord chancellor Egerton's own hand. 
These were entitled " The lord chancellor Egerton's Ob- 
servations on the lord. Coke's Reports, particularly in the 
debate of causes relating to the Right of the Church, the 


EG ERTON,' 81 

Power of tbe king's Prerogative, the Jurisdiction of Courts, 
or tbe Interest of the Subject ;" but it is not geperally 
agreed that these papers are; truly ascribed to lord chan- 
cellor Egerton. There is, however, in Mr. Hargrave's 
collection, of law manuscripts, a piece entitled " Abridg- 
ment of- the lord Cokeys Reports under tbe lord Egerton'a 
own hand." It contains a short account of each case in the 
eleven volumes of Reports published by lord Coke himself; 
and, probably, was a labour undergone by lord chancelloc 
4 JSgerton, as a preliminary to his observations on lord Coke's 
Reports. — There is also in Mr. Hargrove's collection a 
piece with this title, " Observations upon lord Coke's 
Reports, made by tbe lord chancellor Egertotn, taken by 
me out of his own papers, written with bis own band." 
These observations are not the same as those in print, but 
seem to be additional. Who tbe transcriber was does not 

. His person, as to its exterior, was possessed of such 
grave and striking dignity* as to excite, the curiosity of 
many to go to the chancery in order to see and admire 
bis venerable presence. His apprehension was keen and 
ready, his judgment deep and sound, his reason clear and 
comprehensive, his method and elocution elegant and easy. 
As a lawyer, be was prudent in counsel* extensive in in- 
formation, just and honest in principle ; so that, while he 
lived, he was excelled by none, and, when he died, he 
was lamented by all. As a statesman, be was able, faith* 
fa), and sincere, op aH occasions ; and, as a judge, im- 
partial and 'incorrupt . In his private character he was ge- 
nerous; beneficent, and condescending to bis friends ; and 
to his enemies, who were few, he was merciful and for- 
giving ; and the same spirit of benevolence and affection 
which distinguished the whole qf his public character, 
pervaded his jaaore intimate and domestic connections, and 
displayed themselves in every act of his private life* 
Though uncommonly successful in, every occurrence of his 
life, and promoted through the merit of superior parts and 
application to the highest hoqours, neither tbe insolence 
of fortune, nor the splendour pf these honours, could, in 
his enlarged and exalted mind, efface the sentiments of 
the Christian, nor deaden the feelings of the man. Fine 
sensibility, the inseparable attendant on fine genius, cul- 
tivated by philosophy and religion, was his privilege and 
ornament ; and the pain which it necessarily and occa* 
Vol. XHL Q 


sionally experienced from the feelings and distresses of 
humanity, was abundantly repaid, and often heightened 
into enjoyment, by the exercise of a benevolent, and b^ 
the reflections of a Christian and conscientious mind. Hisr 
heart was full of faith, and his hope of immortality watf 
frequently expressed in the apostolic language, ic Cupid 
dissolri et esse cum Cbri&to." l 

EGERTON (John), late bishop of Durham, a descends 
ant of the preceding, was the son of Henry Egerton, bishop 
of fiereford (fifth son of John third earl of Bridgewater ? 
by lady Jane Powlett, first daughter of Charles duke of 
Bolton), who marrying lady Elizabeth Ariana Bentinck, 
daughter of William earl of Portland, had by her one 
daughter and five sons, of whom John was the eldest. He 
was born iA London, on the 30th of November^ 1721, was 
educated at Eton school, and admitted a gentleman com- 
moner in Oriel college, Oxford, upon the 20th of May 
1740, under the tuition of the ret. Dr, Bentham, after- 
wards regius professor of divinity in that university, where 
he prosecuted his studies extensively and successfully for 
six or seven years. He was ordained deacon privately by 
Dr. Benjamin Hoadly, bishop of Worcester, itt Grosveno* 
chapel, Westminster, on the 21st of Dec. 1745, and the 
following day he was ordained priest, at a general ordina- 
tion holden by the same bishop in the same place. On 
the 2$d he was collated by his father to the living of Ross 
in Herefordshire, and on the 28th was inducted by Robert 
Breton archdeacon of Hereford. On the 3d of January 
1746 (a short time before bis father's death, which hap* 
pened on the 1st of April following), he was collated to the 
canonry or prebend of Cublington, in the church of Here- 
ford. Upon the 30th of May 1746, he took the degree of 
bachelor of civil law, for which he went out grand comv 
pounder. On the 21st of November 1748 he married lady 
Anne Sophia, daughter of Henry de Grey, duke of Kent, 
by Sophia, daughter of William Bentinck, earl of Port- 
land. He was appointed chaplain in ordinary to the king 
upon the 19th of March 1749; and was promoted to the 
deanery of Hereford on the 24th of July 1750. He was 
consecrated bishop of Bangor on the 4th of July 1756, at 
Lambeth ; and had the temporalities restored to him upon 

* Ilioj. Brit, from the hon. and re*. Fraocji Egerton.— Sir £. Siydges'f edte 
•f Collins'! Peerage.— Park's Royal and Noble Authors. 

E G E R T O N. M 

the 22 d, previously to which, oh the 21st of May, the 
university of Oxford conferred upon him the degree of 
LL. D. by diploma, and he was empowered to hold the 
living of Ross, and the prebend of Cublington, with that 
bishopric, in commendam, dated the 1st of July. On the 
12th of November 1768, he was translated to the see of 
Lichfield and Coventry, with which he held the prebend 
of Weldland, and residentiaryship of St. Paul's, and alsa 
the two preferments before mentioned. He was inducted, 
installed, and enthroned at Lichfield by proxy, upon the 
22d of November, and had the temporalities restored upon 
the 26th. On the deatji of Dr. Richard Trevor, he was 
elected to the see of Durham, upon the 8tb of July 1771, 
and was confirmed on the 20th in St. James's churchy 
Westminster. Upon the 2d of August following he was 
enthroned and installed at Durham by proxy. The tem- 
poralities of the see were restored to his lordship on 
the 15 th of August, and on the 3d of September be made 
bis public entry into his palatinate. On his taking pos- 
session of the bishopric, he found the county divided by 
former contested elections, which had destroyed the ge- 
neral peace: no endeavours were wanting on his part to 
promote and secure a thorough reconciliation of contend- 
ing interests, on terms honourable and advantageous to 
mil ; . and when the affability, politeness, and condescen- 
sion, for which he was distinguished, uniting in a person 
of his high character and station, had won the affections of 
all parties to himself, he found less difficulty in recon- 
ciling them to each other, and had soon the high satisfac- 
tion to see men of the first distinction in the county con- 
ciliated by his means, and meeting in good neighbourhood 
at his princely table. The harmony he had so happily 
restored, he was equally studious to preserve, which he 
effectually did, by treating the nobility and gentry of the 
county at all times with a proper regard, by paying an 
entire and impartial attention to their native interests, by 
forbearing to improve any opportunities of influencing 
their parliamentary choice in favour of his own family or 

S articular friends, and by consulting on all occasions the 
onour of the palatinate. The same conciliating interpo- 
sition he had used in the county, he employed in the city 
of Durham with the same success. At the approach of 
the general election in 1780 he postponed granting the 
new charter, which would considerably enlarge the number, 


«* EG EH TON.: 

of voters, till some months after the election,, that he might 
maintain the strictest neutrality between the. candidates, 
and avoid even the imputation of partiality; and when he 
confirmed it, and freely restored to the city all its ancient 
rights, privileges, and immunities, in the most ample and 
advantageous form, be selected the members of the nejr 
corporation, with great care, out of the most moderate 
and respectable of the citizens, regardless of .every consi- 
deration but its peace and due regulation ; objects which 
he steadily held in view, and in the attainment of which 
he succeeded to, his utmost wish, and far beyond his ex- 
pectation* A conduct equally calculated 'to promote order 
and good government,, he displayed, if possible, still more 
conspicuously in the spiritual than in the temporal depart- 
ment of his double office. .Towards the chapter, and to- 
wards the body of. the clergy at large, he exercised every 
good office, making them all look up to him as their com- 
mon friend and father : and to those who had enjoyed the 
special favour of his predecessor, he was particularly kind 
and attentive, both from a sense of their merit, and that 
he might mitigate in some degree their loss of so excellent 
a friend and patron. In the discharge of all his episcopal 
functions, he was diligent and conscientious* He was ex- 
tremely scrupulous whom he admitted into orders, in re- 
spect of their learning, character, and religious tenets. la 
pis visitations, he urged and enforced the regularity, the 

(lecorum, and the well-being, of the church, by a particu- 
ar inquiry into the conduct of its ministers, encouraging 
hem to reside upon their several benefices, and manU 
festing upon all opportunities, a sincere and active concern 
for the interests and accommodation of the inferior clergy. 
His charges were the exact transcripts of his mind. Ob* 
jections have been made to some compositions of this kind, 
that they bear the resemblance of being as specious as 
pincere, and are calculated sometimes, perhaps, rather a 
little more to raise the reputation of their author as a fine 
writer, than to edify the ministry and advance religion. 
Of the charges his lordship delivered, it may truly be said, 
that, upon such occasions,, he recommended nothing to 
his clergy which he did not practise in his life, and ap- 
prove of in bis closet 

Some years before his death, his health not permitting 
him to go into the more distant parts of bis diocese* he 
gave & commission to Dr. Law, then bishop of Clonfert and 


E6ERTON. ' S5 

Kilmacdoagh, assisted by the archdeacon, to visit and con- 
ftfm in Northumberland, confining his personal attendance 
to the county of Durham. The preferments in bis dis- 
posal he gave with a truly pastoral care: with many of 
them he rewarded the provincial clergy, on account of their 
learning and other merits. In a remarkable instance, in 
which he wished to prefer a particular friend, he declined 
indulging his inclination, from a conviction, that the per- 
son hi was desirous to promote* was not entirely orthodox 
in his 'tenets ; making a covenant with himself that his af- 
fectiori should not press upon his duty. Such was the wise 
eecoriorriv preserved by his lordship, that the expence at- 
tending his hospitality and munificence was no obstruction 
' %o his well-directed benefactions. Besides many gifts and 
charities bestowed on indigent clergymen and their fami- 
lies, and other deserving characters in distress, with a 
delicacy that gave them a double value, and which, during 
his life, were industriously concealed, he continued to his 
death all die bounties he had annually given in his two for- 
mer dioceses of Bangor, and of Lichfield and Coventry, as 
- well as all the humerous benefactions of his predecessors 
at Durham, increasing those to the sons of tbe clergy, 
whom he was particularly solicitous to support, and those 
to the infirmary at Newcastle. To St. Anne's chapel in 
Auckland, to the schools of Wokingham, Norton, and many 
other places, he gave particular benefactions ; and, when- 
ever it was practicable, he made it a condition of his con- 
tent, upon the inclosure of waste lands, that twenty or 
thirty acres should be given to the living, where it was 
small, over arid above the allotment to which it was en- 
titled. To the county in general, he was a great bene- 
factor, as well as to the copyholders in particular. He 
promoted tbe inclosure of Walling Fen in Howdenshire, 
which could never have been accomplished without his in- 
terposition, on account of the many opposite interests con- 
cerned in it, by which sife thousand acres were drained and 
cultivated, and now present the agreeable and useful pror 
spect of numerous farm* and cottages, a new town, and a 
navigation from Market Weighton to the Humber. 

IJe' applied to parliament to exonerate the c6pyholders 
of Lanchester-fell, and Hamsteel's-fell, of the lord's right 
to the timber, a measure highly useful and libera] ; in 
cbnseqtteftce of which, many trees are planted on a surface 
of bteferly thirty thousand acres, and are become already, 

g 3 



ornamental to the country, and will in time be useful to 
jtbe nation. He consented to an act of parliament for in«» 
franchising certain copyholds in, the manor of Hovy(jen- 
•shire, for the. accommodation and convenience of the 
tenants, by enabling them to convey their lands yWth more 
ease and safety, and at the same time without prejudice, to 
the lord. In the great flood of November 1771 the .whole 
of the bridge over the Tyne, between Newcastle and 
Gateshead, was either swept away, or so much damaged 
as to render the taking it down necessary. Of the expence 
of rebuilding it, the see of Durham was subject to one* 
third, and the corporation of Newcastle to the remainder,, 
Parliament enabled the bishop to raise, by life annuities 
chargeable upon the see, a sum sufficient for rebuilding his 
proportion. The surveyors for the bishop and corporation 
disagreeing, the bridge is not rebuilt upon a regular plan ; 
which was so contrary to his lordship's wishes, that he 
offered to advance to the' corporation the amount of his 
one-third, that they might undertake the, management of 
the whole, and finish it uniformly; which proposal was 
not accepted. In the progress of this business, he not 
only consented that his expence should be enlarged, but 
likewise that his income should be diminished ; for he 
agreed to the widening of the new bridge, by which the 
expences of rebuilding were increased ; and then, to alle- 
viate the losses of his tenants who had houses on the old 
"bridge, he gave them full leases for building upon the new, 

' without taking any fine : but as building upon the new 
bridge would impair the beauty of it, and be an inconve* 
nience to the public,- he gave up his own interests in the 
sites of the houses, on condition that his tenants should 
have an equivalent on another spot, upon agreeing not to 
build upon the new bridge ; and lie then procured it to be 
enacted by parliament, that no houses should, in future, be 
/built upon the new bridge, though the renewal of the leases 

, of the buildings that otherwise might have been erected 
thereon, would have produced him a considerable income.. 
The important rights of property, which bad been long in 
dispute between the see and the respectable family of 
Clavering, were brought by bis means to an amicable con- 
clusion ; and the rights of boundary, which his predecessors 
had long been litigating, were fully ascertained : and 
when, by authority of parliament, be granted a lease of 
"the estates in question, for three lives, he gave t^e fine he 

t G-E-R-T O Ni «? 

received for tbe lease to his lessee of th& nines, in consi- 
deration of the expences which were fonnerfy incurred by 
him in defending the right It. may truly be considered as 
no small proof of his moderation, that notwithstanding for 
nearly seventeen years be held the bishopric of Durham, 
in which the rights of property are so various and extent 
sive, the persons with whom he had to transact business 
so numerous, and in their expectations, perhaps, not 
always reasonable, he had during that whole period but one 
law-suit : and though there are in these times certainly no 
improper prejudices in favour of the claims of the church, 
that law-suit was, by a jury of the county, determined in 
his favour. It was instituted to prevent the anus of repair- 
ing the road between Auckland park and tbe river Wear 
from being fixtfd upon his successors, to whose interests he 
was always properly attentive. He adjusted the quota of 
the land tax of the estates in London belonging to the see, 
procuring to himself and his successors an abatement of 
13-20ths of what had been before unduly paid; and he 
greatly increased the rents of the episcopal demesnes at 
Stockton. - His additions and improvements at the epw* 
copal palaces, offices, and grounds, did equal credit to bis 
taste and liberality. . Exclusively of such as he made in 
the castle and offices at Durham, by fitting up the great 
breakfast-room, now .used as a drawing-room, and by en- 
larging and repairing the stables and their dependencies ; 
at Auckland-castle, where he chiefly resided, his improve* 
ments were equally well judged, and much more various 
and expensive. At the north-east entrance of Auckland 
demesne, which, in the approach from Durham, opens 
the extensive and magnificent scene of the park and castle, 
he built a porter's lodge and. a gateway,* and ornamented 
these with large plantations : and the new apartments at 
the south of the castle, which were begun by his prede- 
cessors, he completed, and made* into a magnificent suite 
of rooms. The great room be fitted up, and new furnished 
the chapel The steward's house, as well as the offices 
and stable$, he enlarged, repaired, and altered into regular 
buildings ; and he lowered the .walls of the court and 
bowling-green, to the great beauty of the scenery from tbe 
house. With the monies arising from the sale of the rents 
and fines in Howdenshire, he bought tbe Park closes, the 
Haver closes, and other grounds adjoining to the park, with 
some houses and tenements in Auckland ; he considerably 



extended the park wall, intending to continue it round thti 
whole : the kitchen garden he greatly* enlarged, and se- 
cured it by a stone pier from the river Gaunless : he built 
another stone pier ancji wall, to cover part of the park from 
the ravages of the river Wear ; he embanked against* the 
Gaunless in its whole course through the park, and formed 
in it many beautiful fells. He ornamented the park and 
demesne lands with various plantations, draining and itfiw 
proving the whole with much judgment, and especially the 
park farm, which he inclosed. All the grounds he kept in 
the very neatest order, employing the oldest and most in- 
digent persons in the neighbourhood. In Belbourne wood, 
he cut several walks and ridings, and totally rebuilt the 
lodge-house and farm, which presents a beautiful object to 
the castle.' Notwithstanding all these expences, he was 
liberal and indulgent to his tenants, remitting many fines, 
and taking, no more than one year's rent for a renewal of 
Seven years, or one life ; attempts, however, were some- 
times made to abuse his lenity and indulgence*. 

He discharged all the duties pf his high and arduous sta- 
tion with a steadiness that was very remarkable : he not only : 
knew jwhat was right, but acted Conformably to that know- 
ledge : though he set a, proper vahie upon the opinions of 
mankind, np man was less under the influence of vein po^ 
pularity ; .and when upon reflection he had thoroughly sa-> 
tisfied bis \pwn mind, regardless of the world and the 
world's law, he would never suffer the prejudices of other* 
to supersede and cancel the higher obligations of what he 
conceived to be his duty., This firmness of disposition', 
advantageous iu so many points of *iew, fitted him pecu- 
liarly for the administration of the great and various powers 
with 'which he was entrusted. 

It is not always that men distinguished in public appear 
to advantage in their private characters* We shall con- 
sider the life of our prelate in both these views, and each 
wilt throw a lustre upon the other. In the following sketch 
we mean to delineate such select traits only as are not 
common to all other men, but were more peculiar in him. 

* A gentleman applied to his lord- whereas tbe feet was, that tbe quarrel, 
ilp to exchange a life, which, he stated if ever it had taken place, was cer- 
Xti be a Verv good one, and said, that ,. tainly made 'up ; and tbe man-, whose 

sfilp to exchange a life, which, he stated if ever it had taken place, was cer- 

rv good one, and said, that .. tainly made up ; and tbe 
tip, reason ljruich induced bim to make life injfche. lease was desired to be ex- 

tfcis request, was merely that be had- changed,' was dying, and was attended 
aquarref with the man, and wished to by a physician, attbeexpence of the v 
h»vc^o^uBgtodoeTjenwiUibi»«amej lessee. 



IjBs person was tail and wett formed* it had both elegance 
and strength ; bi^ countenance was ingenuous, animated, 
and engaging; By nature hie was' endowed with strong and 
lively parts, a good temper, and an active disposition* 
Descended fromnoble ancestors, and initiated from his birth 
in the most honourable connections, his manners and sen- 
timents were cast ftbm an early age in the happiest mould, 
and gave all the advantages of that ease and propriety of 
behaviour, which were 90 very obsehrfcbie even in the most 
indifferent actions of his life. In his address there was a 
peculiar mixture of dignity and affability, by which he 
had the remarkable art both of encouraging those who were 
diffident* and checking those who were presumptuous* 
The vivacity- of bis spirits and conversation, and the pe- 
culiar propriety of his manners, made him universally ad« 
mired and caressed. His memory was accurate ana ex* 
tensive. In describing the characters, and in relating the 
anecdotes and transactions with which be had been ac- 
quainted, he took particular delight; and this, when his 
health permitted, he did with much spirit, and often with, 
the utmost pleasantry andhumour; but scrupulously taking 
care that the ^desire of Ornamenting any narrative should 
never in the smallest degree induce him to depart from 
the truth of it. With so rare and happy a talent for de- 
scription, with a mkid stored with much information, and 
a memory very retentive, he was one of the most instruc- 
tive and entertaining of companions ; his conversation was 
enriched with pertinent and useful observations, and en- 
livened by genuine wit and humorous anecdote* He had 
a^rery peculiar art of extricating himself with much imme- 
diate address from those little embarrassments which per- 
plex and confound many, and which often occur in so- 
ciety from the awkwardness of others, or from a concurrence . 
of singular and unexpected circumstances. When pressed 
by improper questions*, instead of being offended with 

* The following are two instances* 
among the many that might be alluded 
to: to" a gentleman who indulged ra- 
ther an unnecessary curiosity in in- 
quiring of him what he inherited from 
hi* father ? what was Ms wife's for- 
tune ) and what was the value of bit 
living at Ross? he answered to the 
first question, " not so much as he 
expected;" to. the second, " not so 
much as was reported ;" and to the 

third, " mere than he made of it. 1 ' A 
gentleman requiring of him the re> 
news I of a lease upon terms far short 
of its real value, and the bishop re- 
fusing, the gentleman assigned as a, % 
reason why the proposal ought to be 
accepted, that his lordship was in such 
a declioing state of health, as to ren- 
der his life very precarious, implying t . 
that it was very improbable he should * 
live longs upon this the bishop very 

-j 1 

SO E G E R T O N. 

tbem himself, or giving offence by his replies,, he bad a 
talent, of returning, very ready and very dextrous answers. 
In every sort of emergency, as weU in personal danger as 
in difficulties of an inferior nature* he shewed an uncom- 
mon presence of mind. He possessed a great reach of 
understanding, and was singularly gifted with a quick and 
ready judgment,, deciding rightly upon the instant when it 
was necessary. No man was better qualified, or at the 
same time more averse to give- his opinion; which, upon 
many occasions, he found a difficulty in avoiding, its value 
being so well known, that it was. often solicited by bis 
friends; and, when he was prevailed upon, he delivered 
it rather with the humility of one who asked, than with 
the authority of one who gave advice. In forming his 
friendships, he was as cautious as he was pteady and uni- 
form in adhering to tbem. He was extremely partial to 
the friendships of his youth, and made a particular point 
of being useful to those with whom be had been thus early 
connected. In all the domestic relations of life he was 
exemplary, a$ a husband, a master, and a parent. In- 
stead of holding over his children an authority founded 
'upon interest, during his life he put tbem into possession 
of a great part of such fortunes a$ they would have inhe- 
rited from him upon his death, willing to have their obe- 
dience proceed not merely from a sgnse of duty, but from 
gratitude, and from pure disinterested affection. Though 
he was ever disinclined to write for the public, yet his 
merit as a scholar was, however, well known, and properly 
estimated, by such of bis private friends as were them- 
selves distinguished by their erudition, particularly by 
archbishop Seeker, Benson bishop of Gloucester, Butler 
bishop of Durham, the late lord Lyttelton, the late lord 
Egremont, the late Mr. George Grenville, Mr. William 
Gerard Hamilton, Mr. Ansty, Mr. Richard Owen Cam- 
bridge, Mr. Garrick, Mr. Stillipgfteet, Mr. J. Nonrse, au- 
thor of several .pieces of poetry in Dodsley's collection. Dr. 
Croxall, sir William Draper, &c. Ac. His only publica- 
tions were three sermons ; one preached before the lords, 
the 1 1th of February, 1757, being a general fast ; another 
before the lords, the 30th of January, J 761 ; and a third 
before the society for the propagation of the gospel, on the 
-18th of February, 1763. 

readily remarked, " since that was the ary consideration to him, and his prut* 
case, the gentleman must be convinced cipal object must be to do no injury to 
that his own interest was but a second* hit successors.'* 

E G E R T O N. 91 

In the early part of his life he was fond of those manly 
exercise* which give strength and vigour both to the body 
and mind* without suffering them to interrupt his studies ; 
,a practice, which thus regulated, instead of being inju- 
rious, is serviceable to learning, and which men eminent 
for. their judgment h&ve lamented was not more cultivated 
and improved. His usual relaxations were such as exer- 
cised the understanding ; chess was his favourite amuse- 
ment, and be played well at that game. The Greek and 
JLatin tongues were familiar to bim. He spoke the French 
and Italian languages ; and wrote and spoke his own with 
1 purity and precision. Of books he had a competent know- 
ledge, and collected a good library. In every thing he 
had a pure taste. In history, anecdotes, and memoirs, in 
the belles-lettres, in the arts and sciences, and in whatever 
else may be supposed to fall within the circle of polite edu- 
cation, he was by no means uninstructed. 

His health had been declining for many years, and though 
he was nei- -ier so old nor so infirm as to look upon death 
as a release, he lived as if he hourly expected it. He 
died at his house in Grosvenor-square, London, on the 
18th of January, • 1787, and by his own express desire was 
privately interred in St. James's church, under the com- 
munion-table, near his father. By bis wife, lady Sophia, 
he bad a daughter (the lady of sir Abraham Hume, bait.) 
and two sons, John-William, who on the death of Francis, 
third duke of Bridgwater, succeeded to the earldom, and 
is now seventh earl of Bridgewater ; and the hon. and rev. 
Francis Egerton, prebendary of Durham, and rector of 
Whitchurch, in Shropshire, to whom the last and present 
articles are much indebted for bis work entitled " A com- 
pilation of various authentic evidences and historical au- 
thorities, tending to illustrate the life and character of 
Thomas Egerton, lord Ellesmere, viscount Brackley, lord 
chancellor of England, &c. and the nature of the times in 
which be was lord keeper and lord chancellor ; also a sketch 
of the lives of John Egerton, bishop of Durham, and of 
Francis Egerton, third duke of Bridgewater,' 9 fol. 1 

EGERTON (Francis), thifd duke of Bridgewater, waa 
born in 1736, and was the fifth son of Scroop, the first 
duke of Bridgewater, by lady Rachel Russel : by the death 
ef bis brothers, he succeeded, on the demise of his brother- 

? Hutchinson's Hist of Durham, vol. III.—Brydges's edit of Collins'* Peerage. 


92 IS G E RT O.N. 

John, second duke, in 1748, to the title and estates* Of 
those illustrious characters that have done honour to the 
British peerage, the duke of Bridge water deserves to be 
plated in the first rank. That time and fortune which too 
many others have devoted to purposes, if not injurious to 
society, at least useless, his grace spent in pursuits that 
entitle him to be called the benefactor of his country. 

It is understood that his grace before he came of age, 
digested the plans which he afterwards prosecuted with 
such success, and proceeded to put them in execution as 
.soon as he obtained possession of his paternal inheritance. 
Among other estates, the duke bad one at Worsley, in * 
: Lancashire, rich in coal-mines, but, owing to the expence 
of land-carriage, of inconsiderable value : desirous, there- 
fore, of working those mines to greater advantage, be pro-, 
jected a qanal from his estate at Worsley, to the rich anjl 
flourishing town of Manchester. With this view he ap- 
plied to the ingenious Mr. Brindley, who had previously 
manifested unusual talents ; and that artist, after sur- 
veying the ground, pronounced the execution of the work 
to be practicable. As, however, we have detailed the 
early history of this undertaking in our article of Brindley, 
(v©C VII.) it may suffice to refer to it ; and briefly notice 
in this place that the duke caused a bill to be introduced into 
Parliament in 1758-9, which met with uncommon oppo- 
sition in its progress, though it ultimately passed both 
houses; and further powers, as well for the purpose of -ef* 
fecting the original design, as for extending the line of na- 
vigation, being afterwards found necessary, application 
was again made to parliament, and they were much more 
readily obtaiued than the former. This canal begins at 
Worsley-Mill, about seven miles from Manchester, where 
his grace cut a bason capacious enobgh to bold all his 
boats and a body of water to serve as a reservoir for his 
navigation. The canal enters a hill by a subterraneous 
passagS of nearly a mile in length, that admits flat-bot- 
tom boats, which are towed along by hand-rails to the 
coal-works : this passage afterwards divides into two ; is in 
some places cut through the solid rock, in others arched 
with brick ; and is provided with several air-funnels, cut 
to the top of the hill. At the entrance, the arch is about 
six feet wide, and in some parts of sufficient breadth to 
admit of boats passing each other. Five or six of those 
boats, which carry seven tons each, are drawn by one 

EG E R T O N; 93 

horse to Manchester. . In other places, the canal is carried 
over public roads by means of arches ; and where the road 
is too high, it is gradually lowered, and rises on the op- 
posite side. But one of the most arduous works accom- 
plished on this canal is the aqueduct over the river Irweil, 
where the canal runs forty feet over the river, and where 
the barges are seen passing on the former, and the vessels 
On the latter in full sail under them/ This aqueduct begins 
three miles from Worsley, and is carried for more than two 
hundred yards over a valley. When the works approached 
the river, several artists pronounced their completion im- 
practicable ; and one went so far as to call it " building 4 
castle in the air." Had the duke attended to these opi- 
nions, without doubt delivered by men of skill and pene- 
tration, he would have relinquished his purpose ; but his 
Own sagacity, and his confidence in the assurances of Mr; 
Brindley, determined him to persevere ; and the aqueduct 
over the river Irweil will for ages remain as a monument 
of the public spirit of his grace the late duke of Bridge- 
water, and of the rare abilities of the artist ; while it may 
also read a salutary lecture ou the imbecility of human 
judgment and human, foresight. 

In order to the prosecution, as well as to the ccrtnple- 
tion, of the whole undertaking, it must be obvious to every 
one at all acquainted with the construction of canals, even 
now, when their principles are so well understood, that; 
under all the unforeseen difficulties and discouraging cir-f 
cUmstances of the case, it was only such a man as Mr. 
Brindley, blessed, as he was, with a peculiarly fertile 
genifts, and honoured with the confidence, and supported 
by the health, of his illustrious patron, who could have 
successfully persevered in it. Assailed by clashing in- 
terests, by inveterate prejudices, by adverse opinions, and 
by the most discouraging predictions, he must have pos- 
sessed a very superior mind not to have yielded to them; 
Indeed, no obstacle, however unexpected or considerable* 
seems to have been capable of impeding him in the exe- 
cution of his plan ; and the ingenuity and contrivance dis- 
played throughout were wonderful. 

This first work having been completed in 1760, was 
opened in the presence of the duke, many of his friends; 
and a vast concourse of people, with great ceremony, re- 
joicing*, and exultation ; and his grace had the felicity tq 
see the extraordinary man whom he had patronized sue- 


94 EG ERTO N. 

teed even beyond his expectations. Bat the duke's de- 
signs were not confined to this canal : accordingly, after 
another application to parliament, in 1762 he obtained 
powers (though not without great opposition) to extend the 
works from Longford bridge to the river Mersey ; and the 
success of this undertaking furnishes an additional proof of 
his grace's judgment. The entire length from Worsley to 
Manchester is twenty-nine miles : there is not any fall on 
the whole line, except at Runcorn, into the river Mersey, 
where there are locks which convey the boats down ninety- 
four feet into the river in a very short space of time. The 
whole was accomplished in about five years. The duke 
was also a liberal promoter of that great work the Grand 
Trunk Navigation, which extends from bis own 'works at 
Preston Brook to the river Trent, near Derby j and he wad 
ever ready to assist, with his parliamentary influence, the 
furthering of any well-digested plan. 

As a senator, the late duke of Bridgewater did not take 
an active part ; and was not constant in his attendance on 
bis parliamentary functions. In 1762, however^ his name 
is to be found in the division, on a motion to withdraw the 
British troops from Germany ; and on the loss of that mo- 
tion, he joined in a protest. When the repeal of the 
American stamp act was in agitation, his grace was a strong 
opposer of that measure ; and in 1784, when powerful in* 
terest was made use of to prevent Mr. Fox's India-bill from 
passing into a law, the duke was active therein. In gene- 
ral his politics were guided by that of his noble brother-in-* 
law the marquis of Stafford. 

His grace died at his house in Cleveland -row, in the 
morning of March 8, 1803, after a cold which brought on 
the complaints accompanying the influenza. He was never 
married ; and his celibacy is asserted to have been occa- 
sioned (though we do not vouch for the fact) by a circum- 
stance which is said to have occurred in early life. We 
understand it to be in substance as follows : the duke being 
on a visit at a friend's, who was on the eve of marriage, 
the lady to whom he was betrothed took a fancy to his 
grace ; and, forgetting her own dignity and her sacred 
engagement to another, made an easy sacrifice of her vir- 
tue to him. This occurrence is said to have wrought 90 
strongly on his grace's mind, as to have indelibly impressed 
on it an idea of general infidelity in the sex, and .to have 
determined him against ever entering the pale of matri- 

E G E R T O N. 95 

mony. IF this- statement be true, it affords a striking in- 
stance of what is not very uncommon among men ; namely,' 
of a great and enlightened mind being ted, by a peculiar 
incident, into a general conclusion ; and, in this case, a 
<roncrusion which, for the honour of the fair part of our 
species, we trust and believe, is equally unfounded in 
nature and experience, and no less libellous than unwar- 
ranted. By his active spirit, and his unshaken persever- 
ance, he amassed immense wealth. But the public grew 
rich with him ; and his labours were not more profitable to 
himself than they were to his country. His return to the 
income-tax was 110,000/. a-year; the greater p^rt ac- 
quired by his own exertions, and derived from circum- 
stances of the highest benefit to the nation. To the loy- 
alty loan he subscribed 100,000/. all in ready money, at 
one time. By his will he left most of his houses, his plate, 
his pictures, valued at 150,000/. and his estate lately pur- 
chased at Woolmers, in Hertfordshire, to earl Gower, to- 
gether with his canal property in Lancashire, which brings 
in from 50 to 80,000/. per annum. All this property is 
entailed on earl Gower's second son, lord Francis Levison 
Gower : the first son will inherit the marquis of Stafford** 
estates. To general Egerton, now earl of Bridgevvater, 
he bequeathed the estate of Ashridge, in Hertfordshire, and 
other estates in Bucks, Salop, and Yorkshire, to the 
amount of 30,000/. per annum. About 600,000/. in the 
funds he left chiefly to general Egerton, and partly among 
the countess of Carlisle, lady Anne Vernon, and lady 
Louisa Macdonald, the chief baron's lady; all of whom 
were his relations. l 

EGGELING (John Henry), a very eminent antiquary, 
and particularly conversant in Greek, Roman, and Ger- 
man antiquities, was born at Bremen May 23, 1630, of a 
distinguished family. He studied at various seminaries, 
principally those of Helmstadt and Leipsic, and travelled 
into Swisserland, Italy, Spain, and France. On his re* 
turn to his native country in 1676, he was received into 
the college called the college of ancients, and was de- 
puted by the members of it to go to the imperial court, in 
order to explain some differences which had arisen between 
the magistrates and burgesses, of Bremen. In this he ac- 

1 Sir B. Bgrtigti's edit, of Collins'* Peerage.— Th« Life of Brindley, in our 
fw« VII. 

96 EG G £ LIN G. 

quitted himself so much to their satisfaction, that when fa* 
returned, in 1679, he was appointed secretary to there- 
public, an office which he held with great reputation until 
his death, Feb. 15, 1713. His antiquarian pursuits pro- 
duced, I. " De numismatibus quibusdam abstrusis Neronis, 
cum Car. Patino per epistolas disquisitio," Bremen, 1681, 
4to. 2.. " Mysteria Cereris et Bacchi, in vasculo ex uno 
onyche," ibid.. 1682, 4to, reprinted by Gronovius in vol. 
VII. of his Greek Thesaurus. 3. " Discussio calumniarum 
Fellerianarum," 1687, 4to, which Feller had provoked by 
bis " Epicrisis," and by his " Vindiciae adversus Eggelin- 
gium," published at Leipsic, 1685. 4. "De orbe stagneo 
Antinoi, epistola," 1691, 4to. 5. " De Miscellaneis Ger- 
manise antiquitatibus exercitationes quinque," 1694— 
1700. l 

(Robert),, the founder of Queen's college, Oxford, rector 
of Burgh or Brough in Westmoreland, and confessor to 
iPhilippa, Edward II I.'s queen, a more ample no- 
tice than at this distance of time can be procured ; nor 
have we any particulars to add to the account given in 
another place. His descent appears to have been honour- 
able, and more than once the county of Cumberland was 
represented in parliament by a member of die house. 
They bad considerable estates in different parts of that 
county; and we find that either the founder of the col-. 
lege, or one of the family of the same name, received of 
Edward III. in exchange for the manor of Laleham in Mid- 
dlesex, the manor of Raven wick or Renwick, in Cumber- 
land, which had been forfeited to the king's father Edward 
II. on the attainder of Andrew de Harcla, earl of Carlisle, 
in 1323. This manor is now the property of the college. 

It is probable that Robert de Egglesfield was born at 
Egglesfeld, a hamlet in the parish of Brigham, in the 
county of Cumberland, where the family was certainly pos- 
sessed of property in the time of Henry HI. In the reign 
of Edward III. they came into the possession of Alneburgh 
ball, or Netherhall, in the parish of Cross Canonby in the 
same county, which from that time was their principal re- 
sidence. Here they lived in high estimation, until, in the 
reign of Philip and Mary, Elizabeth, eldest sister and co- 
heiress of Richard Egglesfield, esq. was married to John 

i Morerir— Sexii Onomast. 

E GGL E Sf? ELD. w 

Senboufee, 6f Seafecale ball> esq. This marriage brought 
the property into the family of Senhouse, in which it bag 
eyer since continued. 

.Robert Egglesfield appears to ha,ve been highly esteemed 
by his^toyal roaster and mistress, Edward III. and queea 
Philippa, and to have shared, in their intimacy and con** 
fidence. In 1332, the king bestowed on him the rectory 
of Burgh, in the person of Adam de Egglesfield, bis proxy, 
and probably relation.; and be was ordained priest at Car- 
lisle in the Lent following. This church was appropriated 
to the, college by pope Clement VI. in 1344. Egglesfield 
employed his whole interest at court in promoting, religion 
and learning, giving all he had to the public, and that in 
his life-time, when he could best secure those advantages 
which he was anxious to bestow on posterity. 

He died in the month of June 1349; and was most pro- 
bably buried in the old chapel belonging to Queen's col- 
lege. His principal motive for founding. this college (the . 
history of which may be seen in our authority), was to sup-* 
ply education to the northern district, in which the fre- 
quent and barbarous contests of the borderers had created, - 
to use his WQrds, " literature* insolitam raritatem." After 
his death, queen Philippa became the patroness of the 
college, her royal consort gave several advowsons for its 
support, and was followed by a long series of benefactors* . 
by whose munificence this noble establishment, wi^th its . 
splendid buildings* was advanced to the prosperous state in 
which we now find it, and has. produced some of the 
brightest ornaments of the university, the state, and the 
church. l * 

EGINHARD, who flourished in the ninth century, was . 
the celebrated secretary and supposed son-in-law of Char- 
lemagne. He is said to have been carried through the 
snow on the shoulders of his affectipnate and ingenious 
mistress I mtna, to prevent his being tracked from her - 
apartments by the emperor her father : a story which th$ 
elegant pen of Addison. has copied and embellished from 
an. old German chronicle, and inserted in the third volume 
of .the Spectator. This happy Joyer (supposing the story 
to he true) seems tQ have possessed a heart not unworthy 
of so enchanting a mistress, and to have returned her. 
affection with the jpopst faithful attachment; for therein a. 

1 Chalm«n'fHi»t of Oxfetd.—rHutcbio«oo'i Cumberland. 

yoL,xiifc h 

ir* E. G I N H A R D. 

letter of Eginhard's still extant, lamenting the death of 
his wife, which is written in the tenderest strain of con- 
nubial affliction ; it does not, .however, express that this 
lady was the affectionate princess, and indeed some late 
critics have proved that Imma was not the daughter of 
Charlemagne. Eginhard, however, appears to have been 
a native of Germany, and educated by the munificence of 
his imperial master, of which he has left the most grateful 
testimony in his preface to the life of that monarch. After 
-the loss of his lamented wife, he is supposed to have passed 
the remainder of his days in religious retirement, and to 
have died soon after' the year 840. His life of Charle- 
magne, written in a style superior to that of his age, his 
annals from 741 to 889, and his letters, are all inserted in 
the second volume of Duchesne's " Scriptores Francorum.** 
But there is an improved edition of this valuable historian, 
<+rith the annotations of Hermann Schmincke, in 4to, 17H, 
and another yet more improved by professor Bredow, ia 


EGMONT (Justus van), a painter, was born at Leydea 
fn 1602. Who was his master is not known. He travelled 1 
early in life, and his longest stay was in France, where b* 
was painter to Lewis XIII. and Lewis XIV. and one of the 
twelve elders of the then establishment of the royal academy 
of painting and sculpture of Paris, Jan. 20, 1649. He. 
assisted Vbuet in- many of his historical works, and himself 
painted history in various dimensions. He was a person of 
. consideration in his time, and especially at court. It is 
not known what induced him to leave France; but it is 
certain that he returned to Antwerp, where he died, Janu- 
ary 8, 1674, and his wife on June 19, 1685* They were 
koth buried in the church of St. James.* 

EGMONT (Lamoral Count), one of the principal lords 
of the Low Countries, was born in 1522 of an illustrious 
family in Holland, and served with great distinction in the 
armies of the emperor Charles V. whom he followed into 
Africa in 1544. Being appointed general of horse under 
Philip IL he signalized himself at the battle of St. Quentin 
in 1557, and that of Gravelines in 1558. But, after the 
departure of Philip for Spain, unwilling, as he said himself* 
to fight for the re-establishment of the penal laws, and the 

} Moreri.— Gen; Dfet. * Deseampvvol. II.— Pilkiofton, 


inquisition, he took a part in ibe troubles which broke out 
in tbe Low Countries. He nevertheless made it his endear 
Tour to dispose the governess, of those provinces, and th<| 
nobles combined against her, to terms of peace and mo- 
deration. He even took an oath to that princess to sup* 
port tbe Romish religion, to punish sacrilege, and to ex- 
tirpate, heresy ; but his connections with the prince of 
Orange and the chief nobles of that party, brought bim 
into suspicion with the court of Spain. The duke of Alv^ 
having been sent by Philip II. into the Low Countries to 
suppress the rebels, ordered his head to be struck off at 
Brussels, the 5th of June 1568, as well as that of Philip 
de Montmorency, comte de Horn. The count Egmont 
was then in his 46th year; and submitted to death with re- 
signation, professing himself of the communion of the 
church of Rome. The ambassador of France wrote to hia 
court, that " he bad seen that head fall, which had twice 
made France to tremble." The same day that the count 
Egmont was executed, his wife, Sabina of Bavaria, came 
to Brussels, for tbe purpose of consoling the countess of 
Aremberg on the death of her husband ; and as she wa* 
discharging this office of affection and charity, the afflict* 
ing tidings were announced to her of the condemnation of 
the count her husband. The count of Egmont had written 
tot Philip II. protesting to him, " that he bad never at- 
tempted any thing against the catholic religion, nor con- 
trary Jto tbe duty of a good subject;" but this justification 
was deemed insufficient Besides, it was thought neces- 
sary to make an example; and Philip II. observed on occa- 
sion of the deaths of the counts Egmont and Horn, that he 
struck off their, heads, because " the heads of salmons 
were of greater account than many thousands of frogs." 
The posterity of count Egmont became extinct in the per- 
son of Procopius Francis, count Egmont, general of th^ 
horse, and of the dragoons of tbe king of Spain, and bri- 
gadier in the service of the king of France, who died with- 
out childreu at Fraga in Arragon, in 1707, at the age of 
?&. Maximilian d' Egmont, count of Buren, a general in 
tbe army of Charles V. of the same family, but of a differ- 
ent branch, displayed his courage and conduct in the wars 
against Francis I.; but besieged Terouane in vain, and 
died of a quinsey at Brussels in 1548. The president De 
Thou says, that he was great both in war and in peace, 
and praises his fidelity and magnificence. His physician, 

H 2 

1<J0 £ 6 M N T. 

Andrew Vesalius, having, as it is pretended, foretold hiii( 
the time of his death, he made a great feast for his friends* 
and distributed rich presents among them. When the en* 
tertainment was over, he put himself to bed, and died 
precisely at the time fofetold him by Vesaliusw ! 

EGNAZIO, or EGNATIUS (Batista), a learned Ita- 
lian, was born at Venice of poor parents about 1473, and 
was a disciple of Politian, and educated alottg with Leo X. 
He then opened a private school, and taught the belles 
lettres when he was only eighteen years of age. This ex- 
cited the jealousy of Sabellico, a public professor of the 
Same city ; but they became reconciled at last, when Sa- 
bellico, finding himself near his end, sent for Egna2io, be- 
sought his forgiveness, and entrusted to his care a work in 
manuscript, which Egnazio published, and pronounced 
the funeral oration over the ashes of Sabellico. Egnazio 
had now conferred upon him the right of citizenship, and 
was afterwards presented with ecclesiastical preferment. 
In 1515 he was sent with others to Milan, to compliment 
king Francis I. to whose honour Egnazio composed a pane- 
gyric, for which he was rewarded with a gold medal. la 
1 520 he was elected public professor of eloquence at Ve- 
nice, in opposition to many competitors ; and so high wa» 
his reputation in this department of literature, that be had 
frequently five hundred auditors to hear him daily, and 
even when towards the decline of life he was desirous of 
resigning his employment, and to be declared Emtritu^ 
they refused a demand which might be so, prejudicial to 
his school, and persuaded him to continue. He at length, 
howfever, was permitted to retire, and out of respect to 
him, all his emoluments were continued, and his property 
declared free of all taxation < He died July 4, 1559, and 
bequeathed his property and librafy to three illustrious 
families of Venice. His principal works are a treatis* 
" De Romanis principibus vel Csesaribus," containing the 
lives of the Roman emperors from Julius Caesar to Palaeo- 
logus, and from Charlemagne to Maximilian, Cologn, 
1519, and reprinted in various editions of Suetonius, with 
notes on that author by Egnazio ; some orations and epis- 
tles, a panegyric on Francis I. king of France, in heroic* 
terse, printed at Venice in 1540, and " De exempli* 
virorum iUu&trium," a work compiled in the manner »i 

 • ,: r 

* Diet, Hift,—Mejari. 

E H R E T. 10L 

Valerius Maximus, which he did not quite finish, but which* 
was published after his death, at Venice in 1554, 4to. l 

EHRET (George Dionysius), an ingenious botanical 
painter, the son of the prince of Baden DurlaclVs gardener, 
was born in J 7 10, and very early shewed a taste for draw- 
ing, and painting the flowers of the garden. Although he 
received no instructions, yet such was his proficiency, that, 
whilst a very young man, he had painted 500 plants with 
a skill and accuracy that was almost unexampled, under 
the disadvantages of so total a want of instruction as this 
young artist had experienced. His merit, however, re- 
mained long unknown, or at least ineffectually noticed, 
until it was discovered by a gentleman of curiosity and 
judgment, who visited the garden of which his father was 
the supefintendaht. Fortunately for young Ehret, this 
stranger was a physician and a friend of the celebrated Dr. 
Trew, of Norimberg, to whom he justly supposed these 
paintings would be acceptable. Ehret by this means was 
introduced to Trew, who immediately purchased the whole 
600 paintings, and generously gave him double the price 
at which the young artist had modestly valued them. 

The liberality of Trew, by whioh Ehret gained 4000 
florins, inspired him with confidence in his own abilities, 
3nd such a share of ambition as inclined him to quit his 
home, and seek at once to raise his fortune, and to gratify 
the desire he had to see the world. It appears, however, 
that he was too much elated with his success, and having 
soon dissipated his money, found himself at Basil with a 
very few florins in his pocket. Necessity now obliged him 
to exert himself, and he was so successful, that although 
he exhibited numerous specimens of his art, and put a 
high price upon them, the demand was beyond what his 
industry could supply. Having, however, by this means 
recruited his finances, he journeyed into France, and re- 
sided some time at Montpelier, where he taught his art to 
a lady of fortune, who rewarded him generously, and, on 
bis wish to* remove, paid his expences to Lyons and Paris. 
At the latter city he became known to Jussieu, and was for 
some time employed to paint the plants of the royal gar- 
den, under that eminent professor's inspection. After a 
certain time, he came to London, but not succeeding t? 
feis mind, soon returned to the continent, and in 1736 ht 

1 litreru-rTirabofchLwClemeDt Bibl, CurieHse.— Gen, Dk?t» 

loa EHRET, 

was employed in the garden of Mr. Clifford, where Lin* 
nseus found him, and gave him some instructions in the 
principles of the sexual system. His fine taste and botani- ' 
cal accuracy appear to have been first publicly displayed in 
the figures of the " Hortus ClifFortianus," which appeared 
in 1737. 

About 1740, he returned to England, where he spent 
the remainder of his days. His principal patrons, for 
whom he painted many hundred plants, were Taylor 
White, esq. Dr. Mead, sir Hans Sloane, Dr. Fothergill, 
and Ralph Willet, esq. of Merly. Many of these paint- 
ings were executed on vellum ; and engravings were made 
from bis paintings for various works* particularly Dr. 
Trew's " Plant® Select®," and Brown's " History of Ja- 
maica." The latter, however, having been taken from 
prepared and dried specimens, cannot be numbered among 
bis capital performances. His ingenuity and knowledge 
of nature raised him to a degree of reputation among the 
literati, and obtained him the distinction of being chosen 
a fellow of the royal society in 1757. Besides the profits 
accruing from the numerous exhibitions of his pencil, be ' 
applied for many years with great assiduity to the business 
of teaching his art ; and if his ingenuity did not meet with 
a reward equal to his merit, yet his labours in the end 
proved sufficiently lucrative to, afford him a moderate in- 
dependence ; though to the last he ceased not to employ 
his pencil. He died in Sept. 1770. Mr. Ehret married the 
sister of Mr. Philip Miller, of Chelsea, by whom he left 
one son. 1 

EISENMENGER (John Andrew), of the Palatinate, 
an able writer against the Jews, was born at Manheim, in 
1654, was educated at Heidelberg, and afterwards, at the 
expence of the elector palatine, travelled in Holland and 
England. At Amsterdam he applied himself to the study 
of the Arabic, and copied the Alcoran with his own hand' 
from three manuscripts. In 1693 when the palatinate was 
invaded, he retired to Francfort, with the electoral re- 
gency, and' was made keeper of the archives. He wag 
next advanced to the office of registrar of the electoral 
chancery at. Heidelberg, and afterwards appointed profes- 
sor of the oriental languages. He had also an invitation to 
succeed Leusden at Utrecht, but declined it, and died at 


' Piittetoejr'i gift and Biographical Sfcetcbtt of BoUftjr* 



Heidelberg, Dec. 20, 1^704. Having very much studied 
the Talmudical writings, be was desirous to convince the 
Jews of their folly in preferring the oral to the written law, 
the traditions of men to the precepts of God, and the Tal- 
mud to the Holy Scriptures. With this view he took 
great pains to collect all the fables, allegories, and con- 
tradictions in the Talmud and other rabbinical works, and 
published this collection in 2 vols. 4to, at Francfort, under 
the title of " Judaism discovered," but the Jews had in- 
terest enough at the court of Vienna to interdict the sale 
of it. At length the king of Prussia ordered it to be re- 
printed at Konigsberg in 1711, at his sole expence, and 
with great liberality gave a part of the impression to the 
heirs of Eisenmenger, to recompens^ them for their loss. 
In 1743, an abridgement of this wirk was published in 
English by the rev. John Peter Stehelin, London, 2 vols. 
8vo, under the title " The Traditions of the Jews, or the 
Doctrines and Expositions contained in the Talmud, and 
other Rabbinnical writings," &c. This is a work of great 
curiosity, and the first in which the English public was 
made acquainted with the traditions of the Jews. 1 

EISENSCHMIDT (John Gaspar), M. D. was born at 
Strasbourg Sept. 25, 1656. In a journey he made to Paris 
be formed an intimacy with several of the learned, and 
particularly with Du Verney and Tournefbrt. He was ad - 
mitted of the academy of sciences on the re-establishment 
of that society, and died in 1712, at the age of fifty- six, 
at Strasbourg, where he settled on returning from his 
travels. He published, 1. " A treatise on the figure of the 
earth, entitled; Elliptico-Sph^roide," 1691, 4to. 2. "A 
treatise on the weights and measures of various nations, 
and on the value of the coins of the ancients," 1708, 8vo. 2 

ELEANOR of Guienne, queen of France and England, 
was married in 1137, at the age of fifteen, to Louis VI L 
king of France, by whom she had two daughters, but, 
when she had accompanied him to Palestine, her intrigues 
with the prince of Antioch, and with, a young handsome 
Turk named Saladin, led to a divorce in 1152. In the 
following year she married Henry duke of Normandy, who 
succeeded to the throne of England, in 1 1 54, under the- 
title of Henry II. and by his wife> influence became a for* 

1 Moreri.— Saxii Onomast— Works of tbe Learned for 1743» 
* Meferi.— Saxij Ouomast. 


midable rival to the French king. Eleanor at length be- 
came jealous of Henry with the fair Rosamond; and this 
produced the rebellion of her sons against the king, whose 
unnatural conduct has been imputed wholly to her instiga- 
tion. She was at length seized, and imprisoned, just as 
she was attempting to escape to France. In confinement 
she remained several years, but on the accession of Ri- 
chard I. in 1189, she was set at liberty, and was when he 
went upon his crusade, made regent of the kingdom. The 
zeal which she manifested for this prince led her to con- 
siderable exertions on bis behalf: she went to Navarre, to 
procure him, for a wife, Berengaria, daughter of the king 
of the country ; and when Richard on his return from Pa- 
lestine, was imprisoned in Germany, she proceeded thither 
with a ransom, accompanied by the chief justiciary, in 
1194. After bis death she supported the succession of 
John her son, in prejudice of her grandson Arthur. She 
died in 1202; though, according to some writers, she took 
the veil this year, at the abbey of Fontevrault, and there 
finished her busy and chequered life in 1204. 1 

ELEUTHERIUS, bishop of Rome, was a native of 
Nicopolis, and flourished in the second century. He was 
first a deacon of the church, and about the year 177 was 
elected bishop of Rome. Soon after his elevation, letters 
were addressed to him by the martyrs of Lyons, then shut 
up in prison, on the subject of the peculiar tenets of Mon- 
tanus and his followers; the object of which was to re- 
commend healing and temperate measures in the treatment 
of that sect. During the episcopate of Eleutherius, the 
church is said to have enjoyed much peace, notwithstanding 
the parties which rose up, and which zealously contended 
for the truth. Among these were persons headed by Flo- 
rin us and Blastus, both presbyters, who maintained that 
God was the author of evil as well as good, for which they 
were degraded and excommunicated. Eleutherius died in 
the year 192, and deserves credit for some liberal additions 
which be made to the pontifical code ; of these, one en- 
acted that a man should not abstain from any sort of meat 
that was commonly eaten ; and the other, that sentence 
should not be pronounced against any one accused of 
crimes, unless he were present to make his defence* Ac* 
cording to Bede, but the circumstance appears doubtful, 

* Hist, of England.— Moreri, 


it was at this .period that an embassy was sent by Lucius, 
king of Britain, to Rome, to request the pope to send over 
proper persons to explain to him and his people the nature 
of the Christian faith. 1 

ELIAS (Lbvtta), a rabbi of the sixteenth century, by 
birth a German, passed the greater part of his life at Rome 
and at Venice, where he taught the Hebrew tongue to 
many of the learned of these two cities, and even to some 
cardinals. Of all the critics that have arisen among the 
modern Jews, he has the reputation of being the ipost en- 
lightened, and had the candour to reject as ridiculous 
fables, the greater part of their traditions. To him the 
learned are obliged for, 1. ""Lexicon Chaldaicum," Isnse, 

1541, fol. 2. "Traditio Doctrince," in Hebrew, Venice, 
1538, 4to, with the version of Munster ; Bale, 1539, 8vo. 
3. " Collectio locorum in quibus Chaldaeus paraphrastes 
interjecit nomen Messiae Christl ; Lat. versa a Genebrardo,* 
Paris, 1572, 8vo. 4. Several Hebrew Grammars, 8 vo, ne- 
cessary for such as would penetrate into the difficulties 
of that language. 5. " Nomenclatura Hebra'ica," Isnse, 

1542, 4to. The same in Hebrew and Latin, by Drusius; 
Franeker, 1681, 8vo, He rejected, among other ancient 
prejudices, the very high origin of the Hebrew points, 
which have been carried as far back as the time of Ezra, 
and referred them with more probability to the sixth cen- 
tury. Father Simon says of him, " Solus Elias Levita inter 
Judseos desiit nugari ;" and adds, that he was so much 
hated by the other Jews for teaching the Christians the 
Hebrew tongue, as to be obliged to prove formally that a 
Jew might do this with a good conscience.* 

ELIAS (Matthew), an eminent painter, was born in 
the village of Peene, near Cassel, in 1658, of parents ex-* 
tremely poor, and seemed destined to rise in the world by 
slow degrees. His mother, who w?s a widow, lived in the 
eountry on what she earned by washing linen ; her whole 
wealth consisted in a cow, which her little boy used to 
lead to pick up its pasture by the side of the ditches. One 
day Corb6en, a famous painter of landscapes and history, 
going to put up some pictures which he had made for 
Cassel, as he went along the road, took notice of this 
lad, who had made a fortification of mud, and little clay 

* Moreri. — Lardner's Worfcs.— jlower'f Hist, of tb« Pope* 
I Moreri.«-~3axii OnwaasL 

ia« E L I A s. 

figures that were attacking it. Corbgen .was immediately , 
struck with the regularity and taste that was evident in the 
work. He stopped his chaise, and put several questions 
to the lad, whose answers increased his astonishment. His 
figure and countenance added to the impression ; and the 
painter asked him whether he would go and live with him, 
and he would endeavour to put him in a way of getting hi* 
bread ; the boy said he would willingly accept of his offer, 
if his mother would but agree to it. £lias failed not to be 
at the sa,me place on the day appointed, accompanied by 
his mother ; he ran before the chaise, and Corb6en told 
the woman to bring her son to him at Dunkirk, where he 
lived. The boy was received, and the master put him to 
school, where he was taught the languages, and he himself 
taught him to draw and to paint. The scholar surpassed his 
fellow-students : he acquired the esteem of the public, and 
gained the favour of his master to such a degree, that he 
sent him to Paris at the age of twenty; whence Elias trans- 
mitted his works to his master and benefactor. With great 
gentleness of character, he possessed the good quality of 
being always grateful ; he thus repaid his master for his 
kindness to him, as Corblen frequently confessed. Elias, 
^fter having been some while at Paris, married. He made 
a journey to Dunkirk for the purpose of visiting his master, 
and it was while there that he painted a picture for the 
altar of St. Barbara's chapel, in which he represented, the 
martyrdom of that saint; a fine composition. On his re- 
turn to Paris, he was appointed professor at St. Luke, and 
successively obtained several other posts. He was much 
employed, and composed several subjects taken from the 
life of St John Baptist de laBarriere, author of the re- 
form of the Feu ill ants. All these subjects were painted on 
glass, by Simpi and Michu, and are in the windows of the 
cloister. Elias, now become a widower, took a journey to 
Flanders, in hopes of dispelling his grief Being arrived 
at Dunkirk, the brotherhood of St Sebastian engaged him 
to paint their principal brethren in one piece ; he executed 
this great picture, with a number of figures as large as life,, 
and some in smaller dimensions. The company of taylort 
having built a chapel in the principal church, Elias wasr 
employed to paint the picture for the altar, in which he 
represented the baptism of Christ ; in the fore-ground is 
St. Lewis at prayers, for obtaining the cure of the sick. 
Being now on the point of returning to Pans, he was so 

E L I A S. fOT 

earnestly solicited to remain in his native country, that at 
length he yielded to the entreaties of his numerous friends. 
He now executed a grand picture for the high altar of the 
Carmelites ; it was a votive piece of the city to the Virgin 
Mary. This picture is a fine composition, and of a style 
of colouring more true and warm than was usual with him ; 
the artist, as is often the practice, has introduced his own 
portrait. Elias was complimented on this alteration in his 
colouring ; by which he was encouraged to redouble his 
care. He executed for the parish church of Dunkirk an' 
altar-piece of the chapel of St. Croix ; a Transfiguration 
for the altar of the parish church of Bailleul, and in that 
of the Jesuits at Cassel, a miracle of St. Francis Xavier, 
&c. The abbot of Bergues, St. Winox, employed our 
artist a long time in ornamenting the refectory of his house. 
Among his great works he made some portraits in a capital 
manner. In his greatest successes, Elias never made any 
change in his conduct, but always continued to lead the 
same regular life ; , he was seen no where but at church and 
in his work-room, into which he rarely admitted visitors, 
lie was much esteemed for the mildness of his disposition. 
Detesting those malicious reports which are but too com- 
mon among rival artists, he minded only his business. 
Not desirous of having pupils, he rather dissuaded young 
men from cultivating an art that was attended with so much 
trouble, than encouraged them to enter upon it; those 
that knew him best, always spoke of this artist as a model 
of g6od conduct. He continued working to the end of 
his days, which happened at Dunkirk the 2 2d of April 1 741, 
in the eighty -second year of his age. He bad but one son, 
who died at Paris, doctor of the Sorbonne. Neither had 
he more than one pupil, Carlier, who was living at Paris 
in 1760. 

Elias, on his first coming to Paris, was very defective 
in colouring. A picture of his is still to be seen of his 
early time in the church of Notre-dame de Paris, on the 
left hand, on entering by the grand portico, in one of the 
low ailes. He afterwards acquired a good colouring : his 
draperies are likewise more ample, and approach nearer to 
nature : his drawing is sufficiently correct ; he composed 
well, but with a labour truly astqnishing ; he was long in 
producing a sketch, and it was in order to conceal this 
labour, that he could not endure to have anybody near 
hiqa when at work. Some of his 'portraits are well exe* 

10* JE L VA S, 

cuted, and great likenesses ; excepting his women, whom 
he dressed without selection and without taste. His per- 
formances done ten years before his death, are formal : the 
women, in his historical pieces, are ill dressed about the 
head, and ill draperied. This blemish is seen in the two 
pictures in the church of the Carmelites at Dunkirk ; one, 
St. Lewis setting out for the Holy Land, the other is the 
sacrifice of Elijah. - The best of his other pictures are at 
Dunkirk, in the church of the capuchins, the guardian 
angel conducting u child in the path of virtue ; and, on the 
two sides of the altar, one a benediction of the bread^ and 
the other the distribution. The altar-picture of the poor 
Clares, representing the angel appearing to Joseph in a 
dream. At Menin, St. Felix resuscitating a dead child ; a 
picture at the monastery of the capuchins. At Ypres* in 
the church of the Carmelites, four large pictures represent- 
ing, one the manna; another Moses striking the rock ; the 
distribution of bread ; and the resurrection of Lazarus. In 
the refectory of the abbey of Bergues, St. Winox, Christ 
• fastened to the cross, Magdalen at the feet; on one side 
the brazen serpent worshipped by the Israelites ; on the 
other side the manna ; St. Benedict and Totila ; St. Winox 
distributing bread to the hungry ; the sacrifice of Abra- 
ham. In the quarter of the abbey, several portraits, and 
two whole lengths of a foot square : one of the abbot Van- 
der Haege, and the other of Ryckewaert. l 

EL1CH (Lewis Philip), in Latin Elichius, lived at the 
beginning of the seventeenth century, and probably was 
born at Marpurg. He there maintained a public dispute 
on diabolical magic, in which he implicitly believed, and 
would have printed a book on the same subject, if the 
magistrates had not taken care to prevent it ; who, on 
searching his house, found several books on which he had 
written immoral and impious notes. The books were. con- 
fiscated, and he was cited before the judges ; to whom he 
promised upon oath and in writing, that he would renounce 
such frivolous studies for the future ; yet he published his 
book at Francfort in 1607, under the title of " De dcemo- 
nomagia, de daemonis cacurgia, et lamiarum energia," 
with a very angry, preface against the academical senate of 
Marpurg. In this work .he arrogantly contends against 
t^ose who doubt of the truth of what is related of witches* 

1 Defcampa, vqL I1J.— Pilkingto^ 


ELI C H. * 109 

and of tbeif being really conveyed through the air to their 
meetings. He particularly attacks Tobias T&udler, pro- 
fessor of medicine at Wirtemberg, who had published an 
oration " De fascino et incantatione," in 1606. This 
Tandler reprinted in 1607, with some other tracts of the 
tame nature, and added a short reply to the calumnies of 
Elichius, " Repulsio calumniarum Elichii," from which 
Bayle took the materials of this article. Elichius, being 
Informed that he was to be called to account for his book* 
made his escape, and turned Roman catholic. He is said 
by Bayle to have published at Francfort, in 1609, another 
book, entitled " Innocentius ; sive de miseria bominis, libri 
tres, in ignominiam et confusionem superborum editi." 
But Moreri thinks he was only the editor, and that it is the 
same which is attributed to Innocent III. and of which 
there is a Paris edition of 1645, entitled " D. Innocentisft 
papte, de contemptu mundi, sive de miseria humanae con* 
ditionis, libri tres." 1 

ELICHMAN (John), a physician of Leyden, and a very 
able linguist, was a native of Silesia. We have no account 
•f his early years. At Leyden, in 1638, he married the 
daughter of a burgomaster, and died the following year, 
1639. He was remarkable for understanding sixteen lan- 
guages, and was so well skilled in the Persian, that, in the 
judgment of Sal,masius, Europe had never produced a man 
who had equal knowledge of that language. He was of 
opinion, that the German and the Persian languages were 
derived from the same original ; and he gave several rea- 
sons for it. He wrote a letter in Arabic, " De usu linguae 
ArabiccD in medicina," which was printed at Jena in 1636. 
His dissertation " De termino vitee secundum mentem ori- 
cntalium." appeared in 1639, and would have been more 
extensive and correct, if he had not died while he was 
writing it. His Latin translation of the Picture of Cebes 
was printed at Leyden in 1£40, together with the Arabic 
version, and the Greek, under the care of Salmasius, who- 
prefixed a very ample preface. * 

- ELIEZER, a Jewish rabbi in high repute among them, 
wrote a; book called the "Chapters of Etiezer," which u 
partly historical, and partly allegorical. The Jews, wha 
-consider it as one of their most ancient books, would refer 
the time of this author to the first century; but father 

l. 6en. Diet.— Jfforett * 'MererL — Gen. Diqt.-r-Saxii Onoraast. v 

IlO E L I E Z E H 


Morin haft very ably proved that he Jived in the setentb, 
and that he, was an impostor who assumed the ancient name 
of Eliezer to give currency to his work, which is a collec- 
tion of fables from the Talmud, &c. Vorstius translated 
this work irfto Latin, and published it in 1644; 4to, with 
notes, &c. ; and although he allows that it contain! 
much fabulous matter, yet thinks it may be useful in ex- 
plaining some parts of the history and traditions of the 
Jews. l 


ELIOTT (George Augustus), the gallant defender of 
Gibraltar, was the son of sir Gilbert Eliott of Stobbs in 
Roxburghshire. The ancient and honourable family of 
Eliott of Stobbs, as well as the collateral branch of Eliott 
of Minto in the same county, and of Eliott of port "Eliott, 
in Cornwall, are originally from Normandy. Their an* 
cestor M. Aliott came over with Wittiam the conqueror, 
and held a distinguished rank in his army. There is a 
, traditionary anecdote in the family relating to an honour- 
able distinction in their coat, which, as it correspond* 
with history, bears the probability of truth. When Wil* 
Ham set foot on the English land, he slipped and fell on 
the earth. On springing up again, he exclaimed, that it 
was a happy omen ; he had taken seisin of the country 
whereof he was to become lord. Upon this, Aliott drew 
his sword, and swore by the honour of a soldier, that he 
would maintain, at the hazard of bis blood, the right of 
his lord to the sovereignty of the land of which he had tbua 
taken possession. On the event of conquest, king William 
added to the arms of Aliott, which were a baton Or, on a 
field Azure, an arm and sword as a crest, with the motto*- 
*^Per saxa, per ignes, fortiter & recte." 

Sir Gilbert Eliott, of Stobbs, had nine sons, of whom 
our general was the youngest ; and two daughters. His 
eldest brother, sir John Eliott, left the title and estate to 
bis son sir Fvancis Eliott, nephew to the general. The 
general was born about the year 1718, and received the^ 
first rudiments of his education under a private tutor re- 
tained at the family seat. At an early age he was sent to 
the university of Leyden, where he made a rapid progress 
in classical learning, and spoke with elegance and fluency 
thft German and French languages. Being designed, for * 

t Marerk 

£ L I O T T., Hi 

Military life, he was sent from tbence to the celebrated 
military school at La Fere in Picardy. This, school was 
rendered the most famous in Europe by the great Vaubao 9 
under whom it was conducted. It was afterwards com- 
mitted to the management and care of the comte d'Houro- 
*ilie. Here it was that the foundation was laid of that 
knowledge of tactics in all its branches, and particularly 
in the arts of engineering and fortification, which after- 
wards so greatly distinguished this officer. He completed 
his military course on the continent by a tour for the pur- 
pose of seeing in practice what he had been studying in 
theory. Prussia was the model for discipline, and he con- 
tinued for some time as a volunteer in this service. Such 
were the steps taken by the young men of fashion in that 
day to accomplish themselves for the service of their coun- 
try. Many of his contemporaries were then similarly en* 
gaged, nobly abandoning the enjoyments of ease and 
luxury at home, for the opportunity of seeing actual ser- 

. Mr. Eliott returned in his. seventeenth year to his native 
country of Scotland, and. was in the same year, 1735, in- 
troduced by his father, sir Gilbert, to lieutenant-colonel 
Peers of the 23d regiment of foot, or royal Welsh fuzU 
leers, then lying in Edinburgh. Sir Gilbert presented 
him as a youth anxious to bear arms for his kin£ and conn- 
fry. He was accordingly entered as a volunteer in that 
regiment, and continued for a twelvemonth or more. At 
this time he gave a promise of his future military talents, 
and shewed that be was at least a soldier in heart. From 
the 23d he went into the engineer corps at Woolwich, and 
made great progress in that study, until his uncle, colonel 
Eliott, introduced him as adjutant of the 2d troop of horse - 
grenadiers. In this situation he conducted himself with, 
the most exemplary attention, and laid the foundation of 
that discipline which has rendered those two troops the 
finest corps of heavy cavalry in Europe. With these 
troops he went upon service to Germany, in the war before 
last, and was with them in a variety of actions, particularly 
at the battle of Dettingen, where be was wounded. In 
this regiment he first bought the rank of captain and ma- 
jor, and afterwards purchased the lieutenant-colonelcy from 
colonel Jjirewerton, who succeeded to his uncle. Op ar- 
riving at this rank be resigned his commission as an en- 
gineer, which he bad enjoyed along with his other" rank, 

Ill ILIOtf. 

and in which service he had been actively employed very 
much to thq advantage of his country. He bad received 
the instructions of the famous engineer Bellidor, and made « 
himself completely master of the science of gunnery. Had 
he not so disinterestedly resigned his rank in the engineer 
department, he would now by regular progression hav* 
been at the head of that corps. Soon after this he was 
appointed aid-de-camp to king George II. and was al- 
ready distinguished for bis military skill and discipline. In 
1759 he quitted the second troop of horse grenadier guard** 
being selected to raise, form, and discipline the first regi- 
ment of light horse, called after him Eliott's. As soon at 
they were raised and formed, he was appointed to the 
command of the cavalry, in the expedition on the coasts 
of France, with the rank of brigadier- general — -and after 
this be passed into Germany, where he was employed on 
the staff, and greatly distinguished himself in a variety of 
movements, while his regiment displayed a strictness of 
discipline, an activity, and enterprise, which gained them 
signal honour ; and indeed they have been the pattern 
regiment, both in regard to discipline and appointment, 
to the many light dragoon troops that have been since 
raised in our service. From Germany he was recalled for 
the purpose of being employed as second in command in 
the memorable expedition against the Havannah. The 
circumstances of that conquest are well known. It seems 
as if our brave veteran had always in his eye the gallant 
Lewis de Velasco, who maintained his station to the last 
extremity, and, when bis garrison were flying from his side, 
or falling at his feet, disdained to retire or call for quarter, 
but fell gloriously exercising his sword upon his conquerors. 
A: circumstance which occurred immediately after the 
reduction shews, that in the very heat and outrages of war 
the general was not unmindful of the rights of humanity. 
He was particularly eminent among the conquerors of the 
Havannab, for his disinterested procedure, and for check- 
ing the horrors of indiscriminate plunder. To him, there* 
fore* appeals were most frequently made. A Frenchman, 
who had suffered greatly by the depredations of the sol- 
diery, made application to him, and begged, in bad Eng- 
lish, that he would interfere to have his property restored. 
The petitioner's wife, who was present, a woman of great 
fpifit, was angry at the husband for the intercession, and 
s^id, "Comment pouvea. vous demander de grace a \m 

E L I O T TV 113 

bomme qui vient vous dlpouilVehr ? N'en esperez pas. 9 * 
Tbe bqsband persisting in his application, bis wife grew 
more loud in tbe censure, and said, '< Vous n'6tes pas* 
Francois !" Tbe general, wtjo was busy writing at tbe time, 
turned to the woman, and said smiling, " Madame, ne 
vous £chauffez pas $ ce que votre mari demande lui sera 
accord^!" — "Ob, faut-il pour surcroit de malheur," ex- 
claimed the woman, " que le barbare parle le Francois !** 
The general was so very much pleased with the woman's 
spirit, that he not only procured them their property again, 
but also took pains to accommodate them in every respect ; 
and such was through life the manly characteristic of the 
general : if be would not suffer his troops to extend, for 
tbe sake of plunder, the ravages of war, he neger impo- 
verished them by unjust exactions. He would never con- 
sent that his quarter-master's place should be sold, " not 
only," says he, " because I think it the reward of an 
honest veteran soldier ; but also because I could not so 
directly exercise my authority in his dismission should he 
behave ill." 

On tbe peace, his gallant regiment was reviewed by his 
majesty in Hyde-park — when they presented to the king 
the standards which they had taken from the enemy. The 
king, gratified with their high character, asked general 
Eliott what mark of his favour he could bestow on his re* 
giment equal to their merits. He answered, that his re- 
giment would be proud if his majesty should think that by 
their services they were entided to the distinction of royals* 
It was accordingly made a royal regiment, with this flat- 
tering title, The 15th, or king's royal regiment of lig^t 
dragoons. At tbe same time the king expressed a desire 
to confer a mark of his favour on the brave general ; but 
he declared, that tbe honour and satisfaction of his ma* 
jesty's approbation of his servipes were his best reward. 

During the peace be was not idle. His great talents in 
tbe various branches of the military art gave him ample 
employment; and in the year 1775 he was appointed to 
succeed general A'Court as commander in chief of the 
forces in Ireland. But he did not continue long pn this 
station ; finding that interferences were made by petty 
authority derogatory of his own, he resisted the practice 
with becoming spirit ; and not choosing to disturb the go* 
vernment of die sister kingdom, on a matter personal to 
liimselfj he solicited to be recalled, and accordingly was 
Vol. XIII. . I 

tl4 £ L I OTt 

so, when he was appointed to the command of Gibraltar* 
in a fortunate hoar for the safety of that important fortress. 
The system of his life, as well as his education, peculiarly 
qualified him for this trust. He was perhaps the most ab- 
stemious man of the age. His food was vegetables, and his 
Aritft water. He neither indulged himself in animal food 
nor wine. He never slept more than four hoars at a time; 
so that he was up later and earlier than most other men. 
He had so inured himself to habits of hardness, that the 
things which are difficult and painful to other men, were 
to him his daily practice, and rendered pleasant by dse. It 
could not be easy to starve such a man into a surrender, 
nor to surprise him. His wants were easily supplied, 
and his Watchfulness was beyond precedent. The ex- 
ample of the cotnmander hr chief in a besieged garrison 
has a most persuasive efficacy in forming the manners of 
the soldiery. Like him his brave followers came to regu- 
late their lives by the most strict rules of discipline before 
there arose a necessity for so doing ; and severe exercise, 
with short diet, became habitual to them by their own 
choice. The military system of discipline which he intro- 
duced, and the preparations which he made for bis de- 
fence, were contrived with so much judgment, and exe- 
cuted with so much address, that he was able, with a hand- 
ful of men, to preserve his post against an attack, the con- 
stancy of which, even without the vigour, was sufficient to 
exhaust any common set of men. Collected within him- 
self, he in no instance destroyed, by premature attacks, 
die labours which would cost the enemy time, patience, 
and expence to complete ; he deliberately observed their 
approaches, and seized on the proper moment, with the 
keenest perspection, in which to make his attack with 
success. He never spent his ammunition in useless parade, 
or in unimportant attacks. He never relaxed from his dig-, 
cipline by the appearance of security, nor hazarded the 
fives of his garrison by wild experiments. By a cool and 
temperate demeanour, he maintained his station for three 
years of constant investment, in which all the powers of 
Spain were employed. All the eyes of Europe were on 
bis garrison, and his conduct justly raised him to a most 
elevated place in the military annals of the present day. 

On his return to England, the gratitude of the British 
stenate was as forward as the public voice in giving him that 
, distinguished mark bis merit deserved, to which his majesty 

E Lrl O T T. us 

pas pleased to add that of knight of" die bath and an eleva- 
tion to the peerage, by the title of lord Heathfield, baroh 
.Gibraltar, on June 14, 1787, and permitting his lordship 
to take also the arms of the fortress he had so bravely dew 
fended, to perpetuate to futurity bis noble conduct. He 
married Anne, daughter of sir Francis Drake, of Devon- 
shire, who died in 1769, leaving his lordship a son, Francis 
Augustus Eliott, the present peer. He closed a life of 
military renown at the most critical season for his memory. 
He had acquired the brightest honours of a soldier, the love 
and reverence of bis country ; and he fell in an excursion . 
beyond his strength, from an anxiety to close his life on 
the rock where be had acquired his fame. He died in the 
seventy- third year of his age, July 6, 1790, at his chateau 
at Aix-la-Chapelle, of a second stroke of the palsy, after 
having enjoyed for some weeks before a tolerable share of 
good health, and an unusual flow of spirits. Two days before 
his death, he dined with a friend with whom he was soon 
after to have travelled to Leghorn in his way to Gibraltar. 
His remains were brought to Dover from Ostend, in the 
Race-horse packet, whence they were conveyed to Heath* 
field in Sussex, and there deposited, in a vault built for 
that purpose, over which a handsome monument is erected. 1 
ELIOT (John), known by the title of the Apostle of 
the North American Indians, from having been the first 
that preached : the gospel among them, was a native of 
England, and born about the year 1604. He was educated 
at Cambridge, and engaged himself as an assistant to a 
school, which, Ned says, he was not permitted to continue, 
on account of his puritanical notions ; but for this we have 
no other authority. It appears, however, that he was a 
nonconformist in matters of church-government, and that 
in 1631, in order to enjoy his own opinions uncontrolled, 
he embarked for America, and succeeded a Mr. Wilson as 
pastor of an independent church at Boston. He afterwards 
removed to Roxburg, in New England, where Mr. Eliot 
passed with some of his countrymen .and friends the greater 
part of his life in the active discharge of those duties which 
belong to the pastoral office. In 1646, he began his 
scheme of preaching to the native Indians, and for this 
purpose learned their language ; and, besides preaching 

. * Preceding edition of this Diet.— Driakwater's Hist, of the Siejp of GibKalty^. 
—Sir" E. Brydges's edition of Collins's Peerage. 



she retained eleven of her sister's counsellors, but in ofdet 
to balance their authority, she added eight who were 
Known to be attached to the protestant interest, namely the 
marquis of Northampton, the earl of Bedford, sir Thomas 
Parry, sir Edward Rogers, sir Ambrose Cave, sir Francis 
Knolles, sir Nicholas Bacon, whom she created lord keeper, 
and sir William Cecil, secretary of state. With thes* 
counsellors, particularly Cecil, she frequently deliberated 
concerning the means of restoring the protestant religion^ 
and by bis advice, her first measure was to recall all the 
g&iles who had fled from her sister's tyranny, and give 
liberty to all prisoners who were confined on account of 
Religion. She next published a proclamation by which she 
forbade all preaching without a special licence. She also 
suspended the laws so far as to have a great part of the 
Service read in English, and forbade the host to be any 
iriore elevated in her presence. A parliament soon after, 
in 1559, sanctioned these acts of the prerogative ; and in 
one session the form of religion was established as it has 
evfer since remained; and to shotfr what a deep root the 
principles of the reformation had taken, even in her bloody 
iister's reign, it is upon record, that out of §400 beneficed 
clergymen, which wis the number of those in the kingdom* 
only fourteen bishops, twelve archdeacons, fifteen heads 
of colleges, and about eighty of the parochial clergy, £ 
number not exceeding 121, chose to quit their preferment* 
father than give up their religion. 

The first important political measure was the negocia-* 
tiob for peace between France, Spain, and England, which 
terminated in the final abandoning of Calais, which on the 
queen's part was rather prudent than pleasing; but, although 
£eace seemed thus restored, a ground of quarrel soon ap* 
Reared of a most serious nature. As Elizabeth had beeii 
declared illegitimate by Henry VIIL, Francis, king of 
trance, who had espoused Mary queen of Scots, began td 
assume the title of king of England, in right of his wife j 
and the latter seemed so far from declining this empty 
appellation, that she assumed the arms of that kingdom. It 
Was natural, therefore, that Elizabeth should conclude that 
the king of France intended, on the finlt opportunity, to 
dispute her legitimacy, and her title to thte crown. She 
therefore conceived a violent jealousy against the queen of 
Scots, which ended at length in the death of the latter by 
Elizabeth's orders, a measure which has been generally 


accounted a great stain on her government, while Join* 
have excused it as a painful act of necessity. It is not* 
however, our object in this sketch to invade the province 
of history ; and as no event has been assigned a larger port 
tion of history, any abridgment of the actions of, and pro-* 
ceedings against the unfortunate queen of Scots, would be 
more apt to raise curiosity than to gratify it. Besides, the 
history of Mary will hereafter form a separate article. , 

Elizabeth bad scarcely been proclaimed queen,, when 
Philip, king of Spain, the widower of Mary, who still 
hoped, by means of Elizabeth, to obtain over Englaod 
that ^dominion of which he had failed in espousing Mary, 
immediately dispatched orders from the Low Countries tp 
the duke of Feria, his ambassador at London, to make her 
proposals of marriage, and he offered to procure from 
Rome a dispensation for that purpose. This, however,, 
she rejected, although in a polite manner. Philip appears 
to have secretly resented the rejection,- and some years 
after, the coolness between the two sovereigns became 
more visible, and some petty hostilities aided to bring 
their mutual dislike to a crisis. The Spaniards, on their 
part, had sent into Ireland a body of 700 of their nation, 
with some Italians, who built there a fort, but were soou 
after cut off to a man by the duke of Oanoad. On the 
other hand, the English, under the conduct of sir Francis 
Drake, attacked the Spaniards in their settlements in 
South America. Aqaidst such hostilities, the queen began 
to look out for an alliance that might support her against 
so dangerous an adversary. The duke of Anjou, a pow* 
erful prince, had long made pretensions to the queen ; 
and though he was younger by twenty- five years, he 
took the resolution to prefer his suit in person, and paid 
her a private visit at Greenwich. It appears that though 
bis figure was not very advantageous, his address was so 
pleasing, that the queen ordered her minister to fix the 
terms of the contract ; and a day was appointed for the 
solemnization of their nuptials ; but as the time approached, 
Elizabeth became more and more irresolute, and at length 
declared against changing her condition. Capricious as 
this conduct may have appeared, it is certain that. her 
principal courtiers were hostile to a match which threatened 
to endanger the kingdom and the established religion. 

Deprived thus of a foreign ally, Elizabeth looked for 
resources in the loyalty of her people ; but among them. 


she had enemies, and ^several conspiracies were formed 
against bet life, for which some persons, particularly Francis 
Throgmorton and William Parry, were condemned and exe«t 
cuted. Such attempts, incited by the popish party, served 
to increase the severity of the laws against persons of that 
communion. Popish priests were banished the kingdom;* 
those who harboured or relieved them were declared guilty 
of felony, and many were executed in consequence of 
these laws. Babington's conspiracy was perhaps yet more 
formidable, but being discovered, the conspirators were 
executed, and the fate of Mary, queen of Scots, was pre* 
capitated by the share, or supposed share, she had in it. 
The conduct of Elizabeth, after Mary's execution, forms 
a part of her character too important to be omitted. When 
informed of that event, she affected the utmost surprize 
and indignation. Her countenance changed, her ■• speech 
faultered, she stood some- time fixed, like a statue, in. 
unite astonishment, and afterwards burst into loud lamenta-r 
tions. She put herself in deep mourning, was seen per* 
petually bathed in tears, and surrounded only by her fe- 
male attendants.' If any of her ministers approached her, 
she chased. them from her, with the most violent expression* 
of rage and resentment. They had, alLof them,, she said, 
been guilty of an unpardonable crime, in putting to deathi 
her dear sister and kinswoman, contrary, to her fixed pur- 
pose, with which they .were sufficiently acquainted. In 
order to appease the king of Scots, to whom. she. soon 
wrote a letter of apology, she committed Davison to prison, 
and commanded him to be tried in the star-chamber for 
sending off the warrant for Mary's execution. (See Da- 
vison.) James, of Scotland, notwithstanding Elizabeth's 
apology, discovered the highest resentment at the death of 
his mother, and refused to. admit into bis presence sir Ro- 
bert Cary, whom the que^n had sent as her ambassador* ' 
He likewise recalled bis ambassadors from England, while 
the states of Scotland, beiqg assembled, professed that 
they were ready to spend their lives and fortunes in re- 
venge of his mother's death, and in defence of his title tot 
the crown of England : but Elizabeth, by frequent mes-» 
sengers and persuasions, aided,. perhaps, by James's peace- 
able disposition, prevailed on him to return to his amicable 
correspondence with the court of England. 
- %t was time, indeed, for Elizabeth now to turn her at* 
tjeytioiv towards Spain. ,. Hearing that Philip was secretly, 


preparing a great navy to attack her, she seat sir Francis 
Drake with a fleet to intercept his supplies, to pillage hi* 
coast, and destroy his shipping. Drake sailed with four 
capital ships of .the queen's, .and twenty-six great and 
small, with which, the London merchants, in hopes ofi 
sharing the plunder, had supplied hiou Having learned 
that a Spanish fleet, richly laden, was lying at Cadiz, he 
boldly made an attack, forced six gal lies to take shelter 
under .the forts, burned about an hundred . vessels laden 1 , 
with ammunition and naval stores ; and destroyed a grea^L 
ship, belonging to the marquis of Santa Croce. Thence 
he .set. sail for Cape Vincent, and took, by assault the castle 
situated on that promontory, with three other fortresses,- 
After insulting Lisbon, he took a rich carrack. and by this? 
short. expedition, the English seamen learned to despise 
the unwieldy ships of the enemy; the intended hostilities 
against England were retarded for a twelvemonth, and the 
queen had leisure to take more secure measures against: 
that formidable invasion. ./ 

Philip, however, proceeded witb unremitting diligence,: 
and every part of his dominions resounded with the noise of 
armaments. The marquis of Santa Croce, a sea-officer of: 
great reputation and experience, was destined to comv 
raand the fleet. In all the ports of Sicily, Naples, Spain, 
and Portugal, artizans were employed in building vessels* 
of uncommon size and force; naval stores were bought at 
a great expence ; armies were levied, and quartered along, 
the maritime parts of Spain; and every thing threatened 
the most formidable naval enterprise that Europe ever 
beheld. The duke of Parma was to conduct the land- 
forces* twenty-thousand of whom were on board the fleet, 1 
and thirty-four 'thousand more were Assembled in the Ne- 
therlands, ready to be transported < into England. The 
mosp renowned nobility, and princes of Italy and Spain 
were ambitiqus of sharing in the honour of this great en- 
terprize, and the Spaniards, ostentatious of their power, 
already denominated their navy the 1 In vincible Armada. 
.. When the news reached England that this mighty fleet 
was preparing to sail, terror and consternation universally 
seized the inhabitants. A fleet of not above thirty ships of 
war, and those very small in comparison, was all that they 
had to oppose it by sea. All the commercial towns of Eng- 
land, however, were required to furnish ships for rein- 
fprciog this small navy. The citizens of Londqo, instead or 


fifteen vessels, which tbey were commanded to equip, to* 
luntarily fitted out double the number. The gentry and 
nobility equipped "forty -three ships at their own charge* 
Lord Howard of Effingham was admiral, and under him 
served Drake, Hawkins, and Frobisher, all celebrated for 
courage and capacity. The principal fleet was stationed at 
Plymouth. A smaller squadron, consisting of forty vessels, 
English and Flemish, was commanded by lord Seymour, 
second son of the protector Somerset, and lay off Dun- 
kirk, in order to intercept the duke of Parma. The land 
forces of England, though more numerous than the enemy, 
were greatly inferior in discipline and experience. An 
army of 20,000 men was disposed in different bodies along- 
the south coast ; and a body of 22,000 foot and 1000 horse 
was stationed at Tilbury, in order to defend the capital. 
The principal army consisted of 34,000 foot and 2000 
horse, and was commanded by lord Hunsdon. These 
forces were reserved for guarding the queen's person ; and 
were appointed to march whithersoever the enemy should 
appear. The fate of England, if all the Spanish armies 
should *be able to land, seemed to depend on the issue of 
a single battle *, from which no favourable expectation 
could be formed, considering the force of 50,000 veteran 
Spaniards, commanded by experienced officers, under the 
duke of Parma, the greatest general of the age. 

In the midst of all this danger the queen appeared un- 
dismayed, issued her orders with tranquillity, animated 
her people to a steady resistance ; and the more to excite 
the martial spirit of the nation, appeared on horseback at 
Tilbury, exhorting the soldiers to their duty, and promising 
to share with them the same dangers and the same fate* 
On this occasion the' words of her address are said to have 
been these : " My loving people,' we have been persuaded 
by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how 
we commit ourselves to armed multitudes, for fear of 
treachery ; but assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust 
my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear ; I have 
always so behaved myself, that, under God, I have placed 
my chief strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and 
good- will of my subjects. And therefore I am come' 
amongst you at this time ; not as for my recreation or sport, 
but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to 
live or die amongst you all ; to lay down, for my God, and' 
for my kingdom, and for my people, my honour and roy 

ELIZABE T'tt 121 

blood, even in the dust. I know I have but the body of * 
weak and feeble woman, but I have the heart of a king; 
and of a king of England too ; and think foul scorn that 
•Parma, or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should faxm 
to invade the borders of my realms. To which, rather 
than any dishonour should grow by me, I myself will 
take up arms ; 1 myself will be your general, judge', and 
rfcwarder of every one of your virtues in the field. I know 
already, by your forwardness, that you have deserved re- 
wards and crowns ; and we do assure you, on the word of Ik- 
prince, they shall be duly paid you. In the mean time* 
my lieutenant-general shall be in my stead, than whom, 
never prince commanded a more noble and worthy subject ; 
not doubting by your obedience to my general, by /out 
concord in the camp, and your valour in the field, we Shalt 
shortly have a famous victory over these enemies of my 
God, of my kingdom, and of my people." On hearing 
this, an attachment to her person became a kind ef en- 
thusiasm among the soldiery ; and they asked one another* 
whether it were possible that Englishmen could abandon 
the glorious cause, could display less fortitude than ap^ 
peared in the female sex, or could ever by any dangers 
be induced to relinquish the defence of their heroie 
princess ? 

The Spanish Armada was ready in the beginning of 
May, 1588, but its sailing was retarded by the death of 
the marquis de Santa Croce, the admiral, arid that also of 
the vice-admiral, the duke of Paliano. The command of 
the expedition was, therefore, given to the duke of Me- 
dina Sidonia, a man entirely unexperienced in sea affairs. 
This promotion in some measure served to frustrate the 
design, which was also rendered less successful by some 
Other accidents. Upon leaving the port of Lisbon, the ar* 
mada - next day met with a violent tempest, which sunk 
some of the smallest of their shipping, and obliged the 
fleet to put back into the harbour. After some time spent 
in refitting; they put again to sea, where they took a fisher* 
fiaan, who informed them that the English fleet, hearing of 
the dispersion of the armada in a storm, had retired into 
Plymouth, and that most of the seamen were discharged. 
From this false intelligence, the Spanish admiral, instead 
of sailing directly to the coast of Flanders, to receive the 
*pop» **tiwed there, as he had been instructed, resorted 


to steer for Plymouth, and destroy the shipping in that 
port, a resolution which, proved the safety of England. 

The Lizard was the first land made by the armada, 
about sun-set ; and as the Spaniards took it for the Ram- 
head, near Plymouth, they bore out to sea with an inten- 
tion of returning next day, and attacking the English navy. 
They were descried by Fleming, a Scotch pirate, who 
was roving in these seas, and who immediately set sail to 
inform the English admiral of their approach, another event 
which contributed extremely to the safety of the fleet. 
Effingham, the English admiral, had just time to get out of 
port, when he saw the Spanish armada coming full sail 
towards him, disposed in the form of a crescent, and 
stretching the distance of seven miles from the extre- 
mity of one division to that of the other. The writer? of 
that age, says Hume, whose narrative we have partly fol- 
lowed, raise their style by a pompous description of this 
spectacle; the most magnificent that had ever appeared 
Bpon the ocean, infusing equal terror and admiration into 
the minds of all beholders. The lofty masts, the swelling 
sails, and the towering prows of the Spanish galleons, seem 
impossible to be justly painted, but by assuming the co- 
lours of poetry ; and an eloquent historian of Italy, Ben- 
tivoglio, in imitation of Camden, has asserted, that the 
armada, though the ships bore every sail, yet advanced 
with a slow motion, as if the ocean groaned with sup- 
porting, and the winds were tired with impelling, so enor- 
mous a weight. The truth, however, is, that the largest 
of the Spanish vessels would scarcely pass for third-rates 
in the present navy of England ; and they were so ill-framed, 
or so ill-governed, that tbey were quite unwieldy, and 
could not sail upon a wind, nor tack on occasion, nor be 
managed in stormy weather by the seamen. Neither the 
mechanics of shipbuilding, nor the experience of mari- 
ners, bad attained so great perfection as could serve for 
the security and government of such bulky vessels ; and 
the English, who had already had experience how unser- 
viceable they commonly were, beheld without dismay their 
tremendous appearance. 

Effingham gave orders not to come to close fight 
with the Spaniards, where the. size of the ships, he sus- 
pected, and the number of the soldiers, would be a disad- 
vantage to the English ; but to canqooade them at a dia« 



tartce, and to wait the opportunity which wind*, currents} 
or various accidents must afford him, of intercepting some 
scattered vessels of the enemy. Nor was it long before 
the event answered expectation. A great ship, of Biscay, 
on board of which was a considerable part of the Spanish 
money, took fire by accident ; and while all hands were 
employed in extinguishing the flames, she fell behind the 
rest of the armada j the great galleon of Andalusia was de- 
tained by the springing of her mast ; and both these vessels 
were taken, after some resistance, by sir Francis Drake* 
As the armada advanced up the channel, the English hung 
upon its rear, and still infested it with skirmishes. Each 
trial abated the confidence of the Spaniards, and added 
courage to the English ; and the latter soon found, that 
even in close fight the size of the Spanish ships was no ad- 
vantage to them. Their bulk exposed them the more to 
the fire of the enemy ; while their cannon, placed too high, 
shot over the heads of the English. The alarm having now 
reached the coast of England, the nobility and gentry 
hastened out with their vessels from every harbour, and 
reinforced the admiral. The earls of Oxford, Northum- 
berland, and Cumberland, sir Thomas Cecil, sir Robert 
Cecil, sir Walter Raleigh, sir Thomas Vavasor, sir Tho- 
mas Gerrard, sir Thomas Blount, with many others, dis~ 
tinguished themselves by this generous and disinterested 
service of their country. The English fleet, after the con- 
junction of those ships, amounted to an hundred and forty 
four sail. 

The armada had now reached Calais, and cast anchor 
before that place; in expectation that the duke of Parma, 
WI19 had .gotten intelligence of their approach, would pat 
to sea and join his forces to them. . The English admiral 
practised here a successful stratagem upon the Spaniard*, 
He took eight of his smaller ships, and filling them with 
all combustible materials, sent them one after another into 
the midst of the. enemy. The Spaniards fancied that they 
were fireships of the same contrivance with a famous vessel 
which had lately done so much execution in the Scbeld 
near Antwerp ; and they immediately cut their cables, and 
took to flight with the greatest disorder and precipitation. 
The English fell upon them next morning while in confu- 
sion ; and besides doing great damage to other ships, they 
took or destroyed about twelve of the enemy. By this 
time it was become apparent, that the intention for which 


these preparations were made by the Spaniards, war en* 
lirely frustrated. The vessels provided by the duke of 
Parma were made for transporting soldiers, not for fight- 
ing ; and that general, when urged to leave the harbour, 
positively refused to expose his flourishing army to such 
apparent hazard ; while the English were not only able to 
keep the sea, but seemed even to triumph over their 
enemy. The Spanish admiral found, in many rencounters, 
that while he lost so. considerable a part of his own navy, 
he had destroyed only one small vessel of the English ; and 
he foresaw that by continuing so unequal a combat, be 
must draw inevitable destruction on all the remainder. He 
prepared therefore to return homewards; but as the wind 
was contrary to his passage through the channel, be re* 
solved to sail northwards, and making the tour of the island, 
reach the Spanish harbours by the ocean. The English 
fleet followed him during some time ; and had not their 
ammunition fallen short, by the negligence of the offices 
in supplying them, they had obliged the whdle armada to 
surrender at discretion. The duke of Medina bad once 
taken that resolution ; but was diverted from it by the ad- 
vice of his confessor. This conclusion of the enterprize 
would have been more glorious to the English ; but the 
event proved almost equally fatal to the . Spaniards. A 
violent tempest overtook the armada after it passed the 
Orkneys; the ships had already lost their anchors, and 
were obliged to keep to sea ; the mariners, unaccustomed 
to such hardships, and not able to govern such unwieldy 
vessels, yielded to the fury of the storm, and allowed their 
scrips to drive either on the western isles of Scotland, or 
on the coast of Ireland, where they were miserably wrecked. 
Not a half of the navy returned to Spain ; and the seamen 
as well as soldiers who remained, were so Overcome with 
hardships and fatigue, and so dispirited by their discom- 
fiture, that they filled all Spain with accounts of the des- 
perate valour of the English, and of the tempestuous vio- 
lence of that ocean which surrounds them. — Such was the 
miserable and dishonourable conduct of an enterprize 
which bad been preparing for three years, which had ex- 
hausted the revenue and force of Spain, and which had 
long filled all Europe with anxiety or expectation, and 
which was intended to have destroyed the civil liberties, 
as well as the reformed religion, in England. 


Soon after this, which was one of the most important 
events in the history of Elizabeth, or any other sovereign 
of England. Elizabeth became the ally of Henry IV. in 
order to vindicate his title, and establish him firmly on the 
throne of France, and for some years the English auxilia- 
ries served in France, while several naval expeditions, un- 
dertaken by individuals, or by the queen, raised the re- 
putation of England to an extraordinary height. At this 
period Robert Devereux earl of Essex, the queen's favou- 
rite, highly distinguished himself; but the events of his 
unfortunate life have been already given. (See Devereux.) 

In 1601, Elizabeth held a conference with the marquis 
de Rosni, who is better known in history as the celebrated 
Sully, for the purpose of establishing, in concurrence with 
England, a new system of European power, with a view of 
controlling the vast influence of the house of Austria, and 
producing a lasting peace. The queen coincided with his 
projects, and the French minister departed in admiration 
of the solidity and enlargement of her political views. The 
queen, having suppressed an insurrection in Ireland, and 
obliged all the Spanish troops sent to its assistance to quit 
the island, she turned her thoughts towards relieving the 
burdens of her subjects ; she abolished a number of mono- 
polies, and became extremely popular. But the execution 
of her favourite, the earl of Essex, gave a fatal blow to her 
happiness. When she learnt from the countess of Not- 
tingham, that he had solicited her pardon, which had been 
concealed from her, she at first became furious with rage, 
and when the violence of anger subsided, she fell into 
the deepest and most incurable melancholy, rejecting all 
consolation, and refusing food and sustenance of every 
kind. She remained for days sullen and immoveable, 
w feeding," says the historian, " her thoughts on her af- 
flictions, and declaring life and existence an insufferable 
burden to her." Few words she uttered, and they were 
all expressive of some inward grief, which she cared not to 
reveal : but sighs and groans were the chief vent which she 
gave to her despondency, and which, though they disco- 
vered her sorrows, were never able to ease or assuage them. 
Ten days and nights she lay upon' the carpet, leaning on 
cushions which her maids brought her, and her physicians 
could not persuade her to allow herself to be put to bed, 
much less to make trial of any remedies which they pre- 

128 £ L I Z ABETH 

scribed to her. Her anxious mind at last bad so, tang 
preyed on ber frail body, that ber end was visibly ap- 
proaching; and tbe council being assembled, sent the 
keeper, admiral, and secretary, to know her willVith regard 
to her successor. She answered witb a faint voice, that} 
as she had held a regal sceptre* she desired no other tban 
a royal successor. Cecil requesting ber to explain herself 
more particularly* she subjoined, that she would have a 
king to succeed her, and who should that be, but b& 
nearest kinsman, the king of Scots ? Being then advised 
by tbe archbishop of Canterbury to fix her thoughts upon 
God, she replied, that she did so, nor did ber mind in the 
least wander from him. Her voice soon after left ber ; 
ber senses failed ; she fell into a lethargic slumber, which 
continued some hours, and she expired gently, without 
farther struggle or convulsion, in the 70th year of ber age* 
and forty-fifth of ber reign. 

So dark a cloud, says Hume, overcast the evening of 
that day which had shone out with a mighty lustre in the. 
eyes of all Europe. There are few great personages in 
history who have been more exposed to the calumnies of 
enemies, and the adulation of friends, than queen Eliza- 
beth, and yet there is scarcely any whose reputation has 
been more certainly determined by tbe unanimous consent 
of .posterity. The unusual length of her administration, 
apd the strong features of her character, were able to over- 
come all prejudices; and obliging ber detractors to abate 
much of their invectives, and her admirers somewhat' of 
their panegyrics, have at last, in spite of political faction?^ • 
and, what is more, of religious animosities, produced an 
uniform judgment with regard to her conduct.. Her vU ; 
gour, ber constancy, ber magnanimity, her penetration; 
vigilance, and address, are allowed to merit the highest 
praises, and appear not to have been surpassed by any . 
person that ever filled a throne : a conduct, less rigorous, ^ 
less imperious, more sincere, more indulgent to her people, i 
would have been requisite to have formed a perfect cha~ f 
racte*. . By the force of her mind, she controlled all -ber: 
more active and stronger qualities, and prevented jthem '•* 
from running into excess. Her heroism was exempt from . 
temerity, her frugality from avarice, her friendship from 
partiality, her active temper from turbulency and a vain . 
ambition ; she guarded not herself with equal oare or equal 
success from lesser infirmities ; the rivalship of beauty, the: 

t LI ZABE T Hi *l«£ 

desire of admiration, the jealousy of love, and the sallies 
of anger. 

? . Under the wise conduct of Elizabeth the Protestant re- 
ligion was firmly established, factions restrained, govern- 
ment strengthened, the power of Spain nobly opposed* 
and withstood, oppressed neighbours supported, a navy 
created, commerce rendered flourishing, and the national 
glory aggrandized. No sovereign was ever more jealous 
of power and prerogative ; yet she was truly ambitious of 
obtaining the general affections of her subjects. She made, 
during her long reign, frequent progresses, and paid many 
domestic visits, which were partly the result of policy, 
partly of economy. She wished to be. thought a friend to 
literature, but never displayed the liberality of a patroness* 
Her manners and language were but little suited to the 
delicacy of the female character. 

When we contemplate her as a. woman, adds Hume, 
we are apt to be struck with the highest admiration of her 
great qualities and extensive capacity, but we are apt also 
to require some more softness of disposition, some greater 
lenity of temper, some. of those amiable weaknesses by which 
her .sex is .distinguished. But the true method of estimat- 
ing her merit, is to lay aside all these, considerations, and 
consider her merely as a rational being, placed in autho- 
rity, and entrusted with the government of mankind. We 
may find it difficult to reconcile our fancy to her as a wife 
or mistress, but her qualities as a sovereign, though with 
some .considerable exceptions, are the object of undisputed 
applause and approbation. . 

Bolingbroke's character of queen Elizabeth coincides in 
part with the preceding* In his " Idea of a Patriot King," 
he says, " our Elizabeth was queen in a limited, monarchy, 
and reigned over a people at all times more easily led than 
driven ; and at that time. capable of being attached to their 
prince and their country by a more generous principle 
than any of those which prevail in our days, by* affection. 
There was a strong prerogative then in being, and the 
crown was in possession of greater legal power. Popularity 
was, however, then, as it is now, and as it must be always 
in mixed government, the sole true foundation of that 
sufficient authority and influence which other constitutions 
give the prince gratis, and independently of the people, 
but which a king of this nation must acquire. The wise 
queen saw it; and die saw too, how much popularity de- * 
• You XIII. K 

M I 

tm E L I.fc'A B E T fl. 

pendft oiTthote appearances that depend on the dec&futa, 
the decency, the grace, and the propriety of behaviour 
of Which we life speaking. A warm concern for ttofc in- 
terest and honour of the nation, a tenderness for the peo* 
pW, and a Confidence in their affections, were appearance* 
tb&t *aft through her whole public conduct, and gave Kfe 
And coioiir to it. She did great things : and she knewhoW 
to set them off according to their full value, by her man- 
ner of doing them. In Her private behaviour she shewed 
great affability, she descended even to familiarity ; but her 
femillarity was such, as could not be imputed to her weak* 
nfcss, And was therefore most justly ascribed to her good* 
ne*s. Though a woman, she hid all that was womanish 
about her : and, if a few equivocal marks of coquetry ap- 
peared on dome occasions, they passed Kke flashes of 
lightning, vanished as soon as they were discerned, and 
imprinted no blot on her character. She hid private 
friendships, she had favourites ; but she never suffered her 
friends to fotget she was their queen ; and when her fa* 
vourltes did, she made them feel that she was so." 

Although modern wits have amused themselves with the 
flatteries too frequently offered, to this great queen, on ac- 
count of her literary productions, and although some of 
these productions enumerated by lord Orford, and hid 
fcble continuator Mr. Park, are rather valuable As curiosi. 
ties, than as acquisitions to the literary history of he^age, 

!ret it cannot be refused that she was truly and substantially 
earned, having studied the best ancient as well as modem 
authors. The confinement and persecutions of her youth 
afforded scope for the acquisition of eminent intellectual 
attainments. That she was well skilled in the 'Greek, wat 
manifest from her writing a comment on Plato, and trans- 
lating into Latin a Dialogue of Xenophon, two orations of 
Isocrates, and a play of Euripides. Into English sbfe 
translated Plutarch u de Curfositate." Her version* from 
Latin authors were, Boetbras's Consolation of Philosophy, 
Sallust's Jugurthine War, and part of Horace's Art «tf 
Poetry. With her general learning, Elisabeth united an 
uncommon readiness in speaking the Latin language, 
^which she displayed in three orations ; one delivered ift 
the university of Cambridge, and two in Oxford. An ex* 
ffaordihary instance of her ability in., this way, Wis extaU 
Wted in a rapid piece of eloquence wrth which ihe inter^ 
fupted an insolent ambassador from Pol&no!, ** Having 

E L I Z A B E T It 181 

ended ber oration, she, lion-like, rising," says the histo* 
jian, " daunted the malapert orator no less with her stately 
port and majestic departure, than with the tartness of her 

Erincely chekes (reproofs) ; and, turning to the train of 
er attendants, paid, 'God's death! my Lords! I have 
been forced this day scoure up my old Latin, that hath 
long laid rusting'." By her contemporaries, Elizabeth has 
been highly extolled for her poetry, but to this modern taste 
will demurr, yet she had a capacity for Latin versification. 
Referring to lord Orford, &c. for a catalogue of her 
translations from the French, her prayers and meditations* 
her speeches in parliament, and her letters, which last are 
dispersed in vast numbers through a variety of collections, 
we may remark that education and principle led her to fa* 
vour the reformation ; nor could she hesitate on the sub- 
ject, but acted with caution, not to alarm the adherents 
to popery by too explicit a declaration of her sentiments, 
and yet taking care to afford early indications of her fa- 
vourable views to the cause, some of them displayed in a 
manner pleasing and ingenious. At the time of her coro- 
nation, when she was solemnly conducted through London, 
* boy,, who personated Truth, was let down from one of 
the triumphal arches, and presented her with a copy of the 
Bible, which she received in the most gracious manner, 
placing it in her bosom, and declaring, that amidst alt the 
QQstly testimonies which the citizens bad that day afforded 
.of their attachment, this present was by far most precious 
and acceptable. 1 

ELIZABETH of Austria, daughter of the emperor 
? Maximilian II. and wife of Charles IX. king of France, was 
.married at Mezieres, Nov. 26, 1570. She was one of the 
most beautiful persons of her time, and her virtue is said 
to have surpassed her beauty. The deplorable and fatal 
.qightof St. Bartholomew afflicted her .extremely; on hearing 
the cows of what had past, when she rose in the morning, 
.bathed in tears, she threw herself at the foot of her cru- 
cifix to ask mercy of God on the perpetrators of so atro> 
qipus a deed, which she detested with horror. Elisabeth 
.bad JMjjt very little share in what passed in France under 
the tMEtukuous reign of Charles IX. She attended to 

1 gift of England.— Ballard's M«ttoirs.--r&pnl Offord's Royal *»d NobJ* 
Autnon, by Park.-— Nichols's Progresses. — Wood's Annals.— Andrew's Conti- 
ftuatioii of Henry's History.— Stripe's Annals and Memorials, hi all these at* 
«a*P attlpd**** of tfcagersouaj sfcariecter of £iisabetiu 

* 2 


nothing but her domestic concerns, and conducted her fa* 
mily by the principles of prudence and honour for' which 
she was highly remarkable. Sensible to the irregularities 
of her husband, whom she loved and honoured extremely, 
she never let him perceive those jealous disquietudes whieb. 
often augment and seldom remedy the evtl. She was mild 
and patient ; Charles was lively and impetuous; the ardour 
of the king was moderated by the serenity, of Elizabeth:: 
accordingly she never lost his affection and his esteem, and 
be recommended her, when dying, to Henry IV. then 
king of Navarre, with the utmost tenderness : " Take car^ 
of my daughter and my wife," said he; " my brother, take 
care of them ; I recommend them to the generosity of 
your heart." During his illness, Elizabeth spent all the 
time when she was not attending upon him, in prayers for 
his recovery. When she went to see him, she did not 
place herself by his bedside, as she bad a right to do ; 
but kept at a little distance, and by her modest si* 
lence, by her tender and respectful looks, she seemed 
to cover him in her heart with the love she bore him ; 
." then," adds Brant6me, " she was seen to shed tears 
so tender and so secret, that a common spectator would 
have known nothing of it ; and wiping her watery eyes, 
excited the liveliest emotions of pity in all that were pre* 
sent: for/ 9 continues he, " I was a witness to it" She 
stifled her grief ; she dared not let her tenderness appear, 
fearing lest the king should perceive it. The prince could 
not avoid saying, when speaking of her, that he might 
boast of having an amiable wife, the most discreet and the 
most virtuous woman, not in all France, not in all Europe, 
but in the whole world. He was nevertheless as reserved 
with her as the queen, mother, who, apprehending that she 
might have some power over the king, doubtless employed 
her influence in preventing that prince from reposing in 
.her confidence, which would have disconcerted her schemes. 
While she was at the court of France, she honoured with 
. a tender affection Margaret queen of Navarre, her sister- 
in-law, though of a conduct so totally opposite to hers ; 
and, after her return to Germany, Elizabeth always kerit 
np an epistolary correspondence with her. She even sent 
her, as a pledge of her friendship, two books of her own 
composing: the one, on the word of God ; the other, on 
the most considerable events that had happened in France 
in her time. This virtuous princess, after the death of 


the king her husband, retired to Vienna, where she died 
in 1592, aged only thirty-eight, in a convent of her own 
foundation. l 

ELIZABETH (Pbtrovna), daughter of Peter the great, 
by the revolution of 1741, renewed in her person the line 
of that monarch on the throne of Russia. Elizabeth was 
bom in 1709, and when arrived at years of maturity, was 
extremely admired for her great personal attractions. Her 
beauty, as well as her exalted rank and large dowry, occa- 
sioned her several offers, none of which, however, took ef- 
fect ; and she died in celibacy. During the life of her father 
Peter I. a negotiation had commenced for her marriage with 
Lewis XV. but although not seriously adopted by the court 
of France, it was never relinquished until the daughter of 
Stanislaus, titular king of Poland, was publicly affianced 
to the young monarch. By the will of Catharine, Eliza- 
beth was betrothed to Charles Augustus, bishop of Lubec, 
duke of Sleswick and Holstein, and brother to the king 
of Sweden; but he died before the completion of the 
ceremony. In the reign of Peter II. she was demanded by 
Charles margrave of Anspach; in 1741, by the Persian 
tyrant Kouli Kan ; and at the time of the revolution, the re* 
gent Ann endeavoured to force her to espouse prince Louis 
of Brunswick, for whom she entertained a settled aversion. 
From the period of her accession she renounced all 
thoughts of the connubial state, and adopted her nephew 
Peter. Her dislike to marriage, however, certainly did 
not proceed from any rooted aversion to the other sex ; for 
she would freely and frequently own to her confidants, that 
she was never happy but when she was in love ; if we may 
dignify by that name a capricious passion ever changing 
its object. The same characteristic warmth of temper; 
hurried her no less to the extremes of devotion : she was 
scrupulously exact in her- annual confessions at Easter of 
the wanderings of her heart; in expressing the utmost 
contrition for her frequent transgressions ; and in puuc« 
tually adhering both in public and private to the minutest 
ceremonies and ordinances of the church. With respect 
to her disposition and turn of mind, she is generally sty tad 
the humane Elizabeth, as she made a vow upon her acces- 
sion to inflict no capital punishments during her reign ; 
Kq4 If reported to have shed tears upon the news of every 


victory gained by her troops, from the reflection that it 
could not have been obtained without great bloodshed. 
But although no criminal was formally executed in public, 
yet the state prisons were filled with wretched sufferers, 
many of whom, unheard of and unknown, perished hi damp 
and unwholesome dungeons : the state inquisition, or se- 
cret committee appointed to judge persons suspected of 
high treason, had constant occupation during her reign; 
many upon the slightest surmises were tortured in secret : 
many underwent the knoot, and expired under the inflic- 
tion. But the transaction which reflects the deepest dis- 
grace upon her reign, was the public punishment of two 
ladies of fashion ; the countesses Bestuchef and Lapookin : 
each received fifty strokes of the knoot in the open square 
of Petersburg : their tongues were cut out ; and they were 
banished into Siberia. One of these ladies, Madame La- 
pookiu, esteemed the handsomest woman in Russia, was 
accused of carrying on a secret correspondence with the 
French ambassador ; but her real crime was, her having 
commented too freely on the amours of the empress. Even 
the bare recital of such an affecting scene, as that of a wo- 
man of great beauty and high rank publicly exposed and 
scourged by the common executioner, must excite the. 
strongest emotions of horror ; and forbid us to venerate 
the memory of a princess, who, with such little regard to 
her own sex, could issue those barbarous commands. But 
let us at the same time lament the inconsistency of human 
nature ; and, in considering the character of Elizabeth, let 
us not deny that her heart, perhaps naturally benevolent, 
Was eventually corrupted by power, and steeled with sus- 
picion ; and that although mercy might predominate when- 
ever it did not interfere with her passions and prejudices ; 
yet she by no means deserves the appellation of humane, 
die most noble attribute of a sovereign when it interposes 
to temper and mitigate the severity of justice. Elizabeth 
died in 1761, in the twenty-first year of her reign, and in 
the fifty-third year of her age; she expired in December 
(the 25th), the same month in which she was born, and in 
which she acceded to the throne. It is asserted on unques- 
tionable authority, that it was impossible to obtain this 
tzarina's consent for the execution of a felon who had even 
committed the most horrid species of premeditated murder, 
and that the master of the police used secretly to order the 
executioner to knoot to death those delinquents who were 

E L I'Zi B E T H. U4 

found guilty of the most atrocious crimes. It is ft pity that 
she did not reserve her humanity) which in this instance 
was cruelty to her people, for more respectable objects. 
By way of conclusion to the present article, it will not be 
tin apt to add the following anecdote, especially as it must 
at the sarne time give pleasure to the reader. Although 
the sovereign of this empire is absolute in the most un- 
limited sense of the word; yet the prejudice of the Rus- 
sians in regard to the necessity of torture (and a wise legis- 
lator will always respect popular prejudices, be they ever 
so absurd and unreasonable) was so deeply rooted by im- 
memorial usage, that it required great circumspection in 
the present tzarina not to raise discontents by an immediate 
abolition of that inhuman practice. Accordingly, the cau- 
tious manner in which it was gradually suppressed, disco- 
vered no less judgment than benevolence. In 1762, Ca- 
therine II. soon after her accession, took away the power 
of inflicting torture from the vayvodes, or inferior justices, 
by whotn it had been shamefully abused. In 1767, a se- 
cret order was issued to the judges in the several provinces, 
that whenever they should think torture requisite to force 
a criminal to confession, they should draw up the general 
articles of the charge, and lay the case before the governor 
of the province for his consideration : and all the governors 
had received previous directions to determine the case ac- 
cording to the principles laid down in the third question of 
the tenth chapter of her majesty's instructions for a code of 
laws ; wherein torture is proved to l?e no less useless that* 
cruel. This, therefore, was a tacit abolition of torture, 
which .has been since formally and publicly annulled, The 
prohibition of this horrid species of judicature, throughout 
the vast dominions of the Russian empire, forms a memo- 
rable «ra in the annals of humanity. l 
, ELLER (Joijn Theodore, de Brockhusen), a phy- 
sician of Prussia, was born at Pletzaw, in the principality 
ef AnhaluBernburgb, in 1689. He received the first rudi- 
ments of education at home under a private tutor, an4 
was then sent to the university of Quedhnburgh, and 
thence to Jena, in 1709. His father intended him for the 
law ; but a passion which he expressed for mathematical 
and physical researches, soon altered that design, and de- 
termined young Eller to follow the profession of physic. 

* Coxe's Travels m Bus*ia.-~Uaiv. ftistory. 

136 E L L E R. 

As Jena afforded no opportunity fpr the study of anatomy, 
he was removed to Halle, and soon after to Ley den, to 
finish his education under the celebrated Albinus, and the 
learned Sengerd and Boerhaave. Thence he passed to 
Amsterdam for the advantage of hearing the lectures of 
Rau, and examining the preparations of Ruyscb, and he 
followed Rau to Leyden, on the latter being appointed to 
succeed professor Bidloe. Having quitted Leyden, he 
spent some time in the mines of Saxony and Hartz, where 
he completed his chemical studies, and made astonishing 
progress in metallurgy and other parts of natural know- 
ledge. On his visiting Paris, he attended several new 
courses in chemistry, under Lemery and Homberg, while 
he was pursuing his anatomical studies under the direction 
of Pecquet, du Verney, Winslow, and acquiring physio-* 
logical and practical knowledge by the assistance of Astruc, 
Helvetius, Jussieu, &c. Though every branch of medical 
knowledge, and particularly surgery, was successfully 
practised in Paris, the reputation of Cheselden's operation 
for the stone, and the ambition of being known to the im- 
mortal Newton, drew Mr. Eller to England, where he ar- 
rived in company with the earl of Peterborough, and 
remained five months. Leaving London in 1721, he 
returned to his own country, and was immediately ho- 
noured with the place of first physician to his sovereign 
the prince of Anbalt-Bernburgh ; but he afterwards re- 
moved to Magdeburgh, where he soon attracted the notice 
of the king* of Prussia, Frederick I. by whom he was made 
physician in ordinary, counsellor of the court, professor of 
the royal college of physic and surgery at Berlin, phy- 
sician to the army, and perpetual dean of the superior 
college of medicine ; employments equally honourable and 
lucrative. On the accession of Frederick IL be was far- 
ther promoted, and in. 17 55 was created a privy counsellor, 
the greatest honour to which he could possibly arrive, in 
his career as a scholar ; and the same year he was ap- 
pointed director of the academy called " Curieux de la 
nature," where, according to the custom of the society, he 
was introduced by the name of Euphorbio. These em- 
ployments and dignities he retained to his death in. 1759. 
After his death was published a work by him, entitled 
*} cognoscendis et curandis morbis, pre* 
•ertim acutis, 1762, 8vo, which was translated into French 
\y Le Roy, 1774, l2mo. This work is chiefly founded 6% 


E L L E R. 137 

the result* of his long, practice.' He wrote also various 
papers in the Transactions of the Academy of Berlin, for 
the years 1748, 1749, and 1752, which with other pieces 
by him were collected and published, in German, under 
the title of "Physical, chemical, and medical treatises," 
Berlin, 1764, 2 vols. 8vo.* 

ELLIGER (Ottomaii), an artist, was the son of an able 
physician, and was born at Gottemburg the 1 8th of Sep- 
tember 1633, according to Houbraken, and in 1632 by 
Weyermann's account. Ottomar's father centred all his 
views in making his son a scholar, and he therefore put 
him to study the languages under the most famous pro- 
fessors. It was soon perceived that he relaxed in his pro- 
gress in every other of his lessons, in proportion as his 
taste for painting was unfolded : and that in the very classes 
and school-hours he was secretly practising with the crayon- 
Chastisements were even found ineffectual to bis correc- 
tion, notwithstanding the obstinacy of his mother in not 
altering her purpose. A lucky accident delivered our 
young man from this disagreeable situation. . One day a . 
poor person desired to speak in private with the physician : 
the beggar displayed to him his extreme distress in several 
languages. The wife of the physician, who was present 
at this conversation, said to her husband, " Since I see 
that there are men of learning in indigence as well as 
painters, I think it altogether indifferent to which profes- 
sion my son applies ; let him satisfy his own inclination." 
Elliger was then placed at Antwerp in the school of Daniel 
Segers, the Jesuit ; where he learnt to paint flowers and 
fruit, and at length equalled his master. He was called to 
the court of Berlin, where he was highly honoured for his 
talents, and the elector Frederic William appointed him 
his principal painter. This prince found great amusement 
in conversing with Elliger, and his smart replies on all 
occasions pleased him so much, that he made frequent 
visits to his lodgings. This agreeable life, in which he 
found much profit as well as pleasure, continued till hit 
death, the year of which is not known. Elliger's works, 
which are as much sought after as those of his master, 
?re principally in Germany, where they are preserved 
with the utmost care. * 

1 L'Sloge Historique de M. Eller, Berlin, 1760.— Diet. Hist.— Ha Her Bihl, 
Hot. ' ' * Deschamps, vol. II.— Pilkington. 

13S ELL I G E R. 

ELL1GER (Ottomar), the son of the preceding, was 
born at Hamburgh, Feb. 16, 1666. He learned of bis 
father the first elements of painting ; from whom he went 
to Amsterdam, and studied under Michael Van Musscher. 
Struck with the beauty of the works of Lairease, he was 
fortunate enough to gain admission to his school in 1686. 
None could be more assiduous than this disciple in follow* 
ing the lessons of his master, whether in copying his work* 
and those of others, or in painting from nature. The 
genius of the young painter was encouraged by Lairesse : 
one year of bis instructions qualified .him for composing 
freely, without following any other model than nature, and 
without having in view the manner of any one ; his own is 
grand and noble, and his back grounds are of a fine archi- 
tecture : among them are to be found the most valuable 
remains of the Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Romans* 
If the scene of his composition was to be laid in one 
of these countries, he likewise introduced bas-reliefs re* 
kttwe to the time : he was a man of genius, and had a mind 
well stored with literature, and his pictures are therefore 
interesting both to painters and scholars. At Amsterdam* 
be painted several cielings and large subjects for orna- 
ment* to the public balls and grand apartments. The 
elector of Mentz took so much pleasure in contemplating 
his works, that be ordered of him two very large pictures, 
one representing the Death of Alexander, the other tb$ 
nuptials of Thetis and Peleus ; which are both highly 
celebrated. The elector was so satisfied with them, that 
be amply paid the artist, and made him a rich present 
besides : he also appointed him his principal painter, but 
which title Elliger refused, as well as the pension that was 
jtttaohed to it, preferring his liberty, as he said, to an 
honourable bondage; and soon after retired to his own 
country. Typography was embellished with the ingenious 
compositions of his hand ; but this took up so much of bis 
time, that he had but little for applying to grand works; 
he made pictures in small sizes, nut unworthy of being 
placed in the first cabinets. This good artist may justly 
boast also of the " Banquet of the Gods," a large picture, 
sufficient of itself to immortalize his name. But this man, 
so amiable, and so much esteemed, soon fell into intern* 
perance and contempt, and his works no longer resembled 
those of his former years, scarcely any of them rising 
above mediocrity. He died Nov. 24, 1732, in the sixty- 


sixth year of fats age. In the cabinet of M. Half-Wasse* 
naer, at the Hague, was lately his very fine picture repre- 
senting Alexander dying. ! 

ELLIS (Clement), an English divine, whose writings, 
in the opinion of a recent biographer, deserve to be more 
Extensively known than, it is apprehended, they now are, 
er ever have been, was the son of Mr. Ellis, steward to 
Dr. Barnaby Potter, bishop of Carlisle, and , was born in 
1630, near Penrith in Cumberland. He became a servitor 
of Queen's college, Oxford, under the tuition of Mr. 
Thomas Tuliy, in 1649, and was afterwards a tabarder; 
and when master of arts, became a fellow of the college. 
He received several donations towards bis subsistence at 
Oxford from unknown hands, with anonymous letters in- 
forming him that those sums were in consideration of his 
father's sufferings, and to encourage his progress in his 
studies ; and he received several such presents and letters, 
both before and after his being in orders, without his know- 
ing whence they came; but after the restoration, he had 
some reason to believe be owed them to Dr. Jeremy Tay* 
lor, and Dr. Hammond, being part of those collections 
of money put into their hands by charitable and well-* 
disposed persons for the support and encouragement of 
such as had been plundered or oppressed by the repub- 
lican government. Mr. Ellis, when he had taken orders, 
was patronized by William, marquis, and afterwards duke 
6f Newcastle, who presented him to the rectory of Kirkby 
in Nottinghamshire, of which he was a most laborious, 
useful, and exemplary minister. In 1693 tie was appointed, 
by archbishop Sharp, a prebendary in the collegiate church 
ef Southwell, merely in reward of his merits and useful- 
ness. He died in 1700, aged about seventy. His writings 
in practical theology are distinguished for eminent and fer- 
vent piety, soundness of doctrine, and a vigorous, unaf* 
fecfted, and manly style. The principal are, I. u The 
Gentile ' Sinner, or England's brave gentleman charac- 
terised, iti a letter to a friend," 1660, 12mo, a work which 
was written in a fortnight, in the early part of the author's 
life, aifd has considerable merit both in design and exe- 
cution. It has gone through many editions. 2. A " Ca- 
techism," 1674, reprinted in 1738, 8vo, by the Rev. John 
Veneer, rector of St. Andrews, Chichester, with a life of 

1 DescharapSj vol. IV.— Pilkington. 

140 ELLIS. 

the author, and other additions, by Veneer. 3. " Thfc 
vanity of Scoffing, in a letter to a witty gentleman," 1674, . 
4to. 4. " Christianity in short, or the short way to be a 
good Christian," 1682, 12 mo, oftener reprinted than any 
of his works. He published some other pious, and some 
controversial tracts of less importance, enumerated by 
M^ood, several single sermons, and tvyo pieces of poetry, 
one on the death of George Pitt, esq. Oxford, 1658, 4to, 
the other on the Restoration, London, 1660, fol. ' 

ELLIS (John), F. R. S, an eminent naturalist, is thought 
to have been born in London, abqut 1710, but of his early 
life and occupations no certain information has been ob- 
tained, except that he was engaged in mercantile pursuits. 
He imbibed a taste for natural history, probably when 
young, made collections of natural curiosities, and by at- 
tentive observation and depth of thought soon rose supe. 
rior to the merit of a mere collector. It is to him we owe 
the discovery of the animal nature of corals and corallines., 
which is justly said to form an epocha in natural science. 
The first collection he made of these. new-discovered ani-» 
mals, after being presented to, and examined by the royal 
society, was deposited in the British museum, where it 
still remains. His mind was originally turned to the sub- 
ject by a collection of corallines sent him from Anglesey, 
which he arranged upon paper so as to form a kind of 
natural landscape. But although the opinion he formed of 
their being animals was confirmed by some members of the 
royal society, as soon as he had explained his reasons, he 
determined to make farther observations, and enlarge his 
knowledge of corallines on the spot. For this purpose he 
went, in August 1759, to the isle of Sheppy, accompanied 
by Mr. Brooking, a painter, and the observations which he 
made still further confirmed him in his opinions. In 1754, 
he prevailed on Ehret, the celebrated botanist and artist, 
to accompany him to firighthelmstpne, where they made 
drawings, and formed a collection of zoaphites. In 1755, 
he published the result of all his investigations, under the 
title of an "Essay towards a Natural History of Corallines, 1 ' 
4 to, one of the most accurate books ever published, whe- 
ther we consider the plates, the descriptions, or the obser-. 
rations which demonstrate the animal nature of the 

' i Atb. Ox. vol. II.— Veneer's Life.— Wordsworth's Biography, toL V.— » 
itouger's Letters, p, 133. 


ELLIS. 141 

zoophites. - His opinions on this subject were opposed by 
Job Baster, a Dutch physician and naturalist, who pub- 
lished various dissertations in the Philosophical Transact 
tions in order to prove that corallines were of a vegetable 
nature. But his arguments were victoriously refuted by. 
Ellis, whose opinions on .the subject were almost imme- 
diately assented to by naturalists in general, and have 
been further confirmed by every subsequent examination, 
of the subject. 

In botany, Ellis distinguished himself by an account o£ 
two new genera, the Halesia and Gardenia, both American 
shrubs, the former named after his learned friend the Rev. 
Dr. Hales, the latter named after Dr. Garden, long resi«< 
dent in Carolina. He published also a pamphlet on the.' 
Venus's Fly-trap j and was the author of a fourth new ge-t 
nus, Gordonia, named after Mr. Gordon of Mile-end, which* 
was described in the 60th vol. of the Philosophical Transac- 
tions, along with a new species of lllicium, or Starry Anise, 
from West Florida. In the 57th vol. of the Trans. Mr. 
Ellis describes some Confervas, hitherto unknown. One 
of his most favourite botanical objects was to ascertain the 
true Varnish-tree of Japan, which he contends, in oppo- 
sition to Miller (See Philos. Trans, vols. XLIX. and L.), to be 
distinct from the American Toxicodendron, and the point 
neems not yet well determined. Our author published 
separately an historical account of Coffee, with remarks or 
its culture and use, and a plate of the shrub ; also a de- 
scription of the Mangostan and Bread-fruit, with four plates. 
These are quarto pamphlets, and the latter contains many 
useful " directions to voyagers, for bringing over these 
and other vegetable productions." This last subject fre- 
quently engaged Mr. Ellis's attention, and makes a sepa- 
rate quarto pamphlet, published in 1770. In the 51st 
and 58th volumes of the Phil. Trans, are papers of his on 
the preservation of seeds. Nor were these all the scientific 
pursuits of his indefatigable mind. He wrote also in the 
Trans, various other papers on Corals, Sea Pens, and other: 
animals of the same tribe, as well as on the Cochineal 
insect; on the Coluber cerastes, or horned viper of Egypt ; 
on that singular animal, found by his friend Garden in 
Carolina, the Siren lacertina of Linnaeus, now esteemed a 
Muraena; on the structure of the windpipes in several 
birds and in the land tortoise ; and even on the method 
of making sal ammoniac in Egypt. It appears, moreover. 

143 ELLIS: 

by many specimens of his collecting, that Re was an as* 
siduou* observer of the internal structure or anatomy of 
vegetables* In Nov. 176S, sir Godfrey Copley's medal 
was delivered to him by sir John Pringle, then president $ 
and it being usual to single out some one or two papers in 
particular for such a compliment, one "on the animal na- 
ture of the genus of Zoophytes called Coralline," >fc a 
tetter to Linnati&s, and another * on the Actinia Sociata," 
in a letter to the earl of Hillsborough, both printed in the* 
57th toI. of the Transactions, were selected for this purpose. 

Mr. Ellis appears to have been at one time, as we havd 
already noticed, in trade, and not very successful. In- 
1-764, however, the lord chancellor Northirrgton procured 
him the office of agent for West Florida, and afterwards 
that of St. Dominica, places which he says made him 
*£ happy and easy," and did not require him to leave Lon- 
don. In 1754 he was elected a fellow of the royal society. 
After a series of declining health, he died Oct. 15, 1776, 
leaving a daughter, Martha, who was afterwards married to 
Alexander Watt, esq. of Nortbaw in Herts, and died iti 
fhild-bed in 1795. In 1786, a posthumous work of Mr: 
Ellis was published by this daughter at the request of Sir 
Joseph Banks, entitled " Natural History of many curious 
and uncommon Zoophites," forming the best systematic 
account of the zoophites which has yet appeared. Mr. 
Ellis appears from his correspondence, in the possession of 
Br. Smith, to have been a man of great modesty, pious 
affections, and grateful sensibility. * 

ELLIS (John), a miscellaneous writer of some reputa- 
tion in the last age, and well known to the scholars of that 
period, was the son of Mr. James Ellis, and was born in 
the parish of St. Clement Danes, March 22, 1698. His 
father was a man of an eccentric character, roving, and 
unsettled. At one time he was clerk to his uncle and 
guardian, serjeant Denn, recorder of Canterbury, and kept 
his chambers in GrayVinn, on a starving allowance, as 
Mr. Ellis used to declare, for board-wages. Leaving his 
penurious relation, who spent what his father left him in a 
litigious process, he obtained a place in the post-office at 
Deal in Kent, from whence he was advanced to be searched 
of the customs in the Downs, with a boat ; but being Mn- f 
posed upon, as he thought, in some way by his patron, he 

*■■ * • * 

4 Jlfts'f Cyclopwdia.— - Thomson's Hist, of the Aoyal Society* 


quitted his employment and came to London. He was re- 
presented by his son as particularly skilful in the use of 
the sword, to which qualification he was indebted, through 
the means of a nobleman, for one of his places. He was 
also much famed for his agility, and could at one timg 
jump the wall of Greenwich park, with the assistance of a 
staff. At the trial of Dr. Sacheverel he was emptoyed to 
take down the evidence for die doctor's use. His wife;, 
Susannah Philpot, our author's mother, was so strict a 
dissenter, that when Dr. Sacheverel presented her husband 
with his print, framed and glazed, she dashed it on* the 
ground, and broke it to pieces, calling him at the same 
time a priest of Baal ; and at a late period of our author's 
- Kfe, it was remembered by him, that she caused him to 
undergo the discipline of the- school, for only presuming 
to look at a top on a Sunday which had been given to him 
the : day preceding. The qualifications which Mr. Ellis's* 
father possessed, it will be perceived, were not those which 
lead to riches ; and indeed so narrow were his circum- 
stances, that he was unable to give his son the advantages; 
of a liberal education. He was first sent to a wretched 
day-school in Dogwell-court, White Pfyars, with a bro*» 
ther and two sisters ; and afterwards was removed to ano- 
ther, not much superior, in Wine-office-court, Fleet-street, 
Where he learned the rudiments of grammar, more by his- 
own application than by any assistance of his master. He 
used, however, to acknowledge the courtesy of the usher,, 
who behaved well to him. While at this school he trans- 
lated "Marston Moore; sive, de obsidione prdelioque Ebo- 
racensi carmen. Lib. 6. 1650, 4to. Written by Payne" 
Fisher ;" which, as it has not been found among his pa- 
pers, we suppose was afterwards destroyed. At what pe- 
riod, or in what capacity he was originally placed with 
Mr. John Taverner, an eminent scrivener* in Threadneedie- 
street, we have not learned ; but in whatever mariner the 
connexion began, he in due time became clerk or appren- 
tice to him; and during his residence had an opportunity 
of improving himself in the Latin tongue, which he availed 
himself of with the utmost diligence. The sou of his mas- 

* This Mr. Tavern er was cousin. to- a considerable figure amengH the re- 

^/[t. William Tav,eroer, proctor in Doe- Downed professors of tbe art.'" The 

tors' Commons, who died Oct. 20, 1772. earl of Har court and Mr. Pr. Fauquier 

LoYA Orfcr4, ra hi* Anecdotes of Paint- have each two picttrret by trim, thai 

itg, says* 4 J he pa'mted landscapes for may. be mistaken fcitv ,a^d #r« not :oa* 

* hit amusement, but would have made worthy of, Gaspar Poussin, 

144 £ L L I S. 

• — 

ter, then at Merchant Taylors 9 school, was assisted by his 
father in his daily school-exercises ; which being conducted 
in the presence of the clerk, it was soon found that the 
advantage derived from the instructions, though missed by 
the person for whom it was intended, was not wholly lost. 
Mr. Ellis eagerly attended, and young Taverner being of 
an indolent disposition, frequently asked his assistance pri- 
vately ; which at length being discovered by the elder Ta- 
verner, was probably the means of his first introduction 
to the world, though it cannot be said much to his advan- 
tage) as old Taverner had the address to retain him in the 
capacity of his clerk during his life-time, and at his death 
incumbered him with his son as a partner, by whose im- 
prudence Mr. Ellis was a considerable sufferer both in his 
peace of mind and his purse, and became involved in diffi- 
culties which hung over him a considerable number of 
years. . His literary acquisitions soon, as it might be ex- 
pected, introduced him to the acquaintance of those who 
had similar pursuits* In 1721, the rev. Mr. Fay ting, after- 
wards 'of Merchant Taylors* schoql, rector of St. Martin 
Outwich, and prebendary of Lincoln, being then about to 
go to Cambridge, solicited and obtained his correspond- 
ence, part of which was carried on in verse. With this - 
gentleman, who died 22d Feb. 1789, in his eighty-sixth 
year, Mr. Ellis lived on terms of the most unreserved 
friendship, and on his death received a legacy of 100/. be- 
queathed to him by his will. At a period rather later, he 
became also known to the late Dr. King of Oxford. Young 
Taverner, who probably was not at first intended for a 
scrivener, was elected from Merchant Taylors 9 school to 
St. John's college, Oxford, and by his means Mr. Ellis 
was made acquainted with the tory orator. By Dr. King - 
he was introduced to his pupil lord Orrery ; and Mr. Ellis 
atone time spent fourteen days in their company at college, 
so much to the satisfaction of all parties, that neither the 
nobleman nor his tutor ever afterwards came to Londoa ' 
without visiting, and inviting Mr. Ellis to visit them. In 
the years 1742 and 1743, Dr. King published " Templum* 
Liber tat is," in two books, which Mr. Ellis translated into, 
verse with the entire approbation of the original author. 
This translation still remains in MS. Of his poetical 
friends, however, the late Moses Mendez, esq. appears to 1 
have been the most intimate with him. Several marks of 
that gentleman's friendship are to be found scattered 

ELLIS. 14* 

through Us printed works ; and about 1749 he addressed a 
beautiful epistle to him from Ham, never yet published* 
Io 1744 Mr. Mendez went to Ireland, and on July 5 sent 
a poetical account of his journey to Mr. Ellis. This epistle 
was a&er wards printed hi 1 7*6 1 9 in a collection of poems, 
and in the same miscellany Mr. El lid's answer appeared* 
Soon after Mr. Mendez addfles&ed a poetical epistle to his 
friend, Mr. S. Tucker, at Suhrich, printed in the same 

Mr. Ellis* though there is good reason to believe that he 
never discontinued writing vemes for store than seventy 
years, was not one of those poets who are led by their at* 
tention to the muses to neglect their private affairs. As a 
scrinener he was. employed by a number of families, to 
wjhom be affonded great satisfaction in conducting his bust* 
ness ; and his friends ated acquaintance were such as did 
credit to him as .a citizen, and honour as a man. Dr. John* 
aoo once said to Mr. Bosweti, " It as wonderful, sir, what 
is to be found in Loudon. The most literary conversation 
that J ever enjoyed was at the table of Jack Elha, a money* 
aorivener behind ithe Royal Exchange, with whom I at one 
period 'used to dine generally once a week." But (though 
Mr. Ellis for so long a course of years never discontinued 
miting, be was by no means «ager .after the £une derived 
from publishing. The greater part of his performances '< 
atill remain in manuscript. He was, however, not insen- 
sible to the praises of his friends, and, being blessed with 
m very retentive memory, would with little solicitation r^ 
peat poeois of considerable length with great accu,cacy. 
We his been beard to recite with much energy and vivacity, 
poems of not less than a hundred lines, after the age of 
jeightyneight years. The work which he appears to have, 
taken the most pains with, is a translation of Ovid's Epistles, 
jwhich he left ready for the press. Dr. Johnson frequently 
recommended the publication of this performance; and 
"Er. King, who read it with some attention, commended Jt 
atuvery warm terms, and declared, as the translator used 
to mention with a landaible degree of exultation, " that hte 
.differed from otber .translators. 90 much as to warrant him Jo 
nay, what be read was not Ellis, bat Ovid himself." . 

Jn .1720 Mr. Ellis wrote a poem entitled " The South 
ifiea Otaeain,'' in Hudibrasfetc verse. In 1739 he translated 
a whimsical performance from the Latin, which he received. 

Vol. XIII. L 


E L L !• Si 

from Cambridge, entitled " The Surprise, or the gentle?- 
man turned apothecary." This was a tale written origi- 
nally in French prose, and afterwards translated into Latin. 
Mr., Ellis's versification of it was printed in 12mo, and is- 
to be found in some of the libraries of the curious. Of 
the translation of Dr. King's " Templum Libertarian* -in 
1742, we have already spoken. In 1758 he was prevailed 
upon to permit the publication of his travesty of Ma- 

In 1750, Mr. Ellis was elected into the common-council 
for the ward of Broad-street, and continued from that time 
to be regularly re-cbosen on St. Thomas's day, to that imme- 
diately preceding his death. For many years he had been 
appointed deputy of the ward, and it was at his own re- 
quest that he was not re-chosen just before bis death. Re 
bad also the honour of being chosen four times master of 
the scriveners' company; which body had so great a respect 
for him, that they caused his picture to be painted, 1 from 
which a print was made at their expence by Mr. Pether in 
the year 1781. 

Mr. Ellis always enjoyed a good state of health, to which 
his temperance, exercise, and cheerfulness, without doubt 
contributed. He had, however, a defect in bis eye-sight, 
which was attended with so remarkable a circumstance,' that 
we deem it not improper to relate it below in his own words, 
from a letter sent to his friend Dr. Johnson, whose sight 

* Which appeared in that year with 
the following title : 

" The canto added by Maphaeus 
To Virgil's twelve books of £neas, 
From the original bombastic, 
4 Done into English Hudibrastic, 
With notes beneath, and Latin text, 
In every other page annexed." 

Maphatus was born at Lodi, in the 
Milanese, in 1407, and was secretary 

:«f the briefs to pope Martin V. and 
afterwards datafy. He was likewise 
endowed with a canonry of St. Peter's, 
with which he was so well contented, 
that he refused a rich bishopric. 

-Popes Eugenius IV. and Nicholas V. 
out of regard for his learning, and af- 

, lection to his person, continued him in 
his office of data ry. He died at Rome 
in 1459. In the collection called 

. " Mendez's Poems/ 9 is a translation 
vy that author. 

In the same year be contributed 
three small pieces to Mr. Dodsley's 
Collection of Poems, which were printed 
with his name in the sixth volume of 
that work; and one of them, " The 
Cheat's Apology," was afterwards set 
to music, we believe by Mr. Hoofc, 
and sung with great applause at Vauxv- 
hall, by Mr. Vernon. " " Tartana; or 
the Plaiddie," built upon a Jacobite 
poem. When we have added to these 
a number of verses composed at va- 
rious-times for Messrs. BoYdell, Bowles, 
and other Venders' of prints, we have 
enumerated the whole of his printed 
works. His manuscripts, which be 
bequeathed to one of his executors, 
are numerous : besides the translation, 
of Ovid's Epistles, there are some parts 
of the Metamorphoses, a versification 
of A£sop, and Cato, and many small 
original compositions. 



/being also defective, be was very curious to have a parti- 
cular account of it*. 

After the age of eighty, he frequently walked thirty or 
.more miles in a day ; but at the age of eighty- five he met 
. with an accident which threatened at first very serious c<?n- 
sequences. A friend going to see him home in an evening, 
. took hold of his arm to lead him, in doing which he was 
, unfortunately pushed so as to strike his leg against the cor- 
ner of the Bank-buildings. By this unlucky accident the 
skin from the knee to the ankle was entirely stripped off, 
.and the surgeons apprehended the wound would prove 
mortal. Contrary, however, to .all expectation, it granu- 
lated, and healed as in a young man, and no further con-* 
sequence ensued than that his walks of thirty miles a day 
were reduced to about twenty. 

The last year of his life was that which his friends look 
back to with concern. Having entrusted a sum of money 
to, an artful person who was declared a bankrupt, he be- 
came alarmed, and apprehensive that he should be left to 
s want in his old age. With a degree of delicacy which be- 

* " To my muck esteemed Friend, 
* Dr. SL Johnson. 
Worthy Sir, 
In my late conversation with you at 
your boose, on my congratulating you ' 
on your recovery of health, as J chanced 
to mention a remarkable alteration I 
' had found of my eye-sight for the bet- 
ter, by a removal of it from my right 
e*ye to my left, (for they were always 
unequal in faculty from my cradle, 
.when injured by the small-pox,) you 
was pleased to express a curiosity to 
know when and bow I received this ex- 
' inordinary event ; then, thanks in the 
. first place to the Almighty goodness I 1 
shall give you the best account of h 1 
can, viz. 

In or about. she beginning of Sep^ 
tember, 1778, Mr. St well, bookseller 
in Corn hill, and I, at his request, 
went by water in a boy to Margate, in 
Kent, where we took . lodging for the 
few days we intended to stay; and, 
'after a night's rest, in the morning 
'took a walk over the marsh or common 
to Ramsgate, where, after viewing the 
pier, lighthouse, and nunnery, as they 
. call it, we went to dinner in the town 
of Ramsgate, where we staid till night, 
when by moonlight we set out on re- 
turn to Margate, Mr/SewsH being my 

guide ; but he stopping a few minutes 
to speak with a farmer whom we met, 
I went ou alone ; when to my surpgse, 
though I plainly saw the foot-path, I 
could not well keep it, but was apt to 
deviate to the right hand ; whereupon 
turning and viewing the moon behind 
me, I discerned it sharply with my left 
eye, and only a dim glimpse of its light 
with my right, which I had ever before 
With the help of spectacles used to draw 
pictures in miniature, writing, &c* 
My companion overtaking me, I was 
constrained to make use of his arm to 
keep me in the path to our lodgings at 
Margate, where that night and the 
next day the spires and other objects 
appeared out of place, till alter much 
care, and steadily looking at objects 
before my departure homeward, [ 
looked on my face in a glass, and saw 
my left eye fixed straight, and my 
right eye dimly and almost dark waving 
off. And thus with my left eye re- 
stored, and as it were a new eye, 
I write this, and do all my writing bu- 
siness, 'and subscribe myself in the 
86th year of my age, the 10th day of 
May, 1784, dear Sir, 

your most devoted friend, 
and humble servaut, 

. ' * JOHM IlUS.'? 

L 2 

Ut E LL I & 

longs brily tb those who think &bove the vulval-, Vt is fedtetl 

that he suffered these doubts to prey tipon his mind, with*- 
dut disclosing the state of it to *ny of tViose whose assist- 
ance he had evety teasoVto rely on. At length atn acci- 
dent brought his Situation to the ndtice of One Of his friends, 
ahd measures Were taken to m&ke hiih easy in his cifctim* 
stances for the remainder of his life, by means which 
Would certiinly hate been effectual. Ftom this time Hi 
resigned the coftdhct of himself to his ftiertds, and resumed 
ills accustomed cheerfulness. He received visits, and con- 
versed with the same gaiety he had been used to in his 
beSt days ; and from the vigonir of his constitution, aftordefd 
hopes that he Would pass a feW years frith comifdrt. Thesp 
expectations Wete not realised : nature at length gave Wajr; 
,On the 17th of December, 1791, he had fe fit, from tthich 

I IT ' » 

he recovered, and was well ehough 6n the £oth to remove 
to lodgings which had been taken for him. for a few days 
he seemed to be Weil, and at ease both in mind and frocty; 
hut shortly after appeared to h&ve cati'gtat a'cotd, and )grk~ 
dually gtew worse". On the Soth he Was cold, his li£s 
black, and his countenance much altered., To a friend 
who called on him he Said m? had lost his feeling; and bfeirig 
told it Was probable it Would return, he replfed * l^iatl 
don't know." His friend then said, " As it has always been 
yotir maxim, sir, to look on the brightest side, we tttky drirtr 
.this conclusion, that if you have no feeling, you feel ne> 
pain ;" to which he answered with great earnestness* " 'Tir 
very tnte." The next day, about 12 o'clock, sitting 1n Ks 
chair, he without any struggle leaned his head back, and , 
*e*£ired. On the 5th day of J&ntrtiry Hte was btfried in thfe 

5 J >arish church of St* Bartholomew, Exchange, according 
6 the directions of his will, and was attended by the ma- 
jority of the co'mmOn-cOuncil, Who voluntarily dieted 4* 
pall-bearers, to pay respect tb ins memory. A mural 
tablet, with an inscription to his. memory, has tince tfeeh 

Mir. Ellis in his person was belofr the middle size, with 
hard features, which "at the first appearance were rather fof* 
bftlding, but On a nearer acquaintance he was hardly eve* 
tnown to fail of conciliating the regard of thefee whom he 
desired to please*. He lived a bachelor, as he used often 
to declare, from a disappointment early in life ; but he wa» 
particularly attentive to the fair-sex, whose favour he 
turned earnest to acquire ; and in general was successful 



fp obtain. Temperate, regular, and cheerfcl, hewaaal* 
yijys ^ pissing compwpQp, and joined in the conversation 
qf bis friends witfc e^e, freedom, and politeness. He 
abounded in anecdote, and tojd ^ story with great success* 
#e V&* cbarj^abje to fhp ppqr and unfortunate, aud bene* 
ygleqj; in ^n extraordinary ipaqqjsr, tp some of bis relations 
Wbft WfrPtefl bis assistance. He early acquired a disgust to 
tkq cftnt ^nd hypQcrisy which be thought be bad discovered 
ill the sectaries among whom be was bred ; ?nd, from 4'ipy 
likipg the qbnpxious parts of bis e^rly religious practice, 
he carried bis aversion much further than some of bis 
$7£n4f w ould bp willing to defend, and became an infidel; 
4)8 /opinions, however, be seldom obtruded, or pstentp* 
t^josly brought forward for the purpose of contrp- 
yer?y> His aversion to sectaries he seems to have retained 
|g $p £jjd of bis life *. £s 9 man qf business be was care* 
fpl and attentive, and from bis accuracy afforded no op* 
flortynity for controversies among bis clients on the score of 
$rrprs or mistakes. . 

The preceding account of Mr. Ellis was written by Mr. 
|?ftfc. Reed, for the European Magazine. The executor 
to jphpm Mr. Ellis left his MSS. was tfre late Mr. Sewell, 
bookseller in Comhill, and proprietor of that Magazine, 
yhq giiye many pf these MSS. to Mr. Reed, with whose cut 
J^gps library they were sold in 1307. Among -these was 
* volume of Fables, the Translation of JDr. King's " Tern- 
plum Libertatis," the " Squire of Dames," and " The 
(fpspel of the Infancy, or the Apocryphal Book of the 
Jnjancy of our Saviour, translated from the Latin version 
Of Henry Sike, from the Arabic MS." On this last, Mr« 
^eed wrote the following note : " Ellis was a determined 
Unbeliever in the Scriptures, which, I suppose, was his 
inducement to this translation." Mr. Ellis, however, must 

Wff » t * * 

hjLve taken some pains to conceal his sentiments from Dr. 
Ifthosonj who appears to have been once intimate with 

f The following anecdote he used 
joently to tell his friends. Dr. 
Wright, pastor of the meeting at Black 
jjriars, took a lease pf the ground, and 
rebuilt the meeting-house there. A 
communicant, aunt to Mr. Ellis, put- 
ting jbrth her band to partake of the 
sacrament, the pastor interposed, say- 
ing, « Thon hast no part in this matter: 
Jesus knows his own flotk." This harsh 
wage,' which arose from a^gossiping 
ttory that the lady had nude a. present 

to the parson of the parish, had sueh 
an effect upon her, that she became 
desponding, and afterwards went mad* 
Mr. Ellis procured her reception isj^v 
Bedlam, and 1 became security for her, 
where she died. On this .occasion he 
wrote a satirical poem, entitled " Black. 
Fryars Meeting/' which is printed irt 
Mist's Journal, and. which irritated 
some of the congregation to break; the 
printer** windqws. 

15a ELLIS. 

him, and who resented no insult to company with more 
indignation than the intrusion of infidel sentiments, ac- 
companied, as they generally are, with the pert ignorance 
that is ever disgusting to a scholar. l 

ELLWOOD (Thomas), a writer of some reputation 
among the Quakers, was born at Crowell, near Thame, iii 
Oxfordshire, in 1639, where he received such education 
as his father, a man in poor circumstances, could afford. 
In his twenty-first year, the preaching of one Edward Bur- 
roughs induced him to join the society of the friends, and 
soon after he became a writer and a preacher among them. 
His principal work was entitled " Sacred History, or the 
historical part of the Holy Scriptures of the Old ancLNew 
Testament," 2 vols. fol. He appears to have sometimes 
suffered imprisonment in the reign of Charles IL in com- 
mon with other dissenters; but his confinement on these 
occasions was neither long nor severe. The only incident 
in his life worth noticing is his introduction to Milton, to 
whom he acted for some time as reader, and to whom he is 
said to have suggested the " Paradise Regained," by asking 
him, " Thou hast said much here of Paradise lostj but 
what hast thou to say of Paradise found?" Ell wood died. 
March 1, 1713. He was a man of considerable abilities, 
and by dint of study and attention made up for the defi- 
ciencies df his early education. His life, written by him- 
self, is rather tedious, but affords many interesting parti- 
culars of the history of the sect.* 

ELLYS (Anthony), a learned prelate of the church of 
England, was born in 1693. Who his parents were, and 
what was the place of his birth, we are not informed, nor 
have any reason to suppose him related to the subject of 
the following article. After having gone through a proper 
course of grammatical education, he was entered of Clare- 
hall, in the university of Cambridge, where he took his 
bachelor's degree in 1 7 12, and that of master of arts in' 
J 7 16, It is highly probable that he likewise became, a 
fellow of his college. Some time after, having taken holy 
orders, he was in 1724 promoted to the vicarage of St. 
Olave, Jewry, and to the rectory of St. Martin, Iremonger 
lane, which is united to the former.^ In 1725, he was pre-* 
sented, by the lord chancellor Macclesfield, whose chap- 

I Life in Europ. Mag. 1792. 

9 J4fe as above, Loud. 1714, $vo.— Johnson's, Syuunons'ft, fee. tires of ftgilteitv 


kin he is said to have been, to a prebendal stall in the 
cathedral church of Gloucester. On the 25th of April, f 
1728, when king George the Second paid a visit to the 
university of Cambridge, Mr, Ellys was created doctor of 
divinity, being one of those who were named in the chan- 
cellor's list upon that occasion. In 1736, when the pro- 
testant dissenters were engaged in endeavouring to obtain 
a repeal of the corporation and test acts, Dr. Eliys ap- 
peared in opposition to that measure, and published a 
work, entitled " A Plea for the Sacramental Test, as a 
just security to the Church established, and very conducive 
to the welfare of the State," 4to, an elaborate performance, 
written with great ability and learning. In 1749, Dr. 
Ellys published a sermon, which he preached before the 
house of commons on the thirtieth of January. This dis- 
course, the text of which was Mat. xxii. 21, was printed, 
fcs then was customary, at the request of the house. Our 
author's next publication was early in 1752, being " Re- 
marks on an Essay concerning Miracles, published by Da- 
vid Hume, esq. among his Philosophical Essays," 4to. In 
this small piece, which was written in a sensible and gen- 
teel manner. Dr. Ellys considered what Mr. Hume had 
advanced, relating to miracles, in a somewhat different 
light from what had been done by Dr. Rutherforth and Mr. 
Adams ; but the tract being anonymous, and epming after 
what Mr. Adams had so admirably written on the same 
subject, it did not, perhaps,, excite that attention which 
it deserved. In October, 1752, Dr. Ellys was promoted 
to the see of St. David's, in the room of the honourable 
Dr. Richard Trevor, translated to the bishopric of Durham* 
and was consecrated February 28, 1753. It had for many 
years been understood, that our author was engaged in 
preparing, and had frequently declared bis intention of 
publishing, a work, the design of which should be to il- 
lustrate, confirm, and vindicate, the principles of religious 
liberty, and the reformation from popery, founded upou 
them. This design recommended him to the notice of the 
excellent persons at that time in administration, and parti- 
cularly to archbishop Herring; and it was the reputation 
of being employed in the accomplishment of it, that occa- 
sioned Dr. Ellys' s advancement to the high station which 
he held in the church. Why our prelate never completed 
his design during his life-time, and why he received no 
farther marks x>f favour from the great personages who fivst 


•ountendnced trim, is not kuown. Dr. Efly*, after hi* 
promotion to the bishopric of St. David's, continued to 
hold bis prebend of Gloucester, and bis city living ki <5om* 
itoendam ; and besides his other preferment*, be was vicar 
of Great Marlovr, Buck*. la 1754, he published the *4r- 
won which be hid preached before the house of lords oil 
the thirteenth of January. The test was 1 Pet. .ii. 16. 
In 1758, he was called to a similar service, before the 
same house, on the twenty-ninth of May, being the anni* 
versary of king Charles the Second's restoration. The last 
discourse published by him was in 1759, having been de<* 
livered, from John xv, 8. before the society for propagat- 
ing the gospel in foreign parts. On the seventeenth of 
January, 1761, our prelate died at Gloucester, and wat 
buried in the South aile of the cathedral there, where a 
neat pyramidal monument is erected to his memory, with 
an epitaph on a tablet of white marble, supported by a 

The few publications of our author, which appeared in, 
his lifetime, were a sufficient evidence of his general 
learning and abilities ; but the great proof of bis talent* 
toas not displayed till after his death. In 1763, was pub- 
lished, in quarto, the first part of " Tracts on the Liberty, 
spiritual and temporal, of Protestants in England. Ad* 
£rg*sed to J. N. esq. at Aix-la-Chapelle." The second 
part was given to the world in 1765, under the title of 
/' Tracts on [the Liberty, spiritual and temporal, of Sub* 
jects in England." These two parts together form one 
great and elaborate work, which had been the principal 
object of the bishop's life. The greatest part of the paper* 
which were left by him, a* we are informed by the editors, 
bad been transcribed and fitted for the pre** ; but the dif* 
fidence that often attends men of the most extensive uodei* 
standing, prevented him from coming to a resolution of pub* 
lisbing them* though often solicited by hi* friends who had 
seen them, and by others of his acquaintance, who were 
60 fidly satisfied of his rare abilities, and knowledge of our 
civil and ecclesiastical constitution, as to believe no mall 
of hi* time bad better considered that subject, or wa* morfe 
capable of shewing it in a good light. The first volume, 
besides the plea for the sacramental test, consists of seven 
tracts* the titles of which are a* follow : " I. Of the right 
*f private judgment in all matter* of religion. II. Of the 
liberty of pubfafy worshipping God. III. O* *fe» Ubewy, 

ft lt 8; ur 

*» to matters ecclesiastical, when a religion is publicly 
established. IV. On the liberty recovered to the people 
of England, by suppressing the authority formerly exer- 
cised over this realm by the Bishop of Rome. . V, An ant 
c»wer to the objections to the ill use which, it is alleged* 
Jbas been. made of the liberty we have gained, by having 
broken with the see of Rome. VI. The nature of Supre* 
macy, io matters ecclesiastical, vested in the crown. . VJI> 
The claim of some English Protestants to greater liberty 
than they now enjoy." Though Dr. EUys, in these -traMs* 
vindicates the establishment of the church from the oJ> r 
jections of the protestant dissenters, his principal concent 
is with the Church of Rome, the tenets of which be very 
particularly examines and confutes. The subject, waji 
deemed highly important at the time in which he wrote. 
There was then au apprehension of danger from popery ; 
And this sentiment he has expressed in his introduction to 
J. N. esq. " The increase," says he, " of the Romish in** 
terest in Europe has been so great for these last hundred 
years, and is so likely to go farther, that it certainly is ^ery 
necessary that the people of this nation should be acquainted 
at least with the chief arguments against that religion* 
jOf these, therefore, yon will here find some .account ; not 
a large one indeed, because none but things of the greatest 
moment have been selected; yet such a one as will, I hop% 
clearly shew that our ancestors were indispensably obliged 
10 leave the communion of the church of Rpme, and that 
we are as strictly bound to continue that separation as long 
fts the terms of her communion remain what they are," 
His biographer adds, that, should the controversy between 
the Roman catholics and the church of England be revived, 
excellent materials for conducting it may be found in 
bishop EUys's performance. Besides, there can be no 
period in which a protestant should be a stranger to the 
grounds of his profession, and in which it will not be ex- 
tremely proper that literary men in general, and divines in 
particular, should have a good acquaintance with the 

The second part of our prelate's work comprehends »wt 
.tracts, under the following titles : " I. Of the Liberty of 
Ike Subjects in Judicial proceedings, as to matters bods 
criminal and civil. II. Of the right and .manner of in** 
posing Taxes ; and of the other privileges of the Parlia- 
ment, III. Of the means whereby the free Constitutions 

*S4 &L L Y SI 

of other nations have been impaired, while that of Eng- 
land has been preserved and improved. IV. Of the Anti-; 
quities of the Commons in Parliament. V. Of the Royal 
Prerogative, and the hereditary right to the Crown of 
Britain. VI. Of the dangers that may be incident to the 
present Establishment, and the prospect there is of its con- 
tinuance." The second, third, fifth, and sixth) of these 
tracts are divided into, sections, containing various impor- 
tant and learned discussions. The specific character of 
bishop Ellys's work is, that it is a copious defence of mo- 
derate whiggism, joined with a zealous attachment to our 
ecclesiastical establishment; and that it contains a large, 
fund of historical, constitutional, and legal knowledge. 
The editors of the tracts say of him that " he was not only 
eminent for his fine parts, extensive knowledge, and sound 
judgment, jewels truly valuable in themselves, but they 
were set in him to the highest advantage, by a heart so 
overflowing with benevolence and candour as never even 
to conceive terms of acrimony or reproach towards the opi- 
nions or persons of those who differed from him. This 
Christian temper of his is discoverable in all the parts of 
these tracts that are taken up in controversy; for he always 
thought a person, though on the right side of the -question, 
with principles of persecution, to be a worse man than he 
•that was on the wrong. These dispositions engaged him in 
defence of toleration, and all those indulgences that he 
•thought ought to be allowed to tender consciences. But 
when that liberty was once granted (as it was by law to our 
dissenters), be saw no necessity it should be attended with 
civil power, which might endanger the ecclesiastical esta- 
blishment ; and if he has shewed, beyond all doubt, the 
right of private judgment in matters of religion, and a 
liberty of publicly worshipping God in consequence of that 
judgment, he has also as undeniably proved the necessity 
of a test, as a just security to the established church, and 
a proper guard to the welfare of the state : for he was per- 
suaded, that human laws cannot bind conscience, but they 
may exclude those from civil power who profess a private 
conscience repugnant to the public conscience of the state : 
• all which he has managed with such gentle, charitable, and 
Christian liberty, as meant only to answer the arguments, 
not inflame the resentment of the opponents." J 

i *io$. Brit, 

E L L * 1  155 

ELLYS, or as sometimes improperly spelt ELLIS (Sir 
Richard, Bart.), a gentleman of extensive learning, par- 
ticularly in biblical criticism and antiquities, descended 
from an ancient family originally of Wales, but who after- 
wards obtained possessions in Lincolnshire, was the son of 
sir William Ellys of Wyham, in that county, by Isabella, 
grand-daughter of the celebrated Hampden. Of his early 
history we have little information. His father had been a 
member of Lincoln College, Oxford, where he proceeded 
M. A. and his son might probably have been sent to the 
sarAe university, and left it without taking a degree. From 
his extensive acquaintance with the literati of Holland, it 
is not imprpbable, as the practice was then common, that 
be studied at some of the Dutch universities. We are 
told that he served in two parliaments for Grantham, and 
in three for Boston in Lincolnshire; but, according to 
Beatson's Register, he sat only, for Boston in the fifth, 
sixth, and seventh parliament of Great Britain, namely, 
from 1715 to 1734 ; but his father sir William sat for three 
parliaments for Grantham. Although sir Richard commu- 
nicated some particulars of his family to Collins, when, 
publishing his " Baronetage," the latter has either omitted, 
or was not furnished with the dates that might hare assisted 
us in ascertaining these facts with certainty. Sir Richard 
married, first, a daughter and coheiress of sir Thomas 
Hussey, bart. and, secondly, a daughter and coheiress of 
Thomas Gould, esq. who survived him, #nd afterwards 
married sir Francis Dashwood, bart. (who died lord le De- 
spencer in 1781), and died Jan. 19, 1769. Sir Richard had 
no issue by either of his wives, and the title of course be- 
came extinct on his death, which happened February il 9 
1741-2, when he was deeply lamented^ not only as a man 
of great learning and piety, but on account of his many 
and extensive charities. He entailed his estates, after the 
death of lady Ellys, on the Hobarts and Trevors, and his 
seat at Nocton in Lincolnshire is now the chief seat of the 
earl of Buckinghamshire. Sir Richard had two sisters 
married to Edward Cheek and Richard Hampden, esqs.* ' 
 Besides his literary friends at home, sir Richard appears 
to have corresponded with, and to have been highly re- 

* Sir Richard was chosen a member poet, inscribed to sir Richard an imita* 

of the Spalding Society on March 1 2, tion of the sixth satire of the first book; 

1?29. . From the same authority *we of Horace. Nichols's Bowyer. 
foara that Edward Walpole, a mmor ' , 

JW .« if h T * 

jpected by many eminent sc^qlars on the continent. He 
was a mqnificent patron of men of learning, an 4 frequently 
contributed $o the publication of their works, at q, time 
when the risks c-f publication were more terrible thani$ 
our day3. It was, not qnfrequpnt, therefore, to honour him 
oy dedications, The Wetsteins dedicated to hjm the bes$ 
edition of Suicer's " Thesaurus Ecclesiast." to which b$ 
£ad contributed th$ use of q. manuscript of Suicer's \$ \\i% 
pwti possession, and Ah* GrqiiQvius dedicated to Jiim hi$ 
iditipn of -$lian (Leyden, \7&\). Horsjey's " Briton ni* 
Romana" was ^lso dedicated to him. He was the steady 
friend and patron of Michael Maittaire, who, in bis ". Se T 
pijia," addresses many verses to bim, from some of whic^ 
ire learn that sir Richard had travelled much abroad, thai 
his pursues were literary, ^nd that he collected a cqripug 
And valuable library *. The oqly work by which his m#rtff 
as a scholar and critic can i)ow be ascertained) was pjufer 
lisbed at Rotterdam, in 17J2^, #vp, under the title " J#r ? 
fuita Sacra, quibus sufyjicitur PommenUjrius de Cyra T 
|>alis. M The epithet fartuita is used as demoting that thf 
explanation of the several passages in the New Testajpeut, 
of which the volume partly consists, casualty offered them- 
selves. The who)e indeed was written in the course ot 
his private studies, and without any view to publication j 
yptil some friends, conceiving that they would forpj 33 
Acceptable present to the literary world, prevailed on hi PI 
tp allow a selection to be made, which was probably done 
by the anonymous editor of the volume j and they ^r$ 
written in Latin with a view to appear, on the continent^ 
where biblical criticism, although not perhaps at that tirji0 
njore an object of curiosity than at home, required to b$ : 
Conveyed in a language common to the learned. Subjoin©4 
to these critical essays oil various difficult t^xjts, which th$ 
^Othor illustrates from the tylisnah and other books of Jewish . 
traditions, is a curious dissertation on the cymbals of the 
ancients, which not being noticed by Dr. Burutey in bi# 
Pistory of Music, has probably escaped the researches pf . 
that able writer. In ajl these sir Richard Ellys shows 3^ 
vast compass of ancient learning, and a coolness of jwjg- 
fluent in criticism, which very considerably advanced hi& 
fame abroad. We know but of one answer to any of hit 

* Among the transactions of the of sir Richard Ellys's library f and *om# 
Spalding Society we iind the following 1 curiosities lately come i&. Jtheje.**-;* * 
minute : « June 84, (1742), account Nichols's Bowyer, 

ft L L Yl Hi 

]^tti6ns, intitletl rt A ©fesertation 6n 1 Co*. *f. 29 ; lit 
in Inquiry into the Apostle*s taeaning there, of beirfg 
* baptized for the dead,* occasioned by the honourable and 
learned author of the Fortuita Satra hfe interpretation 
flfereof ." This Inquiry is conveyed in a letter to the authdr 
*f the Republic of Letters, Vol. V. (1740). 

The dissenters claim sir Richard Ellys as b^tonginrg to 
their communion, and as having been a kind friend and 
Jyafcrbn to many of their clergy. We have already notie^d 
that he corresponded with, and Svas a liberal friend to MK 
Thomas Boston, (See Boston), whose " Tractatus Strg- 
tnatotogi'cus" was dedicated to him, when published tinder 
the care of the learned David Mill, professor of oriental 
languages at Utrecht. It may now be added that he toraa 
a great admirer of Boston's " Fourfold State,** and his 
€r Coven&nt of Grac6, M in the publication of which hfe as- 
sisted thfe Author; of course his sentiments wefre C!al* 
tinistic, but they had not always been so. He was origi- 
nally of Arminian principles, and by a letter in the ap- 
pendix to Bostons Life, wetearti that he was induced to 
adopt other views froni some conversations with an aged 
lady, at wbosfe opinions he used to laugh. This change 
tdok place kbout 1730, Or perhaps somewhat sooner ; forin 
tttat yiear hfc appears to havfc been a decided Calvinist. 
He was first a meniber of Dr. Calamy's congregation, antl 
crn/ his death in 1732 (Who£e funeral Sermon is dedicated 
\6 sir Richard, by the preadher Daniel Mayo), he joined 
Mr. Thomas Bradbury's flock, and 'remained in comma* 
toion with thfchl rfntil his death. l 

ELMACINUS (George), author df a hfctbrjr erf the 
Saracens, or rfcther a dhronology of the Mohammedan etn- f 
pire, Was born in Eg^rprt, towards flie middle of the thh> 
tfefcnth dehtuty. His history comes d6wn from Mdh&tmmed 
f to the year of the he£frh, 512, that is, to A. $>. 1 1 IS : hi 
Hrtrrdh life sets ddwn yfear by year, in a very concise mknn^r^ 
What concerns the Saracen empire ; and intermixes sotare. 
passages df the fcastfem Christians, keeping principally tot 
Arabia, Syria, Egypt, and Persia. His qualities and me- 
f fcit mast have been *very conspicuous, since, thoiigh he 
ptofe&ted Christianity, 'hfe 'filled a post of distinction and 
Artist near the pdrsdtfs of the Monammedun princes. Those, 

» Colline'f Baronetage.— Gent. Mag. vol. LXXXII. Part II. and LXXXIIL 
/Pert I. — Boston's &ife, Ap^nd?*.^MS'mformtioir© commuaicateil 
If Mr. archdeacon Narei.— Nichols's Bowyer. 

158 E L M A € IN US. 

who consider the measures be ougtjt to keep in that post, , 
. will not think it strange that he has spoken honourably. 6f 
the caliphs, and has never made use of any injurious terms 
with respect to the Mohammedan religion ; but some have 
questioned his being a Christian from his speaking ho- 
nourably, as he often does, of the followers of Mohammed, 
and calling that impostor " Mohammed of glorious me- 
mory." Yet, as he has not only omitted to prefix to his 
work the formal declaration of being a mussulman, which 
the Mohammedan writers are wont to make, but has 
taken great care to insert in his Annals several things, 
.relating to the Christians, and turning to their praise, 
which a mussulman would avoid as a crime, and has even 
given at the end of his work a short account of his family, 
it has been concluded that he was a Christian. He was son 
to Yaser al Amid, who was secretary to the council of war 
under the sultans of Egypt, of the family of the Jobidsc, 
for forty-five years together ; and in 1238, when his father 
died, succeeded him in his place. 

( His history of the Saracens has been translated from 
Arabic into Latin by Erpenius, and printed in those two 
languages at Leyden, 1 625, in folio. Erpenius died be- 
fore the publication ; and Golius took care of it, writings 
also a preface. Elmacinus began his work at the creation 
of the world ; and Hottinger had in manuscript that part 
which reaches from thence to the flight of Mohammed. 
The translation of Erpenius is full of mistakes, especially 
.as to geography and proper names; on which account, 
however, he deserves some excuse, if we consider the dif- 
,.ficulty of reading the, Arabic manuscripts, and that he was 
.the first who made any tolerable progress in this kind of 
learning. The French translation made by Peter Yattier, 
and printed at Paris in 1657, is equally incorrect. The 
Arabic text was printed apart in 12mo, at the same time 
with the folio edition ; and dedicated by Erpenius' s widow 
to Andrews, bishop of Winchester. * 

ELMENHORST (Geverhart), a learned commentator 
of the seventeenth century, was a native of Hamburgh, and 
acquired very considerable fame as a critic. He published, 
with notes, 1. " Arnobii disputationes adversus Gentes," 
Hamburgh, 1610, fol. 2. " Gennadius de dogmatibus 
Ecclesiae, ibid. 1614, 4to. 3. " Sidonii Apollinaris Opera,'* 

i Gkn. Diet.— Morcru— Saxii Qnomast, .,. -v 

EX-M E N H O R S T. 159 

Hanover, 1617, 8vo. 4. " Cebetis tabula cum version* 
et notis Jo. Casein," Leyden, 1618, 4to. 5. " Apuleii 
Platonici Opera omnia," Francfort, 1621, 8vo, and an 
edition in fol. of Minucius Felix. He died in 1621. ' 


ELOY (Nicholas Francis Joseph), a French physician 
and biographer, was born at Mons, Sept. 20, 1714, and 
was educated to the practice of physic, in which he ac- 
quired great reputation both for skill and humanity. He 
was a man of extensive learning, and notwithstanding the 
time be devoted to study, and that which was necessary in 
his practice, he found leisure to write several valuable 
works. His first, which was published in 1750, was a small 
treatise, entitled " Reflexions sur V Usage du Th6." His 
next publication was an attempt at a history of medicine, 
arranged in the form of a dictionary, and entitled " Essai 
dn Diction naire Historique de la Medicine ancienne et 
moderne," in two volumes octavo, which appeared in 
1755 : this work was afterwards greatly enlarged, by ex- 
tending the different articles which it contained, and was 
published in 1778, in four volumes quarto, with the title 
of " Dictionnaire Historique de la Medicine ancienne et 
moderne ;" a work iu many respects more useful than 
Haller's Bibliotheca. Eloy likewise published, in 1755, a 
sol Ml volume, entitled " Cours elementaire des Accouche- 
mens; 9 ' and, a few years previous to his death, viz. in 1780 
and 178J, he committed to the press two other essays, the 
first of which was entitled " Memoire sur 4a marche, la 
nature, les causes, et le traitement de la Dysenteric ;" 
and the other, " Question Medico-politique ; si P usage 
du cafe* est avantageux a la sant6, et s'il peut se concilier 
.avec le bien de l'6tat dans les Provinces Belgiques ?" As a 
flight reward for the patriotic zeal manifested in this tract, 
the estates of Haioault presented him with a superb snuff- 
box, with this inscription, " Ex Dono Patriae ;" the Gift 
'of his Country. He held the honourable office of physician 
to prince Charles of Lorraine until his death, March* 
.10, 1788.* 

« ELPHINSTON (James), a miscellaneous writer and 
schoolmaster, was born at Edinburgh, Dec. 6, 1721, and 
•was the son of the Rev. William Elphinston. He was edu- 
cated., at the high school of Edinburgh, and afterwards at 

.» Geo. Diet— Mortri.«-.Saxii Onouast, , «Dict Hist- .Rees'» Cyclopedic. 


the university, where, or soon after he left it, and when 
only in bis seventeenth year, he was appointed totor to 
lord B Ian tyre, a circumstance which seems to indicate that 
bis erudition was extraordinary, or bis place nominal* 
When of age he accompanied Carte, the historian, on a 
tour through Holland and Brabant, and to Paris, where he 
acquired such a knowledge of the French 4anguage as tft 
be able to speak and write it with the greatest facility. Oft 
leaving France be returned to Scotland, and became pri- 
vate tutor to the sow of James Moray, esq. of Abercairny, 
in Perthshire, and an inmate in the family. How long be 
remained here is uncertain, but in 1750 he was at Edin- 
burgh, and superintended an edition of Dr. Johnson 9 * 
" Ramblers," by the author's permission, with a transla- 
tion of the tnottos, which was completed in $ vols. 12 mo, 
beautifully printed, but imperfect, as being without the 
alterations and additions introduced in the subsequent edi- 
tions by Dr. JohnsOn. In 1751 he married, and leaving 
Scotland, fixed his abode near London, first at Broihpton, 
and afterwards at Kensington, where for many years he 
kept a school in a large and elegant house opposite to the 
royal gardens, and had considerable reputation ; his scho- 
lars always retaining a very grateful 'sense of his skill as a 
teacher, and his kindness as a friend. 

In 1753 he made a poetical version of the younger Ra- 
tine's poem of u Religion," which we are told was ap- 
proved by Young. About the same time be composed aft 
English grangmar for the use of htssoho6l, which he after* 
wards eniaVged and published in 2 vols. 12mo. lUiis k by 
far the most useful of his works, and perhaps the only on* 
likely to live. The late Mr. John Walker, a very competent 
judge, always spoke highly of this woifc. in 4he ye«t 
r?6V Mr. Etphinston published a (poein calHed " Edu- 
cation ; w but 'his taste was ill-adapted to poetry, of w4*kft 
unfortunately he never could be •persuaded ; and this etoro* 
toeous estimate of his talents ted »him to tratislatte Martial, 
Cor whioh he issued proposals dbout 1978, and was at 
least fortunate in the number of his subscribers. Previous 
to this he had, for 'what reason we are not *old, «given uj> 
Ids school, and in 1 7W 'removed altogether from Kensing- 
ton, where, in <the same year, "his wife died. He tk&h 
Visited 'Scotland, and while in *hat city there was ji design 
•started of establishing a professorship of modern languages 
in the university of Edinburgh, with a view that Mr. £1- 

ELP HI N S T O N. 161 

phinston should fill the chair; but although this never 
took place, he gave a course of lectures on the English lan- 
guage, both at Edinburgh and Glasgow. 

After Jiis return to Loudon, he published his translation 
of Martial in 1782, in 4to, which exhibited most wonder- 
ful proofs of a total want of judgment, both in the trans* 
lation and notes # . In the latter he gives some specimens 
of his new mode of spelling, which he explained more at 
large in 1786, in a work entitled " Propriety ascertained 
in her picture, 9 ' Q, vols* 4to. In this he endeavoured to 
establish a system of. spelling according to pronunciation, 
and although he stood entirely alone in his opinion of its 
value, he persisted in his endeavours, and followed it up 
by " English Orthography epitomized," and c ? Propriety's 
Pocket Dictionary." In 1794, he. published in 6 vols. 
12 mo, a selection of his letters to his friends, with their 
answers, entirely spelt in his new way ; the appearance of 
which *was so unnatural, and the reading so difficult and 
tiresome, that by this, as well as his other works on the 
same subject, he must have been a considerable loser. As 
an author, indeed, Mr, Elphinston was peculiarly, unfor-* 
tunate, having scarcely published any thing in which he 
did not -afford the critics many opportunities to exemplify 
bis total want of taste and judgment. He died at 'Ham- 
mersmith at a very advanced age, Oct. &, 1809. His 
personal character is thus given by his biographer: " After 
\ all, it is a4 a man and a Christian that he excelled ; as a 

son, a brother, a husband, and a father to many, thought 
he never bad children of his own, as a friend, an enlight- 
ened patriot, and a loyal subject. His ' manners were 
simple, his rectitude undeviating.' In religion he em- 
braced the state establishment to its full extent. His piety, 
though exemplary, was devoid of show; the sincerity of 
it was self-evident; but, though unobtrusive, it became 
impatient on the least attempt at profaneness \ and an oath 
he could not endure. On such occasions he never failed 
boldly to correct the vice whencesoever it proceeded." \ 

^ "E!phirtfton*s Martial is just come England, without learning the Ian* 

to hand. \% is truly an unique, 'the guage." Letter from Dr. Beattie to 

gpecrmcns formerly published did rery sir William Forbes, in the life of 

veil .'to laugh atj. but a whole quarto Beattie. These remarks, may be ex*.- 

of nonsense and gibberish is too much, tended to more of Elphinston'* publica^ 

It is strange that a man not wholly tions than we have enumerated, 
itflterate, should have lived to long in . ,; * 

« * Nichols Bowyer,— Boiweli's Life of JohasOBv^Forbei 7 * Life of Beattie* - 

Vox.. XIII. M 


ELPHINSTON (William), an eminent Scotch prelate* 
descended from a noble family in Germany, the counts of 
Helphinstein, was the son of John, or as some say, William 
Elphinston and Margaret Douglas, daughter of Douglas 
of Drum Ian rig, and was horn at Glasgow in 1431, or, ac- 
cording to another account, in 1437. He was educated 
in the newly- erected university of Glasgow, and in the 
twentieth year of his age became M. A. He then applied 
himself to the study of divinity, and was made rector of 
Kirkmichael. After continuing four years in this situation, 
he went to Paris, where be acquired such reputation in 
the study of the civil and canon law, as to attract the at*, 
tention of the university ; and he was advanced to the 
professorship of civil and canon law, first at Paris, and 
afterwards at Orleans, where his lectures were attended by 
a great concourse of students. The improvement of hi» 
own mind, however, being the particular object of his so- 
licitude, he canvassed the most abstruse and difficult parts 
of his profession with the most eminent and learned doctor* 
of the age. After nine years' intense study in France, he 
returned home at the earnest solicitations of bis friends, 
particularly bishop Muirhead, who made him parson of 
Glasgow, and official of his diocese; and'as a mark of re- 
spect he was chosen rector of that university in which he % 
had been educated. After the death of his friend and 
patron, Muirhead, he was made official of Lothian, by 
archbishop Schevez, of St. Andrew's ; and at the same 
time was called to. parliament, and to a seat in the privy- 
council. As his talents were of the most acute and dis- 
cerning kind, he embraced subjects remote from his re- 
ligious studies, and became conspicuous as an able poli- 
tician and skilful riegociator* In this capacity he was 
employed by James III. on an embassy to France, in con- 
junction with Livingstone, bishop of Dunkeld, and the sari 
of Buchan. It is said that he managed so dextrously, that 
the old league and amity were renewed, and all cause of 
discord between the two kingdoms removed. The French 
monarch was so charmed with his conduct and conversa- 
tion, that he loaded him with valuable presents. Wh6n 
he returned home, he was made archdeacon of Argyle, in£ 
1479, and soon after bishop of Ross; and in 1484, he waa\ 
translated to the see of Aberdeen. His address in nego- 
ciation induced the king to send him as one of the com* 
missioiiers from Scotland to treat of a truce with England, 


and a marriage between his son and the lady Anne, thg 
niece of Richard III. 

When the earl of Richmond came to the crown of Eng- 
land as Henry VII. bishop Elphinston was sent to hU 
court, with other ambassadors, to arrange the terms of a 
truce* which was accordingly settled for three years on 
July 3, 1486. The discontent of the nobles threatening 
to involve the country in a civil war, Elphinston mediated 
between them and the king ; bqt, finding it impossible to 
reconcile their jarring interests, he went to England about 
the latter end of 1487, to solicit the friendly interposition 
of Henry, as the ally of the Scotish king ; and although 
he* did not succeed as he wished and expected, king James 
was so sensible of the value of his services, that he advanced 
him in February 1488, to the office of lord high chancellor 
of Scotland, which he enjoyed until the king's death, 
when he retired to his diocese. During the time he re- 
mained at Aberdeen, he was occupied in correcting the 
abuses that bad prevailed in the diocese, and in composing 
a book pi canon law. But he was not long permitted to 
enjoy the calm of retirement, and was again called to the 
parliament that assembled at Edinburgh, Oct. 6, 1488, to 
assist at the coronation of James IV. The earl of Both- 
well, who then ruled as prime minister, suspecting that 
•bishop Elphinston would not concur in an act of indem- 
nity in favour of those who were concerned in the rebellioa 
of the last reign, contrived to send him on an embassy to 
the court of Maximilian of Germany, with a proposal' for 
a marriage between the king, and Margaret, the emperor's 
daughter ; but the mission was ineffectual, as that lady 
had been previously promised to the prince of Spain, and 
was married accordingly, before Elphinston arrived at 
Vienna. Yet although the bishop did not succeed in this 
embassy, . he performed a lasting service to the country in 
hi$ way home, by settling a treaty of peace and amity be- 
tween the states of Holland and the Scotch. In 1492, 
when the bishop returned, he was made lord privy-seal, 
And the. same year appointed one of the commissioners on 
the part of Scotland, for the prolongation of the truce with 
England. But the truce was not strictly observed by the 
Scc-tch, and a new. commission was found to be necessary 
for the more effectual settlement of all differences. Bishop 
Elphinston was included in this commission, and the Scotch 
deputies jtieeting with the English at Edinburgh, June 21, 

M 2 


they agreed to prolong, the truce till the last day of April* 

The distractions of the state being appeased, and tran- 
quillity restored both at home' and abroad; the bishop found 
leisure to attend to an object that he had long meditated, 
and which engrossed much of his thoughts. Religion and 
learning had been the chief pursuits of his life, and hb 
wished to diffuse the happy influence of both over the 
north of Scotland, For this purpose be applied to the 
king to solicit the papal authority for the foundation of the 
University of Aberdeen, which was, granted by a bull from 
pope Alexander VI. dated Feb. 10, 1494. From this time 
the bishop bent all his attention to the completion of his 
design ; and having requested the king to permit the col- 
lege to be founded in his royal name, letters patent under 
the great seal were passed accordingly ; and the college 
called King's-college, in Old Aberdeen, .was erected iu 
2506, in a very magnificent manner. It was endowed with 
great privileges, similar to those granted to the universities 
of Paris and Bononia. A doctor in theology was consti-r 
tuted principal of the college ; doctors of the canon law, 
civil jurisprudence, and of medicine, were appointed for 
the cultivation of those sciences ; a professor of humanity, 
or liters kumaniores> to instruct the students in grammar and 
languages, and a sub-principal to institute them in philoso- 
phy. The plan of endowment made provision also, for 
the maintenance of twenty-seven students, a chanter, or* 
ganlst, &c. As this college is the only one that has ever 
been erected in this university, it possesses within itself 
the whole rights and privileges of an university, and the 
whole corporation is denominated the " University and 
King's College of Aberdeen.' 31 

Besides the erection and endowment of the college, 
bishop Elphinstoh left ample funds to build and to support 
a bridge over the river Dee,: and the sum he bequeathed 
fpr these two objects was 10,000/. It is mentioned to his 
credit, that he never held any benefice in commendam, as 
was the case with most of the prelates of that time, but, 
from the revenue of the see alone, made such savings as 
enabled him to execute these great .works, which are so 
honourable to his memory. When not employed in the 
duties of his office, he devoted his leisure hours to writing 
the lives of the Scotish saints,- which were occasionally 
read to the clergy of the diocese for their instruction 


religion and practical improvement in life. It is not, how* 
ever, perhaps much to be regretted that these compositions 
no longer exist. He also wrote, the history of Scotland, 
from the rise of the nation to his own time, which is now 
preserved among Fairfax's MSS in the Bodleian library. 

James IV. having precipitated the country into a wair 
with England, in opposition to Elphinston's advice, who 
was cautious from experience, lost his life at Flodden-field, 
where the better part of the Scotch nobility shared a simi- 
lar fate. This circumstance so afflicted the venerable pre-* 
Jate's mind, that his wonted cheerfulness entirely forsook 
hiii), and his debilitated frame. fast verged to the grave. 
The affairs of Scotland, however, being again in a dis~ 
tragted state, Elphinston, ever anxious to do good, made 
an exertion to attend parliament, that he might offer his 
advice ; but the fatigue of the journey exhausted his 
wearied body,. and he died Oct* 25, 1514. His corpse 
was brought from Edinburgh, and interred in the collegi- 
ate church at Aberdeen near the high altar. This eminent 
prelate has justly obtained the encomium of historians, and 
the reverence of his countrymen. .He appears to have 
been eminent as a prelate and statesman, a man of learn* 
log, and an able promoter of it by his munificent endow* 
ment of the college. l 

ELSHEIMER (Adam), a celebrated painter, born at 
Fraocfort upon the Maine in 1574, was a taylor's son, and 
at first a disciple of Philip Uffenbach, a German : but an 
axdent desire of improvement carrying him to Rome, he 
soon became an excellent artist in landscapes, histories, 
and night-pieces. He was a person by nature inclined to 
melancholy, and through continued study and thoughtful- 
ne$s so far settled in that unhappy temper, that, neglect- 
ing his domestic concerns, he contracted debts, and impri- 
sonment followed ; which struck such a damp upon his spirits; 
£hat though he was soon released, he did not long survive 
it, but died about 1610. The Italians had a great esteem 
for him, and lamented the loss of him exceedingly. James 
Ernest Thomas, of Landaw, was his disciple ; and his pic- 
tures are so like Elsheimer's, that they are often taken the 
one for the other. 

That which renders Elsheimer's pictures so interesting 
is, the grandeur of style in which they are executed. 

1 Thorn's Hist of Aberdeen. -^Mackenzie's Scotch writers, vol. il,^Iife by . 
Sector Boece in Brbl^ Topogr. Britan. Wo, III.— 'Crawford's lives. 

166 E L S H E I M E R 

Many of his figures partake so much of Raphael's best 
manner of character, of action, and disposition of the dra- 
peries, that if they were magnified, they would appear to 
be of that great master's own hand ; and they have super- 
added a colour which is of a superior class ; in the produc- 
tion of which, indeed, the small ness of their size was of 
considerable assistance to him ; for it is by no means so 
easy to extend a full body of colour over a large surface, 
with equally pleasing variety of tone, and freedom of exe- 
cution ; and in it to separate and form the distinct parts a* 
in a smaller one ; and though it requires more neatness in 
the execution of the latter, ifdoes not demand so free and 
so ready a hand to unite, to blend, and soften the various 
parts, and to give expression its full force, as in the for- 
mer. His pictures exhibit great attention to nature ; par- 
ticularly his perspective is very* perfect, in lines, at least; 
and he not unfrequently chose very difficult things td 
manage : such as working with a short perspective distance, 
and sometimes placing his figures on the top of a hill, and 
suddenly losing the ground, till it is recovered again in a 
deep valley. His landscapes have, in general, the air of 
real views, and are finished with wonderful. attention to 
general form, and beautiful scenery. Their colour is not 
always exactly that of nature, but as seen under a pecu-» 
liar illumination, like the tone which Titian has adopted in 
his St. Peter Martyr; giving it an air of grandeur not to 
be obtained, perhaps, by the brighter hues of nature. 

From the extreme care and excellence with which bis 
works are finished, they were not, of course, in his short 
life, very numerous ; and are rarely to* be met with. 
While he was alive, his pictures bore an excessive high 
price, which was amazingly enhanced after his death : and 
Houbraken ^mentions one of them, representing Pomona, 
which was sold for eight hundred German floHns. San- 
drart describes a great number of his capital performances ; 
among which are, Tobit and the angel, now at lord Egre- 
jnont's ; Latona and her sons, with the Peasants turned 
into Frogs ; the death- of Procris ; and his most capital 
picture of the flight into Egypt, which needs no descrip- 
tion, as there is a print of it extant, engraved by Gaud; 
the friend and benefactor of Elsheimer. Some of his 
works were in the collection of the grand duke of Tuscany. 
The richest collection of them in this country is at the earl 
of Egremont's, at Petworth, iu Sussex. There are ten 


pictures by htm, eight of which are of one size, viz. about 
four inches high, by two and a half wide, or perhaps a 
little more. The subjects are, a St. Peter, St. Paul, St. 
John Baptist, Tobit and the angel with a fish, an old 
woman and a girl, an old man with a boy, and a capuchin 
friar, with a model of a convent in. bis hand. The figures 
in all these are about three inches high, yet their charac- 
ters and expressions are just and excellent ; and the draw- 
ing of their figures, and the draperies, in the best style of 
k art. Another picture represents the interior of a brothel 
by fire and candle light, in which there are ten or more 
figures gaming,* and indulging in the licentiousness of such 
a place, all exquisitely wrought; with Some expressions 
that have never been surpassed, although the figures are 
not more than two inches and a half high. The last is 
" Nicodemus's visit to Christ;" but it is not of so good a 
quality as ihe others. l 

ELSHOLTZ (Joun Sigismond), an eminent Prussian 
botanist, wus born in 1623 at Francfort on the Oder, and 
began his studies at the coHege of that city under John 
Moller, then rector. Having an inclination for the study 
of medicine, he went to Wirtemberg, attended the lec- 
tures of Sperling, Schneider, Banzer, &c. and then pur- 
sued his course at Konigsberg, Holland, France, and Italy, 
and tpok his doctors degree at Padua. On his return 
home, Frederick-William, elector of Brandenburgh, ap- 
pointed him, in 1656, court-physician and botanist, offices 
which he filled with great reputation until his death, at 
Berlin, Feb. 19, 1683. His works are, 1. "Flora Mar- 
chica," or a catalogue of plants cultivated in the principal 
gardens of Brandenburgh, Berlin, 1663, 8vo, and 1665. 

2. " Anthropometria, sive de mutua membrorum propor- 
tione, &c." Stadt, 1672, 8vo, probably the third edition. 

3. " Distillatoria curiosa," Berlin, 1674, 4to. 4. " Clys- 
matica nova," ibid. 1665, 8vo. 5. "De Hofti culture,'* 
4to. 6. " De Phosphoris," translated into English by 
Sberley, Lond. 1677, 12 mo. Wildenow, who has named 
a plant the Elscholtzia, in honour of this botanist, mentions 
£. manuscript work of his on horticulture, written in Ger- 
man, and preserved in the royal library of Berlin. 8 

1 Argenville. — Descamps, vol. 1.— Rees's Cyclopedia. — Pilkington and Strutt. 
* Mojrcrj.^*-Haller Bibl. fiotap.. 

165 E L S N E R. 

ELSNER (James), a learned Prussian divine, was bora 
in 1692, at Saal field, in Prussia, and was educated at the 
university of > Konigsberg, where he became private tutor 
to some young nobleman, and was afterwards appointed 
chaplain of the army. In 1719, he published a work on 
the delivery of the law on Mount Sinai, and shortly after 
the first volume of his " Sacred Observations on the New 
Testament" In the following year his Prussian majesty 
appointed him professor of theology and the oriental lan- 
guages at Lingen, to which he repaired, after having first 
taken his degree of doctor at Utrecht He was afterwards 
chosen a member of the academy of Berlin ; and in 1742, 
he was appointed director of the class of the belles lettres 
in that academy ; and when the society was renewed in 
1744, he retained the same office, and contributed several 
valuable papers to their memoirs. He died of a fever, 
October 8, 1750. His works are very numerous, and on 
various topics, but chiefly in theology. He published also, 
" A new description of the state of the Greek Christians in 
Turkey," in which he received very important assistance 
from Athanasius Dorostamos, who came to Berlin to col- 
lect money for the Christian slaves in England. 1 

ELSTOB (William), a divine and antiquary, descended 
from a very ancient family in the bishopric of Durham, 
was born at Newcastle upon Tyne, Jan. 1, 1673, and was 
the son of Mr. Ralph Eistob, a merchant of that place. 
Being intended for the church, he received his grammatical, 
education, first at Newcastle, and afterwards at Eton ; after 
which he was admitted of Catharine-hall, in Cambridge ; 
but the air of the country not agreeing with him, he re- 
moved to Queen's college, Oxford. Here his studious turn 
acquired him so much reputation, that in 1696 he was 
chosen fellow of University college, and was appointed 
joint tutor with Dr. Clavering, afterwards bishop of Peter- 
borough. At this college Mr. Eistob took the degree of 
master of arts, June 8, 1697. In 1701', he translated into 
Latin the Saxon homily of Lupus, with notes, for Dr. 
Hickes. About the same time he translated into English 
sir John Cheke's Latin version of Plutarch, " De Superstw 
. tione," which is printed at the end of Strype's Life of 
Cheke. The copy made use of by Mr. Eistob was a 

1 Diet Hist.— Formey's Elopes des Academiciens.— Saxii Onomast 

ELSTOB.' 169 

manuscript in University college, out of which Obadiah 
Walker, when master of that college, had cut several 
leaves, containing Cheke's remarks against popery. Tn 

1702, Mr. Elstob was appointed rector of the united 
parishes of St. Switbin and St. Mary Bothaw, London,' 
where he continued to his death, and which appears to be 
the only ecclesiastical preferment he ever obtained. In 

1703, he published, at Oxford, an edition of Ascham's 
Latin Letters. He was the author, likewise, of an " Essay 
on the great affinity and mutual agreement between the 
two professions of Law and Divinity," printed at London,' 
with a preface, by Dr. Hickes. This book, in process of 
time, became so little known, that Mr. Philip Carteret 
Webbe insisted upon it that there was no such work, until 
convinced, by an abstract or view of it, which was sent to 
Mr. Pegge, from a copy in the library of St. John's col- 
lege, Cambridge. It is a thin octavo, and not very scarce. 
In 1704, Mr. Elstob published two sermons ; one, a thanks- 
giving sermon, from Psalm ciii. 10, for the victory at 
Hochstet; and, the other, from 1 Timothy i. 1, 2, on the 
anniversary of the queen's accession. Besides the works 1 
already mentioned, our author, who was a great proficient 
in the Latin tongue, compiled an essay on its history and 
use ; collected materials for an account of Newcastle ; and, 
also, the various proper names formerly used in the north : 
but what is become of these manuscripts is not known. la 
1709, he published, in the Saxon language, with a Latint^ 
translation, the homily on St Gregory's day. Mr. Elstob 
bad formed several literary designs, the execution of which 
was prevented by his death, in 171 4, when he was only 
forty -one years of age. The most considerable of his de- 
signs was an edition of the Saxon laws, with great addi- 
tions, and a new Latin version by Somner, together with 
notes of various learned men, and a prefatory history of 
the origin and progress of the English laws, down to the 
conqueror, and td Magna Charta. This great plan was 
completed in 1721, by Dr. David Wilkins, who, in his 
preface, thus speaks concerning our author : " Hoc Gu- 
lielmus Elstob, in Uteris Anglo- Saxonicis versatissimus, 
praestare instituerat. Hinc Wheloci vestigia premens, Leges 
quas editio ejus exhibet, cum MSS. Cantabrigiensibus, 
Bodleiano, Roffensi, et Cottonianis contulerat, versioneque 
nova adornare proposuerat, ut sic Leges, antea jam publici 
juris factae, ejus opera et studio emendatiores prodiissent. 

179 E L S T O B. 

Veriim morte immature prereptus, propositum exequi noti 
potuit." Whilst Mr. Elstob was engaged in this design, 
Dr. Hickes recommended him to Mr. Harley, as a man' 
whose modesty had made him an obscure person, and 
which would ever make him so, unless some kind patron, 
of good learning should bring him into light. The doctor 
added his testimony to Mr. Elstob's literature, his great 
diligence and application, and his capacity for the work he 
had undertaken. Mr. Harley so far attended to Dr. Hickes's 
recommendation as to grant to Mr. Elstob the use of the 
books and manuscripts in his library, which our author 
acknowledged in a very humble letter. A specimen of 
Mr. Elstob's design was actually printed at Oxford, in 
1699, under the title of " Hormesta Pauli Orosii, &c. ad 
exemplar Junianum, &c." He intended, also, a translation 
with notes, of Alfred's Paraphrastic Version of Orosiqs ; 
bis transcript of which, with collations, was in Dr. Pegge's 
hands. Another transcript, by. Mr. Ballard, with a large, 
preface on the use of Anglo-Saxon literature, was left by 
Dr. Charles Lyttelton, bishop of Carlisle, to the library of 
the Sociejty of Antiquaries. Alfred's Version of Orosius 
has since been given to the public, with an English trans- 
lation, by the honourable Daines Barrington. In his pub- 
lication, Mr. Barrington observes, that he has made use of 
Mr. Elstob's transcript, and that he has adopted from it 
the whimsical title of Hormesta. When it is considered 
that Mr. Elstob died in early life, it will be regretted, by 
the lovers of antiquarian learning, that he was prevented 
from acquiring that name and value in the literary world, 
to which he would otherwise probably have arisen. * 
. ELSTOB (Elizabeth), sister of Mr. William Elstob, 
and engaged in the same learned pursuits, was born at 
Newcastle, Sept. 29, 1683. It is said, that she owed the 
rudiments of her extraordinary education to her mother ; 
of which advantage, however, she w$s soon deprived ; for 
at the age of eight years she had the misfortune of losing 
this intelligent parent. Her guardians, who entertained 
different sentiments, discouraged as much as they were 
able her progress in literature, as improper for her sex ; 
but she had contracted too great a fondness for literary 
studies to be diverted from the prosecution of them. Du- 

* Biog. Brit. — Nichols's Bowyer, wbcre are many letters and additional * 

E L S T O B. 171 

ring her brother's continuance at Oxford, she appears to 
have resided in that city, where she was esteemed and 
respected by Dr. Hudson and other Oxonians. Upou her 
brother's removal to London, she probably removed with 
him ; and, it is certain, that she assisted him in his anti- 
quarian undertakings. The first public proof which she 
gave of it was in 1 709, when, upon Mr. Elstob's printing 
the homily on St. Gregory's day, she accompanied it with 
an English translation. The preface, too, was writteo by 
'her, in which she answers the objections made to female 
learning, by producing that glory of her sex, as she calls 
her, Mrs. Anna Maria Schurman. Mrs. Elstob's next pub- 
lication was a translation of raadame Scudery's " Essay on 
Glory." She assisted, also, her brother in an edition of 
Gregory's pastoral, which was probably intended to have 
included both the original and Saxon version ; and she bad 
transcribed all the hymns, from An ancient manuscript in 
Salisbury cathedral* By the encouragement of Dr. Hickes, 
she undertook a Saxon Homilarium, with an English trans* 
lation, notes, and various readings. To promote this de- 
sign, Mr. Bowyer printed for her, in 1713, " Some testi- 
monies of learned men, in favour of the intended edition 
of the Saxon Homilies, concerning the learning of the 
author of those homilies, and the advantages to be hoped 
for from an edition of them. In a letter from the pub- 
lisher to a doctor in divinity." About the same time she 
wrote three letters to the lord treasurer, from which it 
appears, that he solicited and obtained for her queen 
Anne's bounty towards printing the homilies in question. 
Her majesty's decease soon deprived Mrs. Elstob of this 
. benefit ; and she was not otherwise sufficiently patronized, 
so as to be able to complete the work. A few only of the 
homilies were actually printed at Oxford, in folio. Mrs. 
Elstob's portrait was given in the initial letter G of 
" The English Saxon Homily on the Birth-day of St. 
George." In 1715, she published a Saxon grammar, the 
types for which had been cut at the expence of the lord 
chief justice Parker, afterwards earl of Macclesfield. Mrs. 
JJlstob had other literary designs in view, but was prevent- 
' ed from the prosecution of them, by her distressed circum- 
stances, and the want of due encouragement. After her 
brother's death, she was so far reduced, .that she was ob-r 
liged to retire to Evesham in Worcestershire, where she 
subsisted with difficulty by keeping a small school. lg 

172 ELSTOB. . 

this situation she experienced the friendship of Mr. George 
Ballard, and of Mrs. Capon, wife of the rev. Mr. Capon> 
who kept a boarding-school at Stanton, in Gloucestershire. 
These worthy persons exerted themselves among their ac- 
quaintance, to obtain for Mrs. Elstobsome annual provision. 
At length she was recommended ta queen Caroline, who 
granted her a pension of twenty guineas a year* 1 This 
being discontinued on the queen's decease, Mrs. Elstob was 
again brought into difficulties, . and, though mistress of 
eight languages, besides her own, was obliged toseekfor 
employment as a preceptress of children. She may, how- 
ever, be considered as having been very forturtate in»the 
situation, which she obtained in this capacity; for, in 1739, 
she was taken into the family of the duchess Dowager of 
Portland, where she continued till her death, which hap- 
pened on the 30th of May 1756. She was buried at St. 
Margaret's, Westminster. Mr. Rowe Mores describes her 
as having been the indefessa comes of her brother's studies, 
and a female student of the university ; and as having 
originally possessed a genteel fortune, which, by pursuing 
too much the drug called learning, she did not know how 
to manage. He adds, that upon visiting her in her sleep- 
ing-room at. Bulstrode, he found her surrounded with 
books and dirtiness. She was, however, one of the most 
extraordinary women of her age, the first, and as far as 
we know, the last of her sex, who was a Saxon scholar. 
A more particular account of her tylSS. and other produc- 
tions is given in our first authority. * * 

ELSWlCH (John Herman), a -Lutheran divine, styled 
in the Bibl. German, one of the principal ornaments of the 
city of Stade, descended from a noble family, originally of 
Guelderland, which they quitted to avoid the persecutions 
of the duke of Alva, and was born at Rensburgh in HoL- 
stein, in 1684. He studied at Lubeck, Rostock, Leipsic, 
Jena, and Wirtemberg, at which last university he took 
his degree of master of arts. In 1717 he received an in- 
vitation to Stade, where he became pastor of the church of 
St. Cosmo and Damien, and where he died in the thirty- 
sixth year of his age, June 10, 1721, much lamented as 
one who had given striking proofs of eminent talents,- and 
. whose studies, had they been prolonged, promised yet 
greater fruits. The authority quoted abbve gives the foi- 

1 * Nichols's BQwyer,— Biog, Brit. 

E L S W I C H. ,175 

lowing list of his works, but without • dates or size, &c. 
1. " Dissert&tio inauguralis de Jure Episcoporum in Gallijt 
a. papa ad concilium provocandi," 2. " De Melchisedeco, 
contra. Juriaeum et Halsium." 3. " De Formula coucor- 
,dia& in Dania uon combusta, contra Gotfr. Arnoldum." 4. 
-"De recen riorum in Novum Fcedus Critica." 5. " Obser- 
*ationes*philologic& super B. H. Witteri commentationem 
in Genesin." 6. " Epistola Apologetica ad Witterum.'* 
(1. " Vindiciae Diascepseos Hunnianse, adversus D. Strime* 
lium.'.' 8. " De FauaticQium Palinodia." 9. " De In- 
jrcriptioue. Apocalypseos Johannes. 10. " De Philosophu- 
menis viris Sanctis temere affiictis." 11. " De Magis." 
12. " Annotationes ad Matur. Simonii libellum de Uteris 
pereuatibus." 13. " Controversiae recentiores de Atheismo." 
14... " Controversial recentiores de anima." 15. "Com- 
jaentatio de reliquiis Papatus ecclesiae Lutberanae temere 
affiictis, &c." To these may be added a new edition of 
Launoy " De varia Aristotelis fortuna in academia Pa- 
jisieosi." He had also for. some time been employed on 
a history of philosophy, and other literary undertakings, 
iwhich his death interrupted. * 

:. ELSYNGE (Henky), an English gentleman, clerk of 
die house of commons in the reign of Charles I. was born 
at Batterseaiu Surrey, in. 1598 ; being the eldest son of 
-Henry Elsynge, esq. who was clerk of the house of lords, 
And a person of great abilities. He was educated at West- 
minster school; and thence, in 1621, removed to Christ 
Church, in Oxford, where he took the degree of B. A. 
1:625. Then he travelled abroad, and spent at several 
.times above seven years in foreign countries ; by . which 
he became a very accomplished person, and was greatly- 
esteemed by men of the highest quality and best judgment. 
•He was in particular so much valued by archbishop Laud, 
that his grace procured him the place of clerk of the house 
of commons, to which he proved of excellent use, as well 
as a singular ornament. For he was very dextrous in 
taking and expressing the sense of the house; and also so 
•great a help to the speaker and to the house in stating the 
-questions, and drawing up the orders free from exceptions, 
that it much conduced to the dispatch of business, and the 
service of the parliament. His discretion also and pru- 
dence were such, that, though the long parliament was 


1 Mortri,— BibL Gennwque, vol. Ills 

17* £ L S Y N G E. 

by faction kept in continual disorder, yet bis fair and tern* 
perate carriage made him commended and esteemed by 
all parties, how furious and opposite soever they were 
among themselves* And therefore for these his abilities 
and good conduct, more reverence was paid to his stool, 
than to the speaker Lenthall's chair; who, being ob- 
noxious, timorous, and interested, was often much con- 
fused in collecting the sense of the house, and drawing the 
debates into a fair question ; in which Elsynge was always 
observed to be so ready and just, that the house generally 
acquiesced in what he did of that nature. At length* 
when he saw that the greater part of the house were im- 
prisoned and secluded, and that the remainder would bring 
the king to a trial for his life, he desired, the 26th Dec. 
1648, to resign his place. He alleged for this his bad state 
of health ; but most people understood his reason to be* 
and he acknowledged it to Whitelock and other friends, 
because he would have no hand in the business against the 
king. After which, quitting his advantageous employment, 
be retired to his house at Hounslow, in Middlesex, where 
he presently contracted many bodily infirmities, of which 
he died irt 1654. He was a man of very great parts, and 
very learned, especially in the Latin, French, and Italian 
languages : he was, what was far above all these accom*- 
plishments, a very just and honest man; and Whitelock 
relates, that the great Selden was particularly fond of him, 
which is n6 small circumstance to his honour. 

He was the author of, 1. " The ancient method and man- 
ner of holding Parliaments in England," 1663, reprinted 
often since ; the best edition is that of 1768, by the learned 
and accurate Thomas Tyrwhitt, esq. who was some time 
clerk of the house of commons 4 . Wood supposes that this 
work is mostly taken from a manuscript entitled " Modus 
tenendi Parliamentum apud Anglos, &c. Of the form 
and manner of holding a Parliament in England, and all 
things incident thereunto, digested and divided into se- 
veral chapters and titles, anno i626." Written by our 
authqr's father, who died while his son was upon bis "tra- 
vels. 2. A tract concerning the proceedings in parlia- 
ment : never published. The manuscript was some time 
in the possession of sir Matthew Hale, x who bequeathed it 
by his will to Lincoln's-inn library. 3. He left also behind 
him some tracts^nd memorials, which his executors thought- 
Hot perfect enough to be published. 4. Wood ascribes 


moreover to him, " A declaration or remonstrance of the 
state of the kingdom, agreed on by the lords and commons 
assembled in parliament, 19th May, 1642." But this 
piece is not thought to have been his, on aceount of a de- 
gree of virulence running through it, which was not na- 
tural to him. The reader may find it in the fourth volume 
of Rushworth's Collections, and in Husband's collection of* 
Remonstrances, &q. 1643, 4to. * 

ELYOT (Sir Thomas), a gentleman of eminent learn* 
lug in the reign of kiug Henry VIII. and author of several* 
works, was son of sir Richard Elyot, of the county of 
Suffolk, and educated in academical learning at St. Mary's 
kail in Oxford, where he made a considerable progress in 
logic ai*d philosophy. After some time spent at the uni- 
versity, he travelled into foreign countries, and upon his 1 
return was introduced to the court of. king Henry, who,, 
being a great patron of learned men, conferred on him the 
honour of knighthood, and employed him in several em-: 
bassies, particularly to Rome in 15 32, about the affair of 
the divorce of queen Catharine, and afterwards, about 
1536, to the emperor Charles V. Sir Thomas was an ex- 
cellent grammarian, rhetorician, philosopher, physician, 
cosmographer, and historian ; and no less distinguished 
for his candour, and the innocence and integrity of his life. 
He was courted and celebrated by all the learned men of 
his time, particularly the famous antiquary Leland, who* 
addressed a copy of Latin verses to him in his " Encotokt 
illustrium virorum." A similitude of manners, and same- 
ness of studies, recommended him to the intimacy and 
friendship of sir Thomas More. He died in 1546, and 
was buried the 25th of March, in the church of Carlettm* 
in Cambridgeshire, of which county he had been sheriff. 
His widow afterwards was married to sir James Dyer. 

Had sir Thomas Elyot written only his book called 
u The Governor," it would have entitled him to the re- 
spect of posterity ; as one of the best writers of his time, 
a man of acute observation, and of manly and liberal sen-? 
tim§nts. The days of Henry VIII. were not very favour- 
able to such, as the capricious will of Henry VIII. inter* 
fered so frequently with the progress of right thinking ; 
but sir Thomas on some occasions was not afraid to avow 
his sentiments. In 1535, a proclamation was issued for 


» Ath. Ox. tol. IL— Biog. Brit, _ , , 

V7S E L Y O T. 

calling in seditions books; tinder which description wfcre 
reckoned, and chiefly intended, such writings as favoured 
the bishop of Rome. Upon this occasion sir Thomas 
Cromwell directed letters to several persons, ordering them 
to send in all publications of the nature designed to be 
condemned. Among others, he wrote to sir Thomas Elyot, 
whom, though an old friend of his own, he suspected, 
from his having been intimate with sir Thomas More, to 
be attached to the Romish religion. In answer, Elyot de- 
clared his judgment of the need of a reformation of the 
clergy, and disclaimed all undue connection with 'papists. 
As to any of the prohibited books he might chance to have 
by him, and which were very few, he was ready to deliver 
them up. Part of the language which he uses is as fol- 
lows: "Sir, As ye know, I have been ever desirous to 
lead many books, especially concerning humanity and 
moral philosophy. And, therefore, of such studies I have 
a competent number. But, concerning the Scripture I 
have very few. For in Questionists I never delighted. 
Unsavory glosses and comments I ever abhorred. The 
boasters and advancers of the pompous authority of the 
bishop of Rome I never esteemed. But, after that, by a 
judgment, or estimation of things, I did anon smell out their 
corrupt affection, and beheld with scornful eyes the sundry 
abusions of their authorities, adorned with a licentious and 
dissolute form of living. Of the which, as well in them 
as in the universal state of the clergy, I have oftentimes 
wished a necessary reformation." 

The works of sir Thomas Elyot were, 1. €C The Castle* 
of Health," Lond* 1541, 1572, 1580, 1595, &c. in 8vo„ 
2. "The Governor," in three books, Lortd. 1531, 1544, 
1547, 1557, 1580, &c. in 8vo. 3. « Of the Education of 
Children," Lond. in 4to. 4. "The Banquet of Sapience/* 
Lond. in 8vo. 5. " De Rebus Memorabilibus Anglise," for 
the completing of which he had perused many old English 
monuments. 6. "A Defence or Apology for good Wo- 
men." 7. w Bibliotheca Eliotae : Elyot's Library, of Dic- 
tionary," Lond. 154!, &c. fol. which work Cooper aug- 
mented and enriched with thirty-three thousand words and 
phrases, besides a fuller account of the true signification 
of words. Sir Thomas translated likewise, from Greek 
into- English, "The Image of Governance, compiled of 
the Acts and Sentences by the Emperor Alexander Seve- 
jrus," Lond. 1556, 1594, &c. in gvo, Bayle accuses him 

E L Y O T* ill 

if having pretended to translate this from a Greek MS. 
whereas he says he, borrowed his materials from Lampri- 
dias and Hefodtan. N Selden, however, thought that he 
translated a Greek MS. composed by a modern urriterr Ifr 
is not on Bayle-s authority that we should chuse to rank 
such a man as &ir T. Elyot among impostors. He also 
translated from Latin into English, 1. " St. Cyprian's 
Sermon of the Mortality of Man,'* Lond. 1534, in 8vo. 
2. " The Rule of a Christian Life*" written by Picus earl 
of Mirandola> Lond. 1534, in 8vo. 

Sir Thomas Elyot 7 s « Governor," says StryJ>e, was 
designed to instruct men, especially great men, in good 
morals, and to reprove their vices. It consisted of several 
chapters, treating concerning affability, benevolence, be- 
neficence, the diversity of flatterers, and other similar sub- 
jects. In these chapters were some sharp and quick sen* 
tences, which offended many of the young men of fashion 
at that time. They complained of sir Thomas's strange 
terms, as they called tbem ; and said that it was no little 
presumption in him to meddle with persons of the highef 
and nobler ranks. The complaints of these gentlemen* 
who were always kicking at such examples as did bite them* 
our author compared to a galled horse, abiding no plasters. 
King Henry read and much liked sir Thomas Elyot' s trea* 
rise; and was particularly pleased with his endeavours to 
improve and enrich the English language. It was observed 
by his majesty, that throughout the book there was no new 
term made by him of a Latin or French word, and that no 
sentence was beteby rendered dark or hard to be under* 
stood. . 

Sjr Thomas Elyot' s Castle of Health, we are told by the 
same author, subjected him to various strictures. When 
some gallants had mocked at him foir writing a book of 
medicine, and said in derision, that he was become a phy- 
sician, he gave this answer '. " Truly, if they call him a 
physician which is studious about the weal of his country* 
I vouchsafe they so name me. For, during my life, I will 
in that affection always continue. 19 Indeed, sir Thomas's 
work exposed him to the censures both of the gentry and 
the medical faculty. To the former, who alleged that it 
did not beseem a knight to write Up6n such a subject, he 
replied, " that many kings and emperors (whose names he 
sets down) did not only advance and honour that science 
with special privileges* but were also studious in it them- 
Vol. XIII. N 

«« EL TO Ti 

selves. 1 * He added, " that it wfcs no more shame for * 
person of quality to be the author of a book 011 the science? 
of physic, than it was for king Henry the Eighth to publish' 
a botik On the science of grammar, which hd had lately 
done.'* What offended the physicians was, that sir Tho- 
mas should meddle in their department, Tind particularly 
that he should treat of medicine in English, to make the 
knowledge thereof common* But he justified himself by* 
endeavouring to shew, that his work was intended for their 1 
benefit. As for those who found fault with him for writing' 
in English, he, on the other hand, blamed them for affecting 
to keep their art a secret. To such o»f the college as re- 
flected upon his skill, he represented, that before he was 
twenty years old, one of the most learned physicians in 
England read to him the works of Hippocrates, Galen, 
Oribasius, Paulas Celius, Alexander Tralli&hus, Pliny, 
Dioscorides, and Joannicius, To these sir Thomas after- 
wards added the study of Avicen, Averroes, and many 
more. Therefore, though he had never been at MontpeA 
lier, Padua, or Salerno ; yet he said, "Vhat he had found 
something in physic, by which he had experienced no little 
• profit for his own health." v 

On the whole, sir Thomas Elyot was both one of the* 
most learned, and one of the wisest men of his time; 
Havihg in the earlier part of his life served his king and 
country in embassies and- public affairs, he devoted his 
latter years to the writing of such discourses as he hoped 
wbuld be serviceable in promoting true wisdom and virtue.' 
From his youth he had a great desire after knowledge^ and 
an earnest solicitude to be useful to his countrymen. The 
books which he most diligently perused, and which he 
eagerly sought after wherever they could be found; Were 
all the ancient works, whether in Greek or Latin, that 
treated of moral philosophy, and the tight institution 1 of 
Jife. Strype has produced some examples of thewfedont 
of our knight in those weighty sentences which often catn^ 
from his pen. 1 ■.<.,.- 

ELYS (Edmund), or Eliseus, as he calls himself in his 
n Miscellanea," the son of a clergyman in Devonshire, 

) Bio?. Brit— Slrype's Eccl. Memorials, vol. I. p. 221 , A pp. 153.— Amesfe 
Typography, by Herbert, where is a fuller account of the various editions of hi* 
worVs.— - In the Bibliographer, vol. II. and IV. are some specimens of his rarer 
tracts.-— Ath. Ox* vel. 1. — Wood calls him a poet, as does Philips; butifbere irf 
■tfbwg citaafc to justify that character.— See Bayle, in art. Encorpiu* 

£ L Y S. ; 1*9 

Was educated at Baliol-collegfe, Oxford. In 1655, about 
the time wfyen he took the degree of B, A. being then feU 
low'of the college, he published a small volume of divine 
poems, and another in 1658. The same year be published 
" Miscellanea/ 9 in Latin and English verse, and several 
short essays in Latin prose. This book was reprinted in 
1662. In the preface, and again in the body of the work, 
he speaks with great sensibility of sontfe persons' who had 
decried his performances, and aspersed his character on 
account of some levities and follies of youth. In 1659 he 
succeeded his father in the rectory of East Allington, in 
Devonshire. His conduct appears to have been irrieproach- 
able after he entered into orders. By his Writings' he hafr 
given sufficient testimony of his parts, industry, and learn- 
ing. The most remarkable of his numerous works, which 
are mentioned by Wood, is the pamphlet he published 
against Dr. Tillotson's sermons on the incarnation ; and the 
most estimable is his volume of Letters, &c. as some of 
them are written to eminent persons, particularly Dr. Sher- 
lock and Dr. Bentley. There are also letters from Dr. 
Henry More, Dr. Barlow, and others, to Edmund Elys. 
He was living, and in studious retirement, in 1693, at 
which time he was a non-juror. 1 

ELZEVIRS. This family of celebrated printers at Am- 
sterdam and Leyden greatly adorned the republic of letters 
by manv beautiful editions of the best authors of antiquity. 
They tell somewhat below the Stephens's in point of 
learning, as well as in their editions of Greek and Hebrew 
authors ; but as to the choice of good books they seem to 
have equalled, and in the neatness and elegance of their 
small characters, greatly to have exceeded them. Their, 
Virgil, Terence, and Greek Testament, have been rec- 
koned their master-pieces; and are indeed so very fine, 
that they justly gained them the reputation of being the 
best priuters in Europe. There were five of these Elzevirs, 
namely, Lewis, Bonaventure, Abraham, Lewis, and Da- 
niel. Lewis began to be famous at Leyden in 1595, and 
Was remarkable for being the first who observed the dis- 
tinction between the v consonant and u vowel, which had 
been recommended by Ramus and other writers long be-* 
fore, but was hitherto neglected. Daniel died in 1680, or 
£681 ; and though he left children who carried on the bu- 

• Ath. Ox. vol. II. — Granger, rol. III. 
N 2 


siness, passes nevertheless for the last of his ' ' 
excelled in it. The Elzevirs have printed se^ J* 
logues of their editions ; but the last, published * " a * 
is considerably enlarged, and abounds with new 
was printed at Amsterdam, 1674, in 12mo, ar M * 
into seven volumes. l •*.'»#* 

EMERSON (William), a very eminent raath^' - 
was born May 14, 1701, at Hurworth, a vil 1 " to ••' 
three miles south of Darlington, on the bord**- * »■•"•» ■* 
county of Durham, at least it is certain he re c *'*••■■ * * 

from his childhood. His father, Dudly Emer?'» v » f 

a school, and was a tolerable proficient in *«»{*».»« *a , . 
niatics ; and without his books and instructions ?fw w« ** - *> 
son's genius might might never have been unfo^«*t<> , - 
sides his father's instructions, our author was T ifo w * 
the learned languages by a young clergyman, fe* t j. w <. . v . 
of Hurworth, who was boarded at his father's iMtu.i« ,^ . 
the early part of his life, he attempted to tei^,,,,^ l## 
scholars; but whether from his concise meth*** tf ^ , Aw , 
was not happy in expressing his ideas), or the**,^ ■••'., 
his natural temper, be made no progress in his ini Wj|v « m y t0m t ' 
therefore soon left it off, and satisfied with a s^fe^u . ' ^ "" 
nal estate of about 60/. or 70/. a year, devoted^ » '  
study, which he closely pursued in his native pla^ t '"' 
the course of a long life, being njostly very h^y  * 

towards the latter part of his days, when he^ji *** " A " 
afflicted with the stone : towards the close of the^^ A, '*\ ' * ' 
being sensible of bis approaching dissolution, ^i^i*^ *" " ' * 
of the whole of his mathematical library to a ba^Y ' 
York, and on May the 26th, 1782, his Ungerin^/J^ ^ 
ful disorder put an end to his life at his native t* 1 **^ , *•** 
the eighty-first year of his age. In his person J**** **-** '-*" 
ther short, but strong and well-made, with an \T* **+'- ** 
tenance and ruddy complexion. He was never *V*.v*v -» 

ask a favour, or seek the acquaintance of a richer* '*•* \*+A \ 
less he possessed some eminent qualities of the i**? 4 "? v * *"* 
was a very good classical scholar, and a tolerable '** x **rTn* r +, i 
so far as it could be combined with mathematical !J*s ** *m ***+ 
according to the plan of Keil and Morton. Th.^ r * r <r>>, ^uc v 
esteemed above all others as a physician — the** 5 ***, t« .. tf y . 
the best anatomist. He was very singular in his ^*«^nj ^ 
dress, and conversation. His manage and a * »s wile v**C 

* MortrU*B«illet - * * Ter y ***? 




_^ t<*^ .-*. V. ,»tt> ... uo*>* 





<*" V '.A v^ 






ut Emc 

f his o^ 

* mention. 




fc»A «J ^ 

to »',. „&ivr '. . im *r^ 01 








nan, vi 
^ised ki 

c3 to Pai 

him. ] 
^his woi 
is his 01 

**« rei gll 
^story v 

^ n * boo] 

**>> ai 

5J°» of th 

x Paris 

?**<>«* in re. 
/*«* to mate; 

8™ he had 

^- iftan Paulu, 

V^^lt ; he was 

^*«a revised his 

**»> that one 

J^cted, but for 

■^Ustom. This 

forth sooner 

above thirty 

much pleased 

of Emerson'i Life 

^. 1 520, and in the be- 
^*gn of Francis I. thit 
^ presented to him be? 
«We crown. Etnilloe 
* Trance* \a order to 
*wk> by Ww Sit. 
\ \b\ft vfvK* began \>uk 

scaler both ancient and modern, but was a very poor per- 
former. He carried that singularity which marked aU hip. 
actions; fcven into this . science.' He JbaiJ, if we may be, 
allowed the expression, two first strings to bis violin ft 
which, he said, made the E more melodious when they 
were drawn up to p perfect unison. .His virginal, which ia 
a species .of instrument like .the mpdern spinnet, he had. 
cut and twisted into various shapes in the keys, by adding 
some occassional half-tones in order to regulate the present, 
scale, and. to "rectify some fraction of discord that will* 
always remain in the tuning.. He never cQuld get this re**. 
gulated to bis fapcy, and generally concluded, by saying,, 
*' It was a bad instrument, and a foolish thing to be vexed 
with." . , 

, The following; is. a list of Mr* Emerson's works: 1. "The 
t>qcfrine of Fluxions," 8vo, ; about ,1743, 2. " The Pro- 
jection of th# Sphere, orthpgraphic, stereographic, and. 
grtomonical; both demonstrating the principles, and ex- 
plaining the practice of the§e several sorts pf projections,'* 
1*749, Svq, 3. " The, elements of. Trigoporoetry," .1749, 
8vo. : 4. " The principles of Mechanics," J 7 54, 8vo, .5.. 
Navigation, or the art of sailing upon, the ,sea, i7i5, 12 mo. 
6., "A treatise of' Algebra^ in two books," 1765, &VO., 
7u "The arithmetic of infinite^, and the differential me- 
tjjod, illustrated, by examples.. The elements of the ponic v 
sections,, demonstrated in three books," 1767, 8vo. 8. 
*' Mechanics, or the doctrine of motion," &c. 1769* $vo* 
9. li The elements of % Optics, in four books," 1768, 8vo. 
1Q. " A system of Astronomy; containing the invpstiga* 
tion and demonstration of the elements of that science* 
1769, Sva. IK «? The laws of centripetal and centrifugal 
force,'* 1769, ?vo. 12. il The mathematical principles of 
geography," 1770, &vo. 13. " Tracts," 1770* Svo, 14. 
u Cyclpmathesis ; or an easy introduction to the several 
branches pf the Mathematics,", , 17 JO, 10 vols. &vp« 1 5. " A. 
short comment on sir Isaac Newton's Prjncipia, containing 
notes upon some difficult places of that excellent book* 
To which is added, a Defence of , sir Isaac agajnst the ob- 
jections that have been made to several parts of. the Prin* 
oipia and Optics, by Leibnitz, Bernoulli; Euler,.&c and 
a Confutation of r the objections made by D/s. Rutherford 
and Bedford against his Chronology," 1770, 8vo* 16, u Mis- 
cellanies : or,' a miscellaneous treatise, containing: several 
mathematical subjects," 1776, 8vo, 




t These Are all goqd treatises, although the style find man* 
iter of porqe of them is rough and unpolished But Emer* 
son wa$ not remarkable for genius, or discoveries of his own, 
as his works show hardly any traces of original invention. * 

EMILIUS (Paulus) or Emili, a famous historian, was 
a native of Verona, and acquired so much reputation in 
Italy, that Stephen Poncher, bishop of Paris, advised king 
Lewis XIL to engage him to write in Xatin a history of 
the kings of France. He wap accordingly invited to Paris, 
and a canonry.iR the cathedral church was given him. He 
retired to the college of Navarre, to compose this work j 
yet after about thirty years of application to this his only 
employment, it was not completed at bis death. The 
tenth book, which contained the beginning of the reign of 
Charles VIJJ. was left unfinished. But the history was 
continued by Arnoldus Feronius, who. added nine books, 
^vhich include the supplement to the former rgign, and 
end at the death of Francis I. This continuation wa$ 
published at Paris in 1$50; but the beat edition of the 
whole is that entitled ." Emilii Pauli, de Gesds Francorum, 
libri decern, cum jVrnoldi Feroni libris novem." Paris, 
2 vols. fol. 

He is said to have been very nice and* scrupulous in re* 
gard to bis works, having always some correction to make; 
Eence Erasmus imputes the same fault to him that wai 
objected to the painter Protogenes, who thought he had 
never finished his pieces » " That very {earned man Paulus 
Emilius (says be) gave pretty much into this fault ; he was 
never satisfied with himself ; but, as often as he revised his 
own performances, he made such alterations, that one 
would not take them for the same pieces corrected, but for 
quite different ones ; and this was his usual custom. This 
made him so slow, that elephants could bring forth sooner 
than he .could produce a work ; for he took above thirty 
years* in writing bis history." Lipsius was much pleased 

1 Preceding edition of this Dictionary.— Some Account of Emerson's Life 
by the rev. W. Bowe, 1793, 8vo.— Hutton'g Diet. 

* Mr. Bayle thinks it was an error 
in Erasmus to assert that Emilius was 
thirty years about hj* history. " There 
is (say s he) in the king of France's 
library, an edition containing the first 
four books of Paulus Emilius, printed 
at Pahs, without a datsj but it mutt 

have been before 1520, and in the be- 
ginning of the reign of Francis I. this 
copy having been presented to bim be- 
fore he wore the close crown. Emilius 
was invited into France* in order to 
compose this' work, by Lewis XII. 
Now the reign of this prince began but 

it* E M I L I U S. 


with this performance : u Paulus Emilius (says that author) 
is almost the only modern who has discovered the true and 
ancient way of writing history, and followed it very closely. 
His manner of writing is learned, nervous, and concise, 
inclining to points and conceits, and leaving a strong im- 
pression on the mind of a serious reader. He often inter- 
mixes maxims and sentiments not inferior to those of the 
ancients. A careful examiner, and impartial judge of 
facts ; nor have I met with an author in our time, who has 
less prejudice or partiality. It is a disgrace. to our age that 
so few are pleased with him ; and that there are but few 
capable of relishing his beauties. Among so many per- 
fections there are, however, a few blemishes, for his style 
is somewhat unconnected, and his periods too short. This 
is not suitable to serious subjects, especially annals, the 
$tyle of which, according to Tacitus, should be grave and 
unaffected. He is also unequal, being sometimes too stu- 
died and correct, and thereby obscure ; at other times 
(this however but seldom) he is loose and negligent. He 
affects also too much of the air of antiquity in the names 
of men and places, which he changes, and would reduce to 
the ancient form, often learnedly, sometimes vainly, and 
in my opinion always unbecomingly." * Emilius's history is 
divided into ten books, and' extends from Pharamond to 
the fifth year of Charles VIII. in 1488. The tenth book 
toras found among his papers in a confused condition, so 
that the editor, Daniel Xavarisio, a native of Verona, and 
relation of Emilius, was obliged to collate a great number 
of papers full of rasures, before it could be published. He 
has been censured by several of the French writers, par- 
ticularly by M. Sorel : " It does not avail (says this author) 
that his oratorical pieces are imitations of those of the 
Greeks and Romans': all are not in their proper places ; for 
he often makes barbarians to speak in a learned and elo- 
quent manner. To give one Temarkable circumstance : 
though our most authentic historians declare, that Hauier, 
6r Hanier, the counsellor, who spoke an invective, in pre«* 
sence of king Lewis Hautin, against Engu$rrand de Ma-» 
rigny, came off poorly, and said many silly things; yet 
Paulus Emilius, who changes even his name, calling him 
Annalis, makes him speak with an affected eloquence* He 

in 1498 ; and had he sent for this au- ployed above eighteen years at moat i* 
thor immediately after his accession to writing the history of France, 1 ' 
the crown, Emilius could not hate em-' 

E M I L I U S. 135 

also makes this Enguerrand pronounce a defence/ 1 though 
rt is said he was not allowed to speak ; so that -what the 
historian wrote on this occasion was only to exercise his 
pen." He has been also animadverted upon for not taking 
notice of the holy vial at Rheims. u I shall not (says 
Claude de Verdier) pass over Pauhis Emilius of Verona's 
malicious silence, who omitted mentioning many things 
relating to the glory of the French nation. Nor can it be 
said he was ignorant of those things, upon which none 
were silent before himself ; such as that oil which was sent 
from heaven for anointing our monarchs; and also the 
klies. And even though he had not credited them hinrw 
self, he ought to have declared the opinion of mankind/ 9 
Vossius, however, commends his silence in regard to these 
idle tales. Julius Scaliger mentions a book containing the 
history of the family of the Scaligers, as translated into 
elegant Latin by Paiilus Emilius ; and in his letter about 
the antiquity and splendour of the family, he has the fol- 
lowing passage : " By the injury of time, the malice of 
enemies, and the ignorance of writers, a great number of 
memoirs relating to our family were lost ; so that the name 
of Scaliger would have been altogether buried in obscurity, 
had it not been for Paulus Emilius of Verona, that most 
eloquent, writer and preserver of ancient pedigrees ; who 
having fopnd in Bavaria very ancient annals of our family, 
written, as himself tells us, in a coarse style, polished and 
translated them into Latin. From this book my father ex- 
tracted such particulars as seemed to reflect the " greatest 
honour on our family." Scaliger speaks also of it in the 
first edition of his Commentary on Catullus, in 1:586, and 
in the second, in 1 600, but in such a manner as differs 
somewhat from the passage above cited. Scioppius has* 
severely attacked Scaliger on account of these variations : 
he observes, that no mention being made of the place 
where this manuscript was pretended to be found, nor the 
person who possessed it, and such authors as bad searched 
the Bavarian libraries with the utmost care, having met 
with no such annals ; he therefore asserts, that whatever 
the Scaligers advanced concerning this work, was all im- 
posture. Emilius, as to his private life, was a man of ex* 
emplary conduct and untainted reputation. He died in 
IS2B, and was buried in the cathedral at Paris. 1 

' Momi.— NiccroD, vol* XL— TiratawhL— •<*♦ Diet. 

1M \E ML Y N. 

, EM'tYJJ. (TtfOMAS), $t» learned English ^ divine, a great 
champion of Arianism, and memorable for his suffering* 
en that account, was descended, of a substantial and repu* 
table family, and born at Stamford, in Lincolnshire, May 
27, 1663. IJis parents were frequenters of the established 
church, and particularly acquainted with Cumberland, 
then, a minister at Stamford, afterwards bishop of Peter- 
borough $ but being inclined to the sentiments of the non- 
conformists, they chose to bring up their son to the mi- 
nistry among them,, For this purpose, after he, bad been 
at g private school four years, he was sent in, 1678 to. an 
academy in Northamptonshire, where he continued four 
yepft more.. He went ig 1679 to Cambridge, and was 
admitted of Emanuel college ; but soon returned to the* 
academy. In, August 1682, he removed to Mr- Doolittle's 
school near London; and in December folk) wing. made his 
'first essay as a preacher at. Mr. Doolittle's meeting-house, 
near CripplegaAe,. In 1683, Mr. Emlyn became, chaplain 
to the cpnntess of Donegal,, a lady of- great quality and 
estate in the north of Ireland, but then living in Lincoln's-, 
inn-fields. - In 1694, Mr. Emlyn went over with. the conn* 
^ess.and the rest of her family to Belfast, in Ireland, where 
the was. soon after married to sir \tfiliiam Frank Jin, and 
lived in great stater and splendour. Here our chaplain bad 
a very liberal, and handsome allowance, usually wore .the 
habit of a clergyman, and was treated by sir William and 
the countess with every mark of civility. Sir William, who 
bad a good estate in the west of England, offered him a 
considerable living there ; but this ofitr be declined, not 
being satisBed with the terms of ministerial conformity, 
though at that time be had no scruples on the subject of 
the trinity ; constantly attended the service of the church 
both parts of the day ; and when in the evening he preached 
in the countess's hail, he bad the minister of the parish, Mr* 
Claude Gilbert, for a hearer, with whom be lived in great in- 
tima^y, and for whom be often officiated in the parish church* 
Indeed, without any subscription, he bad from the bishop of 
the diocese a licence to preach fautliatis excrcend* gratiA ; 
insomuch that it was reported that be bad 'entirely left the 
dissenters, and -was gone over to the establishment. While 
Iftr. Emlyn was in this station, be made a journey to 
Dublin, where he preached once to the congregation of 
which Mr. Daniel Williams and Mr. Joseph Boyse were 
then pastors ; and so acceptable Were bis services to th& 


BM;L;Y N,; • W* 

audience, that the people weje afterwards induced t^> in- 
vite bim tbuber. Towards the latter end of king James's • 
reign, the novtb of Irelapd was thrown into such confusion, 
and disorder, that the family of sir William Franklin and 
the cquutess of Donegal broke up ; an event which was 
fcpcelerated by some domestic differences* . Mr. Emlyn, 
therefore, returned to London, where he arrived in Den 
cember 1686. Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Daniel Williams had 
spate, time before retreated to the same place, having, 
quitted the pastoral care of the congregation at Dublin, 
which be could never be persuaded to resume. .When tbia 
determination was known, and Mr. Eoilyn had not yet 
l^ft Ireland, Mr. Boyse sounded him by letter, to know 
whether he was disposed to become Mr. Williams's sue* 
cessor, and wished him to take Dublin in bis way to Eng* 
knd, bpt tbis he . declined. In Mr. Emlyn's journeying** 
between; Ireland and London, be several times accepted of 
ipvitations to pleach in the parish-churches of some towns 
through which he passed. At Liverpool in particular, a* 
be was standing at the door of his inn one Saturday even* 
ijpg, the minister of the place, concluding by bis garb that 
be was. a clergyman, requested bim. to give hi* parishioners 
a sermon the next day, which he accordingly did. What 
was veryi/funarkable, when he passed that way again some 
time afterwards, the minister being dead, several of the 
people, who had beard him before, desired bim to preach, 
for them the next Sunday, which service he performed so 
ifcucb to their satisfaction, that they offered to use their in- 
terest with their patron to procure bim the living ; an offer 
with which his views of things did not permit him to comply* 
After IVJrr, Emlyn had returned to London, being out of? 
employment, he was invited by sir Robert Rich, one of 
the lords Qf the admiralty, in May 1689, to his house near 
Beccles, in Suffolk, and was by bim prevailed upon to 
officiate as, minister to a dissenting congregation at Lowe- 
stoff in that county. This place he supplied for abont » 
year and a half, but refused 4he invitation of becoming their 
pastor, having determined not to accept the pastoral care; 
where be was not likely to settle for life, or at least for a 
long pontinuance. Here also he cultivated a friendly cor- 
respondence with the parish-minister, frequently taking* 
several of his people along with him to church, and accom- 
panying the minister in collecting public charities; bjr 
which means a perfect harmony subsisted, between the 

18S E M L Y N. 

members of the establishment and the dissenters. During 
Mr. Emlyn's residence at Lowestoft", he contracted a close 
and intimate acquaintance with Mr. William Manning, a 
nonconformist minister at Peasenhall in that neighbour* 
hood. Being both of them of an inquisitive temper, they 
frequently conferred together, and jointly examined into- 
the principal points of religion, mutually communicating' 
to each other their respective sentiments. This corre- 
spondence, notwithstanding the great distance to which 
they were afterwards separated, was carried on by letters as 
long as Mr. Manning lived. Dr. Sherlock's " Vindication' 
of the Trinity** having been published about this time, 
their thoughts were much turned to the consideration of 
that subject, tbe result of which was, that they began to 
diflfer from the received doctrine in that article. Mr. Man- 
ning embraced the Sociuian opinion, and strove hard to 
bring Mr. Emlyn into the same way of thinking ; but be 
could not be brought to doubt either of the pre- existence 
of Jesus as the Logos, or that by him God bad created tbe 
material world. The interpretations which the. Socinians 
gave of the scriptures appeared to our divine so forced and 
unnatural, that he could by no means accede to them ; nor 
did be ever, in the succeeding part of his life, change his 
sentiments upon the subject. Nevertheless, upon occa- 
sion of his carrying a letter from Mr. Whiston to the pro- 
locutor of the lower house of convocati6n, in 1711, be was 
reflected on as a Socinian preacher. 

When James II. bad fled from Ireland to France, and 
affairs were tending to a settlement in the former kingdom, 
the protestant congregations began to re-assemble in large 
numbers. Upon this occasion, Mr. Boyse again pressed 
Mr. Emlyn to accept the pastoral care, jointly with him- 
self, of the dissenting society in Wood-street, Dublin. 
The invitation being earnestly recommended by Mr. Na- 
thanael Taylor, an eminent minister in London, Mr. Em- 
lyn thought proper to comply with it, after having taken a 
considerable time for deliberation. Accordingly, in May 
1691, he removed to Dublin. Here he soon came into 
great reputation as a preacher. He had not only a portly 
presence, a strong clear voice, and a graceful delivery* but 
bis discourses were for the most part rational and persuaw 
si ve, and always accompanied with something serious and 
pathetic. Controversial points be scarcely ever introduced 
into the pulpit. Few excelled him in prayer ; and he w«a 

EMLYN. 18ft 


<• • p 

exemplary in tbe private duties which were incumbent 
.upon him as a Christian minister. Mr. Emlyn beiug thus 
.settled in Dublin, contracted an acquaintance there with 
Airs. Esther Bury, who, though an usual attendant on 
the church-service, had been induced, by the fame of his 
preaching, to become his, hearer. She was one of the 
daughters and coheiresses of Mr. David Sollom, a gen- 
tleman of good estate in the county of Meath. At this 
time she was the wife of .Richard Cromleholme Bury, esq. 
\vho was possessed of a large estate pear Limerick, and 
who, dying on. the 23d of November, 1691, left her a 
widow, with a handsome jointure. In this state, though 
she had many admirers, Mrs. Bury continued till 1694, 
when she was married to Mr. Emlyn. He was now, arrived 
to the utmost height of his desires. Being possessed of 
$n easy fortune, he lived in affluence, was highly beloved 
by his people, and well respected by all who knew him. 
In 1697 he had some thoughts of openly declaring his sen- 
timents in relation to the Trinity, and of breaking off fropi 
the congregation ; but, on mature deliberation,^ he deter- 
mined not to proceed abruptly in so important an affair, 
but.embrace the first fair occasion of declaring his opinion. 
Towards the end of 1701 he began to experience a very 
afflictive change in bis condition. , His first calamity was 
of a domestic nature; for, on the 13 th of October, he lost 
his wife, which event was succeeded, in a very few weeks, 
by the decease of his mother ; and he had a little before 
been deprived of a young son. > The death of his wife, in 
particular, inflicted a deep and tender wound upon bis 
heart,, as may be, perceived in the sermon which he preached 
upon the occasion; and which was printed at Dublin, in 
1703, under the title of "Funeral Consolations," and 
from its popularity, several times reprinted. In it Mr, 
Emlyn never once ^mentions his wife, but, towards the 
conclusion of the discourse, has covertly and delicately 
delineated her character. 

In less than nine months after Mrs. Emlyn's decease, he 
began to be involved in prosecutions on account of his 
opinions in relation to the Trinity. The first occasion was 
given by Dr. Duncan, Cummins, a noted physician in 
Dublin, and a leading* member of the congregation in 
Wood-street. This gentleman had been brought up t to 
||ie study of divinity, but afterwards chose the medical 
profession ; he had done many kind offices to Mi*. Emlyn, 

MO E: M Ii T Nt 

but, having observed that Mr.' Emlyn avoided expressing 
the common opinion, and* those arguments which are fcuf>- 
posed to support it, he strongly suspected that his judg- 
ment was against the Supreme Deity of the Lord Jesus 
Christ. This suspicion he communicated to Mf. Boyse, A 
the consequence of which was, that, in June 1702, they 
jointly waited upon Mr. Emlyn, acquainting hirti with their 
jealousies, and earnestly desiring to know bis real senti* 
ments in the matter. Being thus applied to, he thought 
himself bound to declare openly his faith in So great ft 
point. Accordingly he freely owned himself to be convin- 
ced, that the God and father of Jesus Christ is alone th£ 
Supreme Being, and superior in excellence and authority 
to his son, who derives all from him. At the same time, 
Mr* Emlyn told the gentlemen that he did not aim to make 
any strife among the people of the congregation, but was 
willing to leave them peaceably, that, if they pleased, they 
might choose another minister. This, however, was not 
to be permitted him. Mr. Boyse, not willing to take 
such a weighty matter upon himself, brought it before the 
Dublin ministers, namely, Mr. Weld, Mr. Travers, Mr. 
Sinclair, Mr. Iredel, and Mr. Tate. At an interview with 
them, he candidly explained bis sentiments, the only re- 
sult of which was, that, on that very day, they agreed to 
cast him off, and that he should not be permitted to preach 
any more : and this they did without consulting his con-* 
gregation, who, as yet, were entire strangers to the affair. 
Mr. Emlyn, however, directed the deacons and chief 
managers of the church to be called together, when he in- 
formed them, that a difference of opinion relative to the 
Trinity had rendered him offensive to some who were 
present, and to the ministers of Dublin ; upon which ac- 
count, thankfully acknowledging the kindness and respect 
.they had shewn him for so many years, he desired hlk dis- 
mission. At this declaration the gentlemen assembled Were 
greatly surprised and grieved; and Dr. Cummins himself 
then wished he had not begun the business. It was propo- 
sed that Mr. Emlyn should lie by for some time without 
preaching ; but to this he would not content without a de-' 
claration of the cause, lest he should be suspected of hav- 
ing been guilty <of some immorality. The next proposition; 
was, that he should retire for a while to England; pro- 
vided it was approved of by the ministers. To this they 
agreed, accompanying their agreement with a curious 

E M L Y N, *9i 


Message, sent fcy two of their number, charging him not 
IQ preach any* where, to whatever place be went* Mr, 
Emlyn embarked for England the next day, with great in- 
convenience to himself and family ; and, ho sooner was hg 
gone, than a load clamour was raised against him and his 
opinions. When he came to London, he found some per- 
sons who were disposed to treat him with candour and 
charity. This, however, when they heard of it, was s<* 
offensive to the Dublin ministers, that they endeavoured; 
by their letters, to render him as odious as possible. 
While he was in London, he published a short account of 
fa is case. 

After about ten weeks' absence, though Mr. Emlyn re- 
ceived discouraging accounts of the rage that prevailed 
against him in Dublin, he thought it necessary to return 
to his family. Finding that both his opinions and his per- 
son lay under a great odium among many who knew little 
of thfe subject in dispute, he wrote his " Humble Inquiry 
into the Scripture account of Jesus Christ : or, a short ar- 
gument concerning his Deity and Glory, according to the 
Gospel.* 9 A few days after this work was printed, out 
author intended to return to England ; but some zealou* 
dissenters, getting netioe of his design, resolved to have* 
him prosecuted. Two of them, one of whom was a pres- 
byterian, and the other a baptist-church officer, were for 
presenting Mf. Emlyn ; but, upon reflection, this" method 
was judged to be too slow, and too uncertain in its opera-. . 
tion. Mr. Caleb Thomas, therefore, the latter of the two 
dissenters, immediately obtained a special warrant froo* 
the lord chief justice (sir Richard Pyne) to seize our author* 
and his books. Our author, with part of the impression of 
his work, being thus seized, was carried before the lord 
chief justice, who at first refused bail, but afterwards said 
that ill might be allowed with the attorney-general's con- 
tent; which beihg obtained, two sufficient persons werg 
bound in a recognizance of eight hundred pounds for Mr. . 
Emlyn'9 appearance, This was in Hilary term,- February' 
1703, at the end of which he was bound over to Easter ' 
term, when the grand jury found the bill, wherein he warf 
indicted of blasphemy. To such a charge he chose to* 
traverse. The indictment was altered three times before 
it was finally settled, which occasioned the trial to be de- 
ferred till June : 1 4, 1703. On that day, Mr. Emlyn was 
informed, by an 'eminent gentleman of the loitg robft/'sj^ . 

!»* E M L Y Mi 

Richard Levins, afterwards lord chief justice of the eotrt* 
mon pleas, that he would not be permitted to speak freely/ 
but that it was designed to run him down like a wolf, with-* 
out law or game ; and he was soon convinced that this was 
not a groundless assertion* The indictment was for writ- 
ing and publishing a book, wherein he had blasphemously 
and maliciously asserted, that Jesus Christ was not equal 
to God the father, to whom he was subject j and this with: 
a seditious intention. As Mr. Emlyn knew that it would 
be difficult to convict him of being the author of the work; 
be did not think himself bound to be his own accuser, and' 
the prosecutor not being able to produce sufficient evi- 
dence of the fact; at length sent for Mr. Boyse. This gen- 
tleman, being examined as to what Mr. Emlyn had preached 
of the matters contained in the book, acknowledged that 
he had said nothing of them in the pulpit directly, but only* 
some things that gave ground of suspicion. Mr. Boyse 
being farther asked, what our author had said in private 
conference with the ministers, answered, " that what he 
bad declared there was judged by his brethren to be near 
to Arianism." Though this only proved the agreement of 
the book with Mr. Emlyn 7 s sentiment, it yet had a great 
effect upon the minds of the jury, and tended more than 
any other consideration to produce a verdict against him. 
The queen's counsel, having thus only presumption to 
allege, contended, that strong presumption was as good a» 
evidence ; which doctrine was seconded by the lord chief 
justice, who repeated it to the jury, who brought him in 
guilty, without considering the contents of the book —  
whether blasphemy or not, confining themselves, as it 
would appear, to the fact of publishing : for which some of 
them afterwards expressed their concern. The verdict 
being pronounced, the passing of the sentence was de- 
ferred to June 16, being the last day of the term. In the 
mean time Mr. Emlyn was committed to the common jail. 
During this interval, Mr. Boyse shewed great concern for 
bur author, and used all his interest to prevent the rigorous 
sentence for which the attorney-general (Robert Rochford, 
esq.) had moved, viz. the pillory. It being thought proper 
that Mr. Emlyn should write to the lord chief justice, be 
accordingly did so ; but with what effect we are not told. 
When he appeared to have judgment given against him, it 
was moved by-pne of the queen's counsel (Mr. Brodrick) 
that he should retract : but to this our author could not 


lMLLKi. m 

^pnsenU Hie lord chtef justice, therefore, proceeded to 
pass sentence od him ; which was, that he .should puffer a 
gear's imprisonment, pay a thousand pounds fine, to the 
queen, and lie in prison till paid ; and that he should find 
security for good behaviour during life. The pillory, ha 
was told, was the punishment due ; but, on account c*f hi$ 
being a man of letters, it was not inflicted. Then, with a 
paper on his breast, he was led round the four courts ta 
be exposed. After judgment had been passed, Mr. Emlyo 
was committed to the sheriffs of Dublin, and was a • close 
prisoner, for something more than a quarter of a year, in 
the house of the under-sheriff. On the 6 th of October be 
was hastily hurried away to the common jail, where he lay 
among the prisoners in a close room filled with six beds* 
for about five or six weeks j and then, by an habeas cor- 
pus, he was upon his petition removed into the Marshalsea 
for his health. Having here greater conveniences, he 
wrote, in 1704, a tract, entitled " General Remarks on Mr. 
Boyse's Vindication of the true Deity of our blessed Sa- 
viour." In the Marshalsea our author remained till July 
21, 1705, during, the whole of which time his former ac- 
quaintances were estranged from him, and all offices of 
friendship or civility in a manner ceased ; especially among 
persons of a superior rank. A few, indeed, of the plainer 
tradesmen belonging to his late congregation were more 
compassionate ; but not one of the dissenting ministers of 
Dublin, Mr. Boyse excepted, paid him any visit or atten- 
tion. At length, through the zealous and repeated soli- 
citations of Mr. Boyse, the generous interference of Tho- 
mas Medlicote, esq* the humane interposition of the duke 
of Ormond, and the favourable report of the lord chancellor 
(sir Richard Cox, to whom a petition of Mr. Emlyn had 
been preferred), and whose report was, that such exorbi- 
tant fines were against law, the fine was reduced' to seventy 
pounds, and it was accordingly paid into her majesty's 
exchequer. Twenty pounds more were paid, by way of 
composition, to Dr. Narcissus March, archbishop of Ar- 
njagb, who, as queen's almoner, had a claim of one shil- 
ling a pound upon the whole fine. During Mr. Emlyn' s 
confinement in the Marshalsea, he regularly preached 
there. He bad hired a pretty large room to himself; whi- 
ther, on the Sundays, some of the imprisoned debtors re- 
sorted ; and from without doors there came several of the 
lower sort of his former people and usual bearers* 

M £ M L V N, • 

Sodd Afte* his telease Mr. Emlyn returned to LMdoif* 
Where a small congregation was found for him* consisting 
of a few friends, to whom he preached once every Sunday. 
This he did without salary or stipend ; although, in conse- 
quence of his wife's jointure having devolved to her chil-» 
dren, his fortune wsfe reduced to a narrow income. Ther 
liberty of preaching which our author enjoyed, gave great 
offence to several persons, and especially to Mr. Charles 
Leslie, the famous nonjuror* and Mr; Frfencis Higgins* 
the rector of Balruddery* in the county of Dublin. Com*' 
plaint was made upon the subject to Dr. Tenison, arch-* 
xbishop of Canterbury, who was not inclined to molest him. 
Nevertheless, in the representation of the lower house of 
convocation to the queen in 1711, it was asserted, that 
weekly sermons were preached in defence of the unitarian 
principles, an assertion which Mr. Emlyn thought proper 
to deny in a paper containing some observations upon it. 
After a few y^ars, his congregation was dissolved by the 
death of the principal persons who had attended upon h\\ 
taints try, and he retired into silent obscurity* but nor 
into idleness ; for the greater part of his life was diligently 
spent in endeavouring to support, by various works, the 
principles he had embraced, and the cause for which he 
had suffered. The first performance published by him, 
after his release from prison, was " A Letter to the Revi 
Dr. Willis, dean of Lincoln 5 being some friendly remark* 
on his sermon before the honourable house of commons, 
Nov. 5, 1705." The intention of this letter was to shew: 
that the punishment even of papists for religion was not 
warranted by the Jewish laws; and that Christians had ' 
been more cruel persecutors than Jews. In 1706 Mr/ 
Emlyn published what his party considered as one of his 
most elaborate productions, " A Vindication of the worship 
of the Lord Jestts Christ, on Unitarian principles* In an- 
swer to what is said, on that bead, by Mr, Joseph Boyse* 
in his Vindication of the Deity of Jesus Christ To which 
is annexed, an answer to Dr. Waterland on the same head." 
Two publications came from our author in 1707, the first 
of which was entitled " The supreme Deity of God thef 
Father demonstrated. In answer to Dr. Sherlock's argu- 
ments fur the supreme Divinity of Jesus Christ, or what- 
ever can be urged against the supremacy of the .first per- 
ron of the H*>ly Trinity/* The other was « A brief Vin- 
dication of the Bishop of Gloucester 7 * (Dr. Fowler) Di** : 

EMLY N#. 199 

c&Hrstfs concerning the descent of the man Christ Jesus 
from Heaven, from Dr. Sherlock the (lean of St. Paul's 
charge of heresy. With a confutation of his new notion in 
his late book of The Scripture proofs of our Saviour's di- 
vinity." Iu 1708 Mr, Emlyn printed three tracts, all of 
them directed against Mr. Leslie. The titles of them are 
as follow : 1» Remarks on Mr. Charles Leslie's first Dia* . 
Jogue on the Sociniau controversy. 2. A Vindication of. 
the Remarks on Mr. Charles Leslie's first Dialogue on 
the Sociniau controversy. 3. An Examination of Mr* 
Leslie's last Dialogue relating to the satisfaction of Jesus 
Christ. • Together with some remarks on Dr. Stilling- 
fleet's True reasons of Christ's Sufferings. In the year 
1710 he published "The previous question to the several 
questions about valid and invalid Baptism, Lay-baptism, 
&c. considered;, viz. whether there be any necessity 
(upon the principles of Mr. Wall's History of infant bap- 
tism) for the continual use of baptism among the posterity 
of; baptised Christians." But this hypothesis, though sup* 
pQrted with ingenuity and learning, has not obtained many* 
converts. Our author* did not again appear from the press 
till 1715, when he, published "A full Inquiry into the 
original, authority of that text, 1 John v. 7. There are three 
that bear record in heaven, &c. : containing an account . 
of Dr. Mill's evidence* from antiquity, for and against its 
being genuine ; with an examination of his judgment 
thereupon" This piece was addressed to Dr. William 
Wake, lord archbishop of Canterbury, president, . to the , 
bUhops of the same province, his grace's suffragans, and 
to the clergy of the lower house of convocation, then as* . 
sembled. The disputed text found an advocate in Mr. 
Martin, pastor of the French church at the Hague, who 
published a critical dissertation on the subject, in opposi- 
tion to Mr. Emlyn's Inquiry. In 1718 our author again 
considered the question, in " An Answer to Mr. Martin's 
critical dissertation on 1 John vi 7 ; shewing the insuf- 
ficiency of his proofs, and the errors of his suppositions, 
by which he attempts to establish the authority of that text 
from supposed manuscripts." Mr. Martin having pub- 
lished , an examination of this answer, Mr. Einlyn printed 
a reply to it in 1720, which produced a third tract upon 
the subject by Mr. Martin, and there the controversy 
eaded ; nor, we believe, was it revived in a separate form, 

o 2 

194 EMLYN. 

until within these few years by Mr. archdeacon Travis and 
professor Porson. 

While Mr. Emlyn was engaged in this celebrated con- 
troversy, he found leisure for other publications. In 1718 
he printed a tract entitled,. " Dr. Bennet's new theory of' 
the Trinity' examined ; or, some considerations on the Dis- 
course of the ever blessed Trinity in Unity; and his exa- 
mination of Dr. Clarke's Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity.'* 
Dr. Bennetts explication of the Trinity was singular, and', 
approached to Sabellianism ; on which account he laid him- 
self open to the strictures both of trinitarian and unitarian 
divines. Three pieces were published by Mr. Emlyn in 
1719. The first was " Remarks on a book entitled ThQ 
Doctrine of the blessed Trinity stated and defended, by- 
four London ministers, Mr. Tong, Mr. Robinson, Mr* 
Smith, and Mr. Reynolds. With an appendix, concerning 
the equality of the Three Persons, and Mr. Jurieu's testi- 
mony to the primitive doctrine on this point. 9 ' These were 
four dissenting clergymen, who had united their talents 
upon the subject. His next publication was, "A true 
narrative of the proceedings of the dissenting ministers of 
Dublin against Mr. Thomas Emlyn ; and of his prosecution 
(at some of the dissenters' instigation) in the secular court, 
and his sufferings thereupon, for his humble Inquiry into 
the scripture account of the Lord Jesus 'Christ : annis 
1702, 3, 4, 5. To which is added an appendix, contain- 
ing the author's own and the Dublin ministers' account of 
the difference between him and them, with some remarks 
thereon." The last tract published by our author, in 171 9> 
was " The reverend Mr. Trosse's Arguments answered J 
telating to the Lord Jesus Christ, and the Deity of the Holy 
Ghost. Taken from his Catechism, and Sermon on Luktf 
*xii. 31. printed at Exon." 

Although Mr. Emlyn flattered himself that his doctrine 
gradually gained ground both in England and Ireland, he 
still continued to be so obnoxious, that none of the divines 
.among the dissenters in London dared to ask him to preaeh 
for them, excepting the ministers of the baptist congrega- 
tion at Barbican, Mr. Burroughs and Mr. (afterwards Dr.) 
James Foster, who invited him more than once to tha| t 
office. About 1 726, upon the decease of Mr. James Pierce, 
of Exeter, several of the people wished to invite Mr. 
Emlyn thither ; but, as eoou as he was acquainted with it, 

RMLYN. •«» 

ie requested them to desist, thanking them for 'their re- 
spectful attention to him, and excusing his acceptance of 
an invitation, on account of his declining years, and the 
feebleness of his limbs. , Though our author lived in pri- 
vate retirement, he was honoured with the esteem and 
friendship of divers persons of distinguished learning and 
in eminent stations. He was particularly intimate* with 
Dr. Samuel Clarke, who, though at first he was upon the 
reserve with Mr. Emlyn, when be came to be farther ac- 
quainted with him, expressed a high value and regard for 
him, generally advised with him in matters of importance, 
and opened his mind to him with the utmost freedom. The 
doctor's language to our author was, " I can say any thing 
to you." Mr. Whiston klso, in his account of his own life, 
has spoken of Emlyn several times in terms of great respect* 
In 1731 our author wrote " Observations on Dr. Water- 
land's notions in relation to Polytheism, Ditheism, the 
Son's consubstantiality with, and inferiority to, the Father;' 9 
and in the same year he drew up some " Memoirs of the 
Life and Sentiments of the- reverend Dr. Samuel Clarke, 49 
neither separately published, but inserted in his works. 
Mr. Emlyn, who was naturally of a very cheerful and 
lively temper, enjoyed, in all respects, a large share tif 
.health, the gout excepted ; which, by degrees, impaired 
his health, and by its annual returns greatly disabled him 
in his limbs. For the last two or three years of his life be 
grew much feebler ; and about a year before his death he 
received a violent shock, which it wa4 feared would have 
carried him off. However, he so well recovered from it, 
that he weathered the next winter, though a severe one, 
without any farther breach upon his health. On Friday, 
.July 17, 1743, he was suddenly taken ill in the night, but 
grew so far better as to be able, for some days, to converge 
with his friends, and to testify the. great satisfaction he en- 
joyed in the consciousness of his integrity. His disorder 
returning, he departed this life on Tuesday, the 30th day 
of the month, in the seventy-ninth year of his age. On 
the 16th of August following, his funeral sermon was 
^preached at Barbican, by Mr. Foster, who has given him 
ah excellent character. His character is likewise displayed 
-at large in the Memoirs .of his life, in which we are told 
that lie was one of the brightest examples of substantial 
unaffected piety, of serious rational devotion, of a steady 
unshaken integrity! and an undaunted' Christian courage* 


He was buried in Bunhill-Fields, where there is an inscrip- 
tion to his memory. The Memoirs of his life were written 
by his son, Sollom Emlyn, esq. and separately published 
in 1746. In the same year they were prefixed to a collec- 
tion of his works, in two volumes, octavo. An appendix 
is added, containing several short papers, drawn up by our 
author, on various subjects. Mr. Sollom Emlyn, who was 
bred to the law, and became an eminent counsellor, wa$ 
employed to publish lord chief justice Hale's " History of 
the Pleas of the Crown," which he did in 1736, in two 
volumes, folio, together with a preface and large notes, 
many of which were contributed by Mr. William Whiston, 
a son of the celebrated Whiston, who also examined many 
of the records for the purpose of accuracy. Mr. Sollom 
Emlyn died in 1756, and left one son, Thomas Emlyn, esq. 
barrister at law, a bencher of Lincoln's Inn, and fellow of 
•the royal society, who died in 1797. 

Mr. Emlyn was one of the most eminent divines of the 
Arian persuasion which this country has produced, but . 
his writings are not now so much read as they formerly 
/were. He was what is called a high Arian ; believing our 
blessed Saviour to be the first of derived beings, the 
Creator of the world, and an object of worship ; but several 
persons who are advocates for. the pre-existence of Christ, 
do not entirely coincide with the sentiments which Mr, 
.Emlyn has advanced upon these subjects* * > 

EMMIUS (Ubbo), a learned professor of Groningen, 
was born at Gretba, a village in East Friesland, Dec. 5, 
1 547. He was the son of Emmo Diken, a minister of that 
village, who bad been Luther's and Melancthon's disciple ; 
and at nine years of age was sent to study at Embden. 
He continued there till he was eighteen, and was then sent 
to Bremen, to improve under the famous John Molanu** 
Returning to his father, he did not go immediately to the 
university, but parsed some time atNorden. Being turned 
of twenty-three, he was sent to Rostock, a flourishing 
. university, where he heard the lectures of David Chytraeus, 
a celebrated divine and historian ; and of Henry Bruce, 
an able mathematician and physician. The death of his 
father obliged him to return to East Friesland, after he 
had continued above two years at.Rosteck ; and his mother's 
excessive grief upon this occasion hindered bis taking a, , 

* Life, by hi* sqp>— Biog. Jjjjt,; 

£ M M I U & i99 

journey into France, as be had wished, and induced him 
to continue with her three years, after which he went to 
Geneva, where he staid two years. Being returned into 
bis own country, he had the choice of two preferments, 
either to be a minister or the rector of a college : but, from 
a great degree of natural timidity, he could not venture to 
engage in the ministry, though it was very much his in- 
clination. He chose therefore to be rector of a college, 
which was that of Norden ; and was admitted into that post 
in 1579. He made his college flourish exceedingly; but 
was turned out of his employment in 1587, through the 
zeal of some Lutherans, because he would not subscribe 
the confession .of Augsburg. He was chosen the year after 
to be rector of the college of Leer, whose reputation he 
raised so high, that it surpassed that of Norden ; which the 
Lutherans could never retrieve from the declining state into 
which it fell after Emmius was deposed. They had ba- 
nished from Groningen several persons who followed Calvin's 
reformation ; and those of the exiles who retired to Leer, 
meeting with the same fate as Emmius, engaged in a par-* 
ticular friendship with him : so that, when the city of Gro- 
ningen confederated with the United Provinces, and the 
magistrates resolved to restore their college, Emmius being 
recommended by several persons, they chose him to be 
the rector of that college, and gave him a full power to 
make or abrogate there such statutes as he should think 

He entered upon this employment in 1594, and exer- 
cised it near twenty years, to the uncommon advantage of 
the students, who were sent in great mimbers to, that col- 
lege. At the end of that time, namely, in 1614, the ma- > 
gistrates of Groningen changed their college into an uni- 
versity, and made Emmius professor of history and of the 
Greek tongue. He was the first rector of that university, 
and one of the chief ornaments of it by his lectures, till the 
infirmities of old age did not suffer him to appear any 
longer in public. Yet he did not become useless either to 
the republic of letters, or to the university of Groningen 5 
for he continued to write books, and. to impart his wise 
counsels to the senate in all important affairs. He was a 
man whose learning was not his only merit: he was capable, 
which few men who spend their lives in a college are, of 
tdvising even princes, The governor of the provinces of 

&00 E M M I U S. 

r t 

Friesland and Groningen consulted him very often, and 
seldom failed to follow bis advice. 

Emmius died at Groningen, Dec. 9, 1625, leaving a 
family behind him; for he had been twice married. In 
the last years of his life he composed the three volumes of 
his "Vetus Grxcia illustrata," or ancient Greece illus- 
trated : the first of which contains a geographical descrip- 
tion of Greece ; the second, the history of it ; the third, 
the particular form of government in every state. This, 
work was^ committed to the press in his life-time; but, 
through the delays of the printers, not published till after 
his death, in 1626, 3 vols. 8vo. He had published several 
considerable works before this ; as, his <c Opus Chronolo- 
gicum novum," Groningen, 1619, fol. and some genealo- 
gical works, which contain the history of Rome ; and aa 
universal history, written in a very elaborate method; his 
u Decades rerum Frisicarum," in which we do not find 
him unreasonably prepossessed in favour of his native 
country : on the contrary, he confuted vigorously the idle 
tales related by the historians of Friesland, concerning the 
antiquities of their nation ; and this love of truth raised 
him a great many enemies. This work was printed at 
Leyden, 1616, fol. an edition of great rarity. He wrote 
also a History of William Lewis count of Nassau, gover- 
nor of Friesland ; in which we meet, not only with a pa- 
negyric on that prince, but also a short history of the 
United Provinces, from 1577 to 1614. This was printed 
at Groningen, 1621, 4to. He had theological controversies 
with Daniel Hoffman, and wrote an abridgment of the life 
and errors of David George, the enthusiast, in German, 
and not in Latin, as Clement has proved in his Bibl. 
Curieuse. When he died, he was about composing the 
history of Philip of Macedon ; in order to shew the United 
Provinces by what fraudulent and indirect means Philip 
had oppressed the liberty of Greece, and had already car- 
ried this history to the 15 th year of Philip's reign. 

His knowledge of history, and his memory, must have 
been extraordinary, if credit can be given to his biographers, 
who pssert, that, without any preparation, he could an- 
swer all manner of questions concerning the history, both 
ancient and modern, of any country whatsoever, without 
the least njjstake in the circumstances of times, places, 
and person^ He not pnly knew the actions, events a#d 

EMMIUS. 201 

motives, but also understood the interest of the several 
nations, the form of their government, the inclinations of 
their princes, the means they employed to enlarge their 
dominions, their alliances, and their origin. He knew 
also the figure, situation, and magnitude of their, cities 
and forts, the position of rivers and highways, the turnings 
and windings of mountains, &c. The author of his life 
has collected several encomiums, which Thuanus, Scaliger, 
Pousa, and others, have passed upon him, which are 
abundantly flattering, especially those of Scaliger, who 
styles Emmius's History of Friesland " a divine history." 
The magistrates of Groningen caused his picture to be 
placed in the town-house. l 

* EMPEDOCLES, an eminent philosopher, poet, orator, 
historian, and physician, was of Agrigentum, in Sicily, 
and flourished about the, eighty "fourth olympiad, or B. C. 
444. He appears frpm his doctrine to have been of the 
Italic school ; but under what master he studied philosophy 
is uncertain. After the death of his father Meto, who was 
9, wealthy citizen of Agrigentum, he acquired great weight 
among his fellow-citizens, by espousing the popular party, 
&nd favouring democratic measures. He employed a large 
share of his paternal estate in giving dowries to young 
women, and marrying them to men of superior rank. His 
consequence in the state became at length so great, that 
be ventured to assume several of the distinctions of royalty* 
particularly a purple robe, a golden girdle, a Delphic 
crown, and a train of attendants ; always retaining a grave 
and commanding aspect. He was a determined enemy to 
tyranny, and is said to have employed his influence in 
establishing and defending the rights of his countrymen. ' 
The skill which Empedocles possessed in medicine and 
natural philosophy enabled him to perform many wonders, 
which he passed upon the superstitious and credulous mul- 
titude for miracles* He pretended to drive away noxious 
winds from his country, and hereby put a stop to epide- 
mical diseases. He is said to have checked, by the power 
of music,' the madness of a young man, who was threaten- 
ing his enemy with instant death ; to have cured Pantha, 
a woman of Agrigentum, whom all the physicians had de- 
clared incurable ; to have restored a woman to life, who 

.* Gen. Diet— Frehefi Theatrum.— «Moren. — Foppen's Bibl. Belg. — Nicerotoj 
iqh XXIII.— Clement. Bibl. Curiei*»6,~£l<Mint's Ceu8ura.-^Sa$ii OaoftasU 


had lain breathless for thirty days ; and to have done many 
other things equally astonishing, after the manner of Py- 
thagoras : on account of which he was an object of uni- 
versal admiration, so that when he came to the Olympic 
games, the eyes of all the people were fixed upon him. 
Besides medical skill, Empedocles possessed poetical ta- 
lents. The fragments of his verses, which are dispersed 
through various ancient writers, have been in part collected 
by Henry Stephens, in the "Poesis philosophica," 1574, 
8vo. This circumstance affords some ground for the opi- 
nion of Fabricius, that Empedocles was the real author of 
that ancient fragment which bears the name of " The 
Golden Verses of Pythagoras.' 1 He is said also to have 
been a dramatic poet ; but Empedocles the tragedian was 
another person ; Suidas, upon some unknown authority, 
calls him the grandson of the philosopher. Georgias Leon- 
tinus, a celebrated orator, was his pupil ; whence it may 
seem reasonable to infer, that he was an eminent master of 
the art of eloquence. The particulars of his death are 
variously related. Some report, that during the night, 
after a sacred festival, he was conveyed away towards the 
heavens, amidst the splendour of celestial light; others 
that he threw himself into the burning crater of Mount 
Etna. Much reliance cannot be placed on either of these 
stories. There is more probability that towards the close 
of bis life he went into Greece, and died there, at what 
time is uncertain. Aristotle says be died at sixty years of 
age. The substance of his philosophy, according to Bruc- 
ker, is this: It is impossible to judge of truth by the 
senses without the assistance of reason ; which is led, by 
the intervention of the senses, to the contemplation of the 
real nature, and immutable essences, of things. The first 
principles of nature are of two kinds, active and passive j 
the active is unity, or God ; the passive, matter. The 
active principle is a subtle, ethereal fire, intelligent and 
divine, which gives being to all things, and animates all 
things, and into which all things will be at last resolved. 
Many daemons, portions of the divine nature, wander 
through the region of the air, and administer human af- 
fairs. Man, and also all brute animals, $ure allied to the 
divinity ; and it is therefore unlawful to kill or eat animals. 
The world is one whole, circumscribed by the revolution 
of the sun, and surrounded, not by a vacuum, but by $ 
mass of inactive matter. The first material principles of 


the four elements are similar atoms, indefinitely small, and 
of a round form. Matter, thus divided into corpuscles, 
possessed the primary qualities of friendship and discord, 
by means of which, upon the first agitation of the original 
chaotic mass, homogeneous parts were united, and hetero- 
geneous separated, and the four elements composed, of 
which all bodies are generated. The motion of the cor-* 
puscles, which excites the qualities of friendship and dis- 
cord, is produced by the energy of intellectual fire, or 
divine mind ; all motion, and consequently all life and 
being, must. therefore be ascribed to God. The first prin- 
ciples of the elements are eternal ; nothing can begin to 
exist, or be annihilated ; but all the varieties of nature are 
produced by combination or separation. In the formation 
of the. world, ether was first secreted from chaos, then fire, 
then earth ; by the agitation of which were produced water 
and air. The heavens are a solid body of air, crystallized 
by fire. The stare are bodies composed of fire, they are 
. fixed in the crystal of heaven ; but the planets wander 
freely beneath it The sun is a fiery mass, larger than the 
moon, which is in the form of a hollow plate, and twice as 
far from the sun as from the earth. The soul of man con- 
sists of two parts, the sensitive, produced from the same 
principles with the elements ; and the rational, which is a 
daemon sprung from the divine soul of the world, and sent 
down into the body as a punishment for its crimes in a for* 
jner state, where it transmigrates till it is sufficiently puri- 
fied to return to God. 1 . 

, EMPEREUR (Constantine), of Oppyck, in Holland, 
was born there in the latter part of the sixteenth century, 
and acquired great reputation for his knowledge of the 
oriental languages. He was also an able lawyer and di- 
vine, and took his degree of doctor in the latter faculty* 
He studied the oriental languages under Drusius and Er- 
penius, and after having been professor of theology and 
Hebrew at Harderwich for eight'years, was, in 1627, made 
professor of Hebrew at Leyden, on which occasion he de- 
livered an harangue on the dignity and utility of the He* 
brew language, and it was his constant endeavour to dif* 
fuse a knowledge of that language, and of the Arabic and 
Syriac, among his countrymen, that they might be the beU 
Jef enabled to combat the objections of. the Jews, to tbfr 

? 9FUck*r.-7&?Q. Diet.— Stanley's Hist, oi Philosophy, 


Christian religion. In 1639, count Maurice, governor of 
Bresil, appointed him bis cpunsellor. He died in June 
J 648, very soon after be bad begun a course of theology 
'at Ley-den. He lived in much intimacy with Lewis de 
, Dieu, Daniel Heinsius, and the Buxtorfs, who speak very 
highly of him. He offered at one time to superintend the 
printing of a Talmudical dictionary in Holland, and endea- 
voured to bring the younger Buxtorf to Leyden, who had 
undertaken to defend the vowel points against Lewis Cap- 
pel. We also find him corresponding with our excellent 
archbishop Usher. Constantine's works are, 1. "Com- 
men tar i us ad codicem Babylonicum, seu Tractatus Thai* 
mudicus de mensuris Templi," Leyden, 1630, 4to. 2. 
u Versio et Notae ad Paraphrasin Josephi Jachiadae in 
Danielem," Amst. 1633, 4to. 3. " Itinerarium D. Ben- 
jaminis," Heb. and Lat Leyden, 8vo. 4. " Moysis Kimchi 
Grammatica Chaldaica," ibid. 8vo. 5. " Confutatio Abar- 
banelis et Alscheichi in caput liii. Isaiae," ibid. 1631, 8vo, 
and Franc. 1685. 6. " Commentarius in Tractatum ThaU 
mudicum, qui dicitur Porta, de legibus Hebraeorum foren- 
sibus," Heb. and Lat. ibid. 1637, 4to.. 7. " Commentarius 
ad Betramum de Republica Hebraeorum," 1641, 8vo. l 

EMSER (Jerome), an opponent of Luther in the six- 
teenth century, was a. native of the circle of Suabia, a 
licentiate of the canon law, professor at Leipsic, and secre- 
tary and counsellor to George duke of Saxony. When 
Luther's translation of the Bible appeared, it was very 
generally read in Germany, and contributed much to ad- 
Vance the reformation. An antidote was therefore neces- 
sary, and Emser was fixed upon as the best qualified ta 
furnish it. This he first attempted by publishing some 
notes on Luther's New Testament, and afterwards, encou- 
raged by tbe duke and two popish bishops, produced what 
he called " A correct translation " of the New Testament 
into German, which was in fact little more than a tran- 
script of Luther's < labours, with some alterations in, favour 
of the peculiar tenets of the Romish church ; yet the duke 
George had such an opinion of this formidable translation, 
and or the mischief it would do to the reformed, that as soor* 
as it was ready to appear (1527), he issued a proclamation 
ki which be treated Luther and his disciples with the most 
virulent language. Emser also entered into controversy 

1 More ri.— Foppen BibL Belf • 

E M S £ R. 20* 

wjth Litther, on the mass and other subjects which then 
formed the basis of the disputes between the popish ad-* 
he rents and the reformed. He died suddenly Nov. 8, 1527, 
and his works soon after him, which, indeed, had nevef 
been held in high repute, nor did Luther ever condescend 
to answer him. l 

ENFIELD (William), a dissenting divine of great 
learning and amiable character, was born at Sudbury, on 
March 29, O. S. 1741, of parents in a humble walk of 
life, but of very respectable characters. His amiable dis# 
position and promising talents early recommended him to 
the rev. Mr. Hextall, the dissenting minister of that place; 
who took great care of his education, and infused into his 
young mind that taste for elegance in composition, which 
ever afterwards distinguished him. In his seventeenth 
year, he was sent to the academy at Daventry, then under 
the direction of the rev. Dr. Ashworth, where he passed 
through the usual course of instruction preparatory to the 
office of the ministry; and with such success did he cultU 
vate his talents, that, on leaving the academy, he was at 
bnce chosen, in 1763, minister of the congregation of 
Benn's Garden, in Liverpool, where he passed seven of 
the happiest years of life, very generally beloved and es- 
teemed. He married, in 1767, the daughter of Mr. Hol- 
land, draper, in Liverpool, with whom he passed all the 
rest of his days in most cordial union- His literary requ- 
isition was extended, during his residence in this place, by 
the publication of two volumes of sermons, which were 
very well received, and were followed by " A Collection 
«f Hymns and of Family Prayers," 

About 1770, he was invited to take a share in the conduct * 
of the dissenting academy at Warrington, and also to oc-* 
c r upy the place of minister to the congregation there, both 
vacant by the death of the rev. Mr. Seddon. His accept- 
ance of this honourable invitation was a source of a variety 
of mixed sensations and events to him, of which anxiety 
and vexation composed too large a share for his happiness. 
No assiduity on his part was wanting in the performance of 
his various duties ; but the diseases of the institution were 
radical and incurabla; Smd perhaps his gentleness of teift- 
per was ill adapted to contend with the difficulties in 
spatter of discipline, which seem entailed on ail dissenting; 

Horeri.-*Jortin*s Erasmus.— Milner's CJa. Hist. vol. IV. p. 6iT, 


academies, and which, in that situatiori, fell upon htm, k§ 
the domestic resident, with peculiar weight. He always, 
however, possessed the respect and affection of the best- 
disposed of the students ; and there was no reason to sup- 
pose that any other person, in his place, could have pre-' 
vented that dissolution which the academy underwent in 
1783. During the period of his engagement there, his 
indefatigable industry was exerted in the composition of a> 
number of works, mostly, indeed, of the class of useful 
compilations, but containing valuable displays of his powers 
of thinking and writing. The most considerable was his 
M Institutes of Natural Philosophy,'* 1783, 4to, a clear 
and well-arranged compendium of the leading principles, 
theoretical and experimental, of the sciences comprized, 
under that head. And it may be mentioned as an extraor- 
dinary proof of his diligence and power of comprehension, 
that, on a vacancy in the mathematical department of the 
academy, which the state of the institution rendered it 
impossible to supply by a new tutor, he prepared himself 
at a short warning to till it up ; and did fill it with credit 
and utility*, though this abstruse branch of science had 
never before been a particular object of his study* He 
continued at Warrington two years after the academy 
had broken up, taking a few private pupils. In 1785> 
receiving an invitation from the principal dissenting con^- 
gregation at Norwich, he accepted it, and first fixed his 
residence at Thorpe, a pleasant village near the. city, 
where he pursued his plan of taking a limited number of 
pupils to board in his house. He afterwards removed to 
Norwich itself, and at length, fatigued with the long care* 
of education, entirely ceased to receive boarders, and only 
gave private instructions to two or three select pupils a 
few hours in the morning. This too he at last discontinued, 
and devoted himself solely to the duties of bis congregation, 
and the retired and independent occupations of literature. 
Yet, in a private way and small circle, few men had been 
more successful in education, of which many striking ex- 
amples might be mentioned, and none more so than the 

* fir our text we follow Dr. Aikin ; mistake of His judgment he afterward? 

but Mr. Wakefield says, " When be acknowledged to roe, with a magna- 

(Dr. Eutfeld) engaged in the mathema- nimity more honourable to his charac- 

tical and philosophical departments at ter than all superiority of intellectual 

Warrington, he appears to have mis- accomplishments." Wakefield's Me* 

takeu his talents, as many good men moire, vol. I. p. 225. 
have done before him ; and indeed this 


ipembers of his ctovn family. Never, indeed, was a father 
more deservedly happy in his children ; but the eldest, 
whom he had trained with uncommon care, and who had 
already, when just of age, advanced in his professional 
career so far as to be chosen towri-clerk of Nottingham/ 
was most unfortunately snatched away by a fever, a few*, 
years since. This fatal event produced effects on the doc- 
tor's health which alarmed his friends. The symptom* 
were those of angina pectoris, and they continued till th* 
usual serenity of his mind was restored by time and em- 
ployment. Some of the last years, of his life were the 
most comfortable ; employed only in occupations which 
were agreeable to him, and which left him master of his 
own time ; witnessing the happy settlement of two of his 
daughters ; contracted in his living within the domestic 
privacy which he loved ; and connected with some of the 
most agreeable literary companions, and with a set of 
cordial and kind-hearted friends, he seemed fully to enjoy 
life as it flowed, and indulged himself in pleasing prospects 
for futurity. But an unsuspected and incurable disease 
was preparing a sad and sudden change ; a schirrous con- 
traction of the rectum, the symptoms of which were mis- 
taken by himself for a common laxity of the bowels, brought 
on a total stoppage, which, jtfter a week's struggle, ended 
in death. Its gradual approach gave him opportunity to 
display all the tenderness, and more than the usual firm*. 
ness of his nature. He died amidst the kind offices of 
ipourning friends at Norwich, Nov. 3, . 17i^. Besides the 
literary performances already mentioned, Dr. Enfield com* 
pleted in 1791, the laborious task of an abridgment of 
V Brucker's History of Philosophy," which he comprized 
in two volumes, 4to. It may be truly said, that the tenets 
of philosophy and thd lives of its professors were never; 
before displayed in so pleasing a form, and with such clear- 
ness and elegance of language. Indeed it was his peculiar 
excellence to arrange and express other men's ideas to the 
utmost advantage ; but it has been objected that in this 
work be has been sometimes betrayed into inaccuracies 
by giving what he thought the sense of the ancients in 
cases where accuracy required their very words to be given.* 
Vet a more useful or elegant work upon the subject has 
never appeared in our language, and in our present under- 
taking we have taken frequent opportunities to acknow- 
ledge our obligations to it. - Among Dk Enfield's publica- 


tioris not noticed above* were his " Speaker*** a selection 
of pieces for the purpose of recital ; " Exercises on Elo~ 
\ . cution," a sequel to the preceding ; " The Preachers Di* 

rectory," an arrangement of topics and texts; " The 
English Preacher," a collection of short sermons from va- 
rious authors, 9 vols, 12mo; "Biographical Sermons on 
the principal characters in the Old and New Testament.**. 
After his death a selection of his " Sermons'* was published 
in 3 vols. 8vo, with a life by Dr. Aikin. As a divine, Dr. 
Enfield ranks among the Socinians, and his endeavours in 
these sermons are to reduce Christianity to a mere system, 
of ethics. * 

ENGHELBRECHTSEN (Cornelius), a celebrated 

painter, was born in 1468, in the town of Leyden, and 

took for his guide the works of John van Eyck. He wa* 

the first that painted in oil in his country; was a good 

draftsman, and executed with no less vigour than dispatch 

both in water-colours and in oil. His work;*, which escaped 

the disturbances that ravaged the country, being preserved 

with respect^ by the citizens in the town-house of Leyden, 

were two altar-pictures, with the side-pieces, since put up 

in the church of Notre-dame du Marais ; one representing 

Christ on the Cross between the Thieves, the other Abra* 

. ham's Sacrifice, and another, a Descent from the Cross.' 

In the same place is preserved a cartoon in water-colours, 

Representing the adoration of the kings. Lucas van Ley- 1 

den formed himself on his manner. But the principal work 

of Enghelbrechtsen, according to his biographer Van 

Mander, is a picture designed to enrich the tombs of the 

barons of Lockhorst. It was in their chapel in the church 

of .St. Peter of Leyden, and in 1 604 was conveyed to 

Utrecht, to M. van den Bogaert, son-in-law of M. van 

jLockhorst. The main subject represents the lamb of the 

Apocalypse : a multitude of figures, well disposed, the 

physiognomies noble and graceful, and the delicate style 

of his pencil render this picture the admiration of all that 

see it. His genius led him to make a particular study of 

the emotions of the soul, which he had the, art of expressing 

in every physiognomy* He was considered by the masters 

bis contemporaries as one of the greatest painters of his* 

age. He died at Leyden in 1533, in th$ sixty -fifth year 

of his age. 8 

1 Life at. above. — Gleig's Supplement to the Encyclopaedia Britannic*, «■• 
If akefieid't Memoirs. • Deseamps, vol. L— Piikingtom 

E N6 HELRAM9, 2<A 

: Etf GHELRAMS (Cornelius), another artist, was bom 

ttMalines in the year 1527. Though he has left chiefly pic- 

"ttires in distemper, yet he is allowed to be a very able 

artist. His principal works are in the church of St. Roni- 

bout. He has represented on a large canvas, the worka 

<6tf mercy. A tnultitude of figures, well designed, form the 

object of this grand composition, and among them he is 

said to have distinguished, with great spirit, the poor that 

deserve our compassion, from those who db not. His 

works are dispersed in the principal towns of Germany* 

At Hamburgh, in the chnrch of St. Catharine, was a grand 

and learned composition representing the conversion of St. 

Paul. He painted for the prince of Orange, in the castle 

bf Antwerp, the history of David, from the designs of 

Lotas van Heere. De Vries painted the architecture of it, 

tfre friezes, the terms, and the other ornaments. The 

wfeolfe ^as executed in water-colours. Ehghelrams died in 

IS83, at the age of fifty-six. * 

ENGLISH (Hester), a French woman by extraction, 

W*s eminent for her fine writing In the time of queen Eli- 

tftbeth and Jamefe I. Many df her performances are still 

eHrtant bdth in our libraries and private hands ; particularly 

titte fti «he Hartourt family, entitled " Historic memora- 

Mtes Gettesis per Esteram lhglts Gallam," Edenburgi, ann. 

160O. It appears by Hearne's spicilegium to Gul. Neu- 

brigensis, vol. III. p. 751, 752, that she was the most ex- 

tjriisite scribe of her age. A curious piece of her per- 

forta&ncg was in the possession of Mr.Cripps, surgeon in 

Budgfc>row, London, entitled '* Octonaries upon the va- 

ttftie and tacbnstslncie of the world. ' Writin by Ester Inglis. 

The firste of Januarie, 1600." It is done on an oblong 

BV6, in French and English verse; the French is all in 

pfiiit hand, and the English mostly Italian or secretary, 

and is curiously ornamented with flowers and fruits painted 

Sn water-colours, and on the first leaf is her own picture?, 

in a small form, with this motto, 

€€ De Dieu le bien, 
De moy le rien." 

AH we know of this curious artist is, that she lived single 
to the age of about forty, and then married Mr. Bartholo- 
mew Kello, a North Briton ; that she had a son who was 
educated at Oxford, and was minister of Speckshdll, iu 

> Dewampi, toL I-— PilkinftoB, 

Vol. XIII. P 

816 ENGLISH. ~ 

Suffolk. His son was sword-bearer of Norwich, and died! 
in 1709. Joseph Hall, bishop of Norwich, when dean of 
Worcester, 1617, is styled by her, " My very singular 
friend/' in a manuscript dedicated to him, now in the 
Bodleian library. 1 

ENNIUS (Quintus), an ancient Latin poet, was bora 
at Rudiae, a town in Calabria, anno U. C. 514, or B. C. 237. 
That this was the place of his nativity, we learn from him- 
self, as well as from others ; and the Florentines at this 
day claim him for their fellow-citizen. He came at first to 
Borne, when M. P. Cato was quaestor, whom he had in- 
structed in the Greek language in Sardinia. C. Nepos in- 
forms us, that " Cato, when he was praetor, obtained the 
province of Sardinia, from whence, when he was quaestor 
there before, he bad brought Ennius to Rome: "which 
we esteem," says the historian, " no less than the noblest 
.triumph over Sardinia." He had a house on the Aventine 
mount; and, by his genius, conversation, and integrity, 
gained the friendship of the most eminent persons in the 
city. Among these were Galba and M. Fulvius Nobilior, 
by whose son (who, after his father's example, was greatly 
addicted to learping) he was made free of the city. He 
attended Fulvius in the war against the j&tolians and Am- 
braciotae, and celebrated his victories over those nations. 
He fought likewise under Torquatus in Sardinia, and under 
the elder Scipio ; and in all these services distinguished 
himself by his uncommon valour. He was very intimate 
with Scipio Nasica, as appears from Cicero : Nasica, going 
one day to visit Ennius, and the maid-servant saying that 
he was not at home, Scipio found that she had told him 
so by her master's orders, and that Ennius was at home. 
A few days after, Ennius coming to Nasica, and inquiring 
for him at the door, the latter called out to him, " that he 
was not at home." Upon which Ennius answering, " What! 
do I not know your voice ?" Scipio replied, " You have 
a great deal of assurance ; for I believed your maid, when 
she told me, that you were not at home ; and will not you 
believe me myself?' 9 Ennius was a man of uncommon vir- 
tue, and lived in great simplicity and frugality. He died 
at the age of seventy years ; and his death is said to have 
been occasioned by the gout, contracted by an immoderate 

* Massty'4 Origin and Progress of Letters.. 

E N N I U S. fill 

1 vke of wine, of which he always drank very freely before 
he applied himself to writing. This Horace affirms : 

Ennius ipse pater nuncpiam nisi potus ad arma 
Prosiluit dicenda. lib. i. epist. 19. 

Inspired with wine old Ennius sung, and thought 

With the same spirit that his heroes fought. Pitt. 

He was interred in the Appian way, within a mile of the 
city, in Scipio's sepulchre; who had so great an esteem 
and friendship for him, that he ordered him to be buried 
in his sepulchre, and a statue to be erected to him upon his 
monument. Valer. Maximus observes, that " Scipio paid 
these honours to Ennius, because he thought that his own 
actions received a lustre from that poet's writings; and 
t was persuaded, that the memory of his exploits would last 
as long as the Roman empire should flourish." 

Ennius is said to have been perfectly well skilled in the 
Greek language, and to have endeavoured to introduce the 
treasures of it among the Latins. Suetonius tells us, that 
" he and Livius Andronicus were half Greeks, and taught 

. both the Greek and Latin languages at home and abroad.'* 
He was the first among the Romans who wrote heroic 
verses, and greatly polished the Latin poetry. He wrote the 
Annals of Rome, which were so highly esteemed, that 
they were publicly recited with unusual applause by Quin- 
tus Vargonteius, who digested them into books ; and they 
were read at Puteoli in the theatre by a man of learning, 
who assumed the name of the Ennianist. He translated 
several tragedies from the Greek, and wrote others. He 
published likewise several comedies ; but, whether of his 
own invention, or translated .by him, is uncertain. He 
gave a Latin version of Evemerus's sacred history, and 
Epicbarmus's philosophy ; and wrote Phagetica, epigrams ; 
Scipio, a poem; Asotus or Sotadicus, satires; Protrep- 
tica & Prsecepta, and very probably several other works. 
It appears from his writings, that be had very strong sen* 
timents of religion. The fragments of Ennius, for there 
are nothing but fragments left, were first collected by the 
two Stephenses ; and afterwards published by Jerom Co- 
lumna, a Roman nobleman, with a learned commentary, 

- and the life of Ennius, at Naples, 1590, 4to. Columna's 
edition was reprinted at Amsterdam, 1 707, 4to, with seve- 
ral additions by Hesselius, professor of history and elo?- 



qirence in the aefaool at Rotterdam, and this is by far the 
best edition of Epnius. l 

ENNODIUS (Magnus Felix), bishop of Pavia in Italy, 
and an eminent writer, was descended from an illustrious 
family in Gaul, and born in Italy about the year 473. Losing 
an aunt, who had brought him up, at sixteen years of age, 
he was reduced to very necessitous circumstances, but re- 
trieved his affairs by marrying a yonrtg lady of great for- 
tune and quality. He enjoyed for some time all the plea^- 
sures and advantages which his wealth could procure him j 
but afterwards resolved upon a more strict course of life. 
He entered into orders, with the consent of his lady, wh& 
likewise betook herself to a religious life. He was ordained 
deacon by Epiphanius, bishop of Pavia, with whom he 
lived in the most inviolable friendship. His application tb 
divinity did not divert him from prosecuting, at his leisure 
hours, poetry and oratory, in which he had distinguished 
himself from his youth ; and his writings gained him very 
great reputation. Upon the death of Epiphanius, he ap- 
pears to have been elected one of the deacons of the Roman 
church ; and in the year 503, having presented to the synod 
of Rome an apology for the council there, which had ab- 
solved pope Symmachus the year before, it was ordered to 
be inserted among the acts of the synod. He was advan- 
ced to the bishopric of Pavia about the year 511, and ap- 
pointed to negociate an union between the eastern and west- 
ern churches ; for which purpose he took two journeys into 
the east, the former in the year 515, with Fortunatus, bishop 
of Catanaea; the latter in the year 517, with Peregrinus, 
bishop of Misenum. Though, he did not succeed in these 
negotiations, he shewed his prudence and resolution in the 
management of them. For the emperor Anastasius, having 
in vain used his utmost efforts to deceive or corrupt him, 
after other instances of ill treatment, ordered him to be put 
on board an old ship; and, forbidding him to land in any 
part of Greece, exposed him to manifest danger, yet he ar- 
rived safe in Italy ; and, returning to Padua, died there, 
not long after, in the year 521. His works consist of, I. 
* ( Epistolarum ad diversos libri IX." 2. "Panegyricus Theo-. 
dorico regi Ostrogothorum dictus." 3. u Libellus apologe- 
ticus pro Synodo Palmari." 4. " Vita B. Epiphanii epis- 
teopi Ticinensis." 5. " Vita B. Antonii monachi Lirinensis/* 

1 Oca, Diet.— Vossiui de Poet. Lat.*— SariiOnomaaticom 


6* " Eucbaristicon de Vita sua ad Elpidium." 7. " Pa* 
raenesis didascalica ad Ambrosium & Beatum." 8. " Pns- 
ceptum de Celtolaais Episcoporua." 9. " Petitorium, qua 
absolutus est Geroatius." 10. u Benedictio Cerei Pascha** 
lis I." 1 1. " Benedictio Cerei Pasehalis II." 12. « Die- 
tiooes sscrac VI." 13. " Dictiones scholastic* VII." 
14. " Controversy X." 15. « Dktiones Ethical V." 16. 
" Poemata, sen CaimiDttm Liber L" 17. " Epigrammata, 
seu Carminum Liber IL" They were alt puUisbed by 
Andrew Scottus at Touroay, 1610, 8vo> and by James 
Sirmond at Paris, 1611, 8vo, with notes, explaining, the 
names and titles of the persons mentioned by Ennodius, 
and containing a great many observations very useful far 
illustrating the history of that age. Ennodius 9 a works are 
likewise printed with emendations and illustrations, at the 
end o£ the first volume of father Sirmond' a works, pah* 
lished at Paris in 1696 ^ and, from that edition, at Venice, 
1729, folio. Dupin observes, that there is a consjdctfahle 
warmth and liveliness of imagination in the widting&of E»* 
nodius; butt that his. style is obscure, and his mooef of 
seasoning far fron* exact. l 

ENT (George}, a very ingenious physician, was horny 
at Sandwich, in Kent, Nov. 6, 1604; and, after regularly 
going through. a course' of classical instruction, was sent 
to Sidney college in Cambridge. He afterwards travelled 
on the continent, and received the degree of doctor of 
physic at Padua. After his return home, he became eminent 
far bis practice, during the times, of the usurpation, was 
chosen fellow, and afterwards president, of the college of 
physicians; and at length had the honour of knighthood 
conferred upon him by Charles II. He died at Louden, 
Oct. 13, 1689, and was buried in the church of St. Laurence 
Jewry. He. was. intimate with the celebrated Harvey, 
whom he learnedly defended in a piece entitled " Apolo- 
gia pro Circulation© Sanguinis contra JEmibum Parisanum, 
164-1," in 9vo. He also travelled to Italy in company with 
Harvey in 1649 ; and in 163 1 he prevailed with him to- con- 
sent to the publication of his " Exercitationes de genera* 
tione animaLUwn ;" which be himself superintended, and* 
presented to the president and fellows of the college of 
physicians- ia a sensible and elegant dedication. Aubrey 
says be translated the whole into Latin. He published 

i Gen, Diet— Ctre^ volt J.«~Dopib.— Moreri, 

314 EN T. 

also, " Animadversiones in Malachiae Thrustoni, M. I>, 
diatribam de respirationis usu primario, 1679/' 8vo ; be- 
fore which, says Wood,- is his picture in a long peruke. 
In the Philosophical Transactions, number 194, ann. 1691, 
are sir George Ent's " Observationes ponderis testudinis, 
cum in autumno terram subiret, cum ejusdem ex terra verna 
tempore exeuntis pondere comparati, per plures annos re- 
petitae." Wood thinks that sir George was the author of 
more things: but they had not come to his knowledge. 
His whole works were, however, published at Leyden in 
1687, 8vo. * 

ENTICK, or ENTINCK (John), a miscellaneous com* 
piler of various historical works, was born in 1713, but 
where, or where educated, we have not been able to dis- 
cover : he styled himself in his numerous title-pages the 
Rev. John Entick, M. A. but it does not appear whence he 
derived his orders, or his degree. It is certain that at 
one time he studied with a view to the ministry, either in 
the church or among the dissenters. In the list of writers 
who engaged in the controversy with Woolston, we find . 
bis name, as a " student in divinity," and the author of a 
tract, entitled " The Evidence of Christianity asserted and 
proved from facts, as authorised, from sacred and profane 
history." Mr. Entick was at this time about eighteen years 
old. In London, or its vicinity at Stepney, he was a 
schoolmaster, and spent a considerable part of his life in 
writing for the booksellers, who appear to have always em-* 
ployed him when they engaged in such voluminous com- 
pilations as were to be published in numbers. In this way 
we find his name to a " Naval History," folio ; " A History 
of the (Seven years') War," 5 vols. 8vo; "A History of 
London," 4 vols. 8vo ; a new edition, enlarged, of Mait-* 
land's History of London, 2 vols, folio, &c. &c. He com- 
piled also a small Latin and English Dictionary, and a 
Spelling Dictionary, of both which immense numbers have 
been sold. About the year 1738, he proposed publishing 
an edition of Chaucer, which never took effect. Soon 
after the beginning of the present reign, he commenced 
patriot, of the school of Wilkes, wrote for some time in an 
anti-ministerial paper called the Monitor, and had at length 
the good fortune to be taken up under a general warrant, 
for which he prosecuted the messenger, and recovered 

i W^xTft flwti, yoI J, 

E N T I C K.* 21* 

500/. damages. It was after this that he professed to im- 
prove and enlarge Maitland's History of London, without 
adding a syllable to the topographical part ; but in the his- 
torical, he gave a very full account of Wilkes's proceedings 
with the city of London, and of the sufferings of his ad- 
herents. In 1760, he married a widow lady of Stepney, 
who died the same year; and in May 1773, himself died, 
and was buried at the same place. We may add to his 
other publications, that he had a considerable share in the 
New " Week's Preparation," and a New " Whole Duty of 
Man." l 

ENZINAS (Francis) is a Spanish writer, who among 
biographers is classed under different names. In Moreri, 
we find him under that of Dryander, by which, perhaps, 
be is most generally known ; but in France he took the 
name of Du Chesne, . and by the Germans was called 
Eyck, Eycken, or Eyckman. Referring to Marchand 
for a dissertation on these different names, it may suffice 
here to notice that Enzinas was of a distinguished family 
of Burgos, the capital of Old Castille, where he was pro- 
bably born, or where at least he began his studies. He 
appears afterwards to have gone into Germany, and was the 
pupil of the celebrated Melancthon for some years, and thence 
into the Netherlands to some relations, where he settled. 
Having become a convert to the reformed religion, which 
was there established, he translated the New Testament 
into Spanish, and dedicated it to Charles V. It was pub- 
lished at Antwerp in 1543. He had met with much dis- 
couragement when he communicated this design to his 
friends in Spain, and was now to suffer yet more severely 
for his attempt to present his countrymen with a part of 
the scriptures in their own tongue. The publication had 
scarcely made its appearance, when he was thrown into 
prison at Brussels, where he remained from November 
1543 to Feb. I, 1545, on which day finding the doors of 
bis prison open, he made his escape, and went to his rela- 
tions at Antwerp. About three years after, he went to Eng- 
land, as we learn from a letter of introduction which Me- 
lancthon gave him to archbishop Cranmer. About 1552 
Melancthon gave him a similar letter to Calvin. The time 
of his death is not known. He published, in 1 545, " A 
History of the State of the Low Countries, and of the relU 

i Lysons's Environs, yoI. III.— Gent Maf . &c 

216 EN?INA S/ 

gion of Spain," in Latin, which was afterwards translated 
into French, and forms part ctf the " Protestant MartyfQ- 
logy," printed in Germany. Marcband points oi^t a few 
other writings by him, but which were not published se- 
parately. Enzinas had. two brothers, James and John*. Of 
the former little is recorded of couch cqnsequencQ ; hut 
John, who resided a considerable time at Rome, sp>4 Uke-r 
wise became a convert to the protestant religion, w?ft setn 
ting out for Germany to join his brother, when $or#e ex- 
pressions which he dropped, relative to the corruptions 
and disorders of the church, occasioned his being accused 
of heresy, and thrown into prisoq. The terrors of a dun- 
geon, and the prospect of a cruel death, did not d$unt bi$ 
noble soul, but when brought before the pope and cardi- 
nals to be examined, he refused to retract what fye had 
said, and boldly avowed and justified, his QpiniQps 1 for 
which he was condemned to be burnt alive, a sentence 
\yhich was put into execution at Rome in 1545. 1 

EOBANUS (Hessus), a celebrated Latin poet qf Hesse, 
was born January 6, 1488, under a tree in the fields, *nd- 
therefore probably of very obscure parents* H$ heo^oae* 
however, so famous by his poems, as to be called the Ger- 
man Homer. He taught the belles lettres at Herfort ^i>d 
Nuremberg, then at Marpurg, where the landgrave of 
Hesse loaded him with favo\n?s. Eoh^nus was given to his 
country vice of excessive drinking, in which he prided 
himself. He died October 5, 1540, at Marpurg. He trans- 
lated Theocritus into Latin verse, Basil,, 1 53 1, 8vo, and Ho- 
mer's Iliad, Basil, 1540,, 8 vo, &c. His "Eclogues," HaW* 
1539, 8vo, and " De tuenda bona Valetudine," Francfort, 
1564, 8vo, are particularly admired. His style is natural, 
easy, clear, and correct ; nor had Germany, at that time, 
produced much that was superior. His life was written by 
Joachim Camerarius, Nuremb. 1*53, 8vo.* 

EPAMINONDAS, a famous Theban, son of Polymnu* 
and one of the greatest captains of antiquity, studied phi- 
losophy and music under Lysis, a Pythagorean philosopher, 
and was accomplished in every exercise of mind and body. 
Epaminondas first bore arms among the Lacedemonians* 
saved the life of Pelopidas their general, who had received 
seven or eight wounds in battle, and formed a strict friend* 

"* Marchand.*— Moreri in Dryander, — Antonio Bibl. Hisp. 
* Moreri — Niceroo, vol. X^I.wwFi^eri Theatrum^ClepjLCat Bibl. Curieuse* 
«^S|a|i Onomajt, 


ship* with bim, which tasted through life. Felepidas, by 
his advice, delivered the city of Thebes from the yoke of 
the k&cedenaoniaiis, who had gained possession of Cadmea^ 
which occasioned a bloody war between the . two nations. 
Epaminopdas was. appointed general of the Thebans, 
gained the celebrated battle of Leuctra, &7 1 B. C. in which 
Qtectmhrotus, a valiant king of Sparta, was killed ; ravaged 
the enemy's cmintry* ai\d eaused the eity of Messene to be- 
rebuilt and peopled. The command of the army being 
aft#*»warda given to another, because Epaminondas had' 
kept the troops in the field lour months beyond the time* 
Ordered by the people, he served as a common soldie*, and 
signalled himself by so many noble actions, that the The* 
bans* .ashamed of having deprived him of the command* 
restored all bia authority, that he might conduct die war 
ia Thessaly, where has. arms were ever victorious. A war 
breaking out between the people of Elea and those of 
Mantinea, the Thebans defended the former, and Epa~ 
minon das, attempted to surprise Sparta and Man tinea; but, 
failing in Us entevprize, he engaged the en^my 363 B. C. 
and was mortally wdunded by a spear, the head of which 
remained in the wound. Finding that he must die if it 
was extracted, he would not let it be done, but continued 
to give his orders. When told that the enemy were de- 
feated entirely, lie said, *' I have lived long enough, since 
I die unconcjuered ;" th$n, tearing out the weapon, ex- 
pired, being about forty-eight years of age* One of his 
friends condoling with him, a few moments before, that he 
left no children, having never been married, " You are 
mistaken," replied Epaminondas ; " I leave two daughters; 
the Victory at Leuctra, and that at Mantinea." This 
great man was not only illustrious for bis military talents, 
but for his goodness, affability, frugality, equity, and mo- 
deration ; and was a tender, generous friend. l 

EPEE (Chaules Michel de T), a very ingenious and 
benevolent French abb6, and the extensive promoter, if 
not the inventor, of a method of relieving the deaf and 
dumb, and rendering them useful members of society, was 
the son of an architect, who educated him for the church. 
Having obtained a canonry of Troyes, by the presentation 
of the bishop of that diocese, he soon became intimate 
with the prelate Soanen> famous for his attachment to 

} Plutarch.— Cornel, N#pos, &c. 


Quesnel, and his opposition to the bull Unigenitus, and 
coinciding in his religious opinions, shared in the persecu- 
tion of which Soanen was the object, and was laid under ' 
an interdict He was first induced to turn his thoughts 
towards the unhappy case of the deaf and dumb, from ob- 
serving two young girls in that situation, and although 
some not altogether unsuccessful attempts had been made 
before his time, in individual cases, the abb6 L'Epee soon 
outdid the most skilful of his predecessors, by reducing 
his means to a sort of system. Under his care numerous 
pupils acquired useful knowledge, and were enabled to 
bold a communication with their friends. Some of them 
were enabled to learn several languages; others became 
profound mathematicians, and others obtained academical 
prizes by poetical and literary works. Without other means 
than a moderate personal fortune, for he held no place or 
preferment, he defrayed the whole expences of his estab- 
lishment, and always deprived himself of luxuries, and 
often of necessaries, that his poor pupils might not want. 
When the emperor Joseph II. came to Paris, he admired 
the institution and its founder, and asked permission to 
place under his care an intelligent man, who might diffuse 
through Germany the blessings of his labours ; and he sent 
him a magnificent gold box with his picture. In 1780 the 
Russian ambassador came to offer him the compliments of 
his sovereign, and a considerable present. " Tell Cathe- 
rine," said L'Epee, " that I never receive gold ; but that 
if my labours have any claim to her esteem, all I ask of her 
is to send me from her vast dominions one born deaf and 
dumb to educate. 9 ' This amiable man died in February 
1790, justly regretted by his country, and was succeeded 
in his school by the abb6 Sicard. L'Epee wrote, 1. " An 
Account of the Complaint and Cure of Marianne Pigalle," 
1759, 12 mo. 2. " Institution des Sourds et Muets, par la 
voie des signes methodiques," 1776, 12mo, reprinted in 
1784, under the title " La veritable maniere d'instruire 
les Sourds et Muets, confirm6e par une longue experience." 
A translation of this was published in London, 1801, Svo. 
We cannot conclude this article without adverting to the 
success of the methods of teaching the deaf and dumb as 
now practised in this country, and eminently promoted by 
the " Society for the Deaf and Dumb," in their Asylum, 
Kent Road ; few charitable foundations have been moro 

E P H O R U S. 21* 

wisely kid, more judiciously conducted, or more liberally 
supported. l 

EPHORUS, a Greek orator and historian, a native of 
Cuma or Cyme in jEolia, flourished about the year 352 
B. C» He was a disciple of Socrates, at whose instigation 
be wrote history ; which he commenced after the fabulous 
periods, with the return of the Heraclidse into Pelopon- 
nesus, and brought down to the twentieth year of Philip of 
Macedon. This work, which was divided into 30 books, 
was held in estimation by the ancients, and is frequently 
eited by Strabo and other writers ; though the historian is 
charged with errors and misrepresentations, and plagiarisms. 
Besides the history, the loss of which is regretted, Ephorus 
wrote several other books on moral, geographical, and rhe- 
torical subjects, none of which are extant ; but some 
" Fragmenta" are published with Scylax, Gr. and Lat. 
Leyden, 1697, 4 to. * 

- EPHREM, or EPHRAIM (St.), an ancient Christian 
writer of the fourth century, was a native of Edessa, ac- 
cording to some ; or, as others say, of Nisibe in Syria ; 
and was born under the emperor Constantine. He em- 
braced a monastic life from his earliest years, and in a 
short time was chosen superior to a considerable number of 
monks. He is also said to have been ordained deacon at 
Edessa, and priest at Caesar ea in Cappadocia by St. Basil, 
who taught him Greek; but these two last circumstances 
are questionable, and it is more generally asserted that he 
did not understand Greek, and that he died a deacon. He 
might have been a bishop, which promotion he averted in 
a very singular manner, that reminds us of the conduct of 
Ambrose on a similar occasion : Sozomen relates, that 
when the people had chosen him, and sought him in order 
to have him ordained to that function, he ran into the mar- 
ket-place and pretended to be mad, and they desisting 
from their purpose, he escaped into some retired place, 
where he continued till another was chosen. He wrote a 
great number of books, all in the Syriac language ; a great 
part of which is said to have been translated in his life* 
time. Photius . tells us that he wrote above a thousand 
orations, and that himself had seen forty-nine of his ser- 
mons : and Sozomen observes, that he composed three 

_ ' Diet. Hist.— Biog. Modern*.— See some remarks on the abbe L'Epee'a 
system in Br. Watson's Instructions for the Deaf and Dumb, 1809, 2 vols. 8v9« 
. 3 Gen* Dipt, one of Bay la's most tiresome articles,— Moreri, 

Wfr E P H B E H. 

hundred thousand verses, and that his works were! sohighljr 
esteemed that they were publicly read in the churches after 
the scriptures. The same writer adds, that bis, works were 
s& remarkable for beauty and dignity of style, as well a$ 
for sublimity of sentiments, that these excellences* did not 
disappear even in their translations : and St Jerom assures* 
us, that in reading the translation. of St Ephrem's treatise 
of the Holy Ghost, he recognized all the excellence of 
the original* Gregory Nyssen, in Us panegyric on thi* 
father, is very copious with regard to the merit of his writ* 
kigs, and his attachments to the orthodox faith. St. Ephrem 
bad an extreme aversion to the heresies, of Sabellius, Anus* 
aijvd Apollinarius; the last of whom, as. Gregory relates, 
he treated in a manner which partakes too much of the- 
jaodern tvick to. deserve much credit. It is thus, related :. 
Apollinarius having written two books, in which be had 
collected all the arguments in defence of his own opinion,, 
and having entrusted them with a lady, St. Ephrem bor- 
rowed these books, under the pretence of being an Apol* 
Ijnarian ; but before he returned them he gtewed all their 
leaves together. The lady seeing the outside of the books 
to be the same as before, and not discovering that any 
thing had been done to them, returned them to ApoUiaariua 
to he used in a public conference he was going to have 
with a catholic : but he, not being able to open his books, 
lias obliged to retire in disgrace. St. Ephrem was a mai* 
of the greatest severity of morals, and so strict an observer 
of chastity, that he avoided the sight of women. Sozomen. 
tells us, that a certain woman of dissolute character, either 
on purpose to tempt him, or else being hired ta it by 
Others, met him on purpose in a narrow passage, and 
stared him full and earnestly in the face. S*. Ephraa 
rebjuked her sharply for this, and bade her look down oa 
the ground. But the woman, said, " Why should 1 do so, 
since I am not made out of the earth, but. of thee $ It im 
more reasooable that thou shouldst look upon the groitad, 
from which thou hadst thy original, but that I should look 
upon thee, from whom I was. procreated.'* St. Ephrem,, 
wondering at the woman* wrote a book upon this convevsa*. 
tion, which the most learned of the Syrians esteemed oae 
of the best of his performances. He was also a man oE 
exemplary charity, and as a late historian remarks, has 
furnished us with the first outlines, of a general, infirmary. 
Edessa having been lo&g afflicted with a famine, he- quitted 

EPHREM. 221 

Irfe w&ll ; and applying himself to the rich men, expostufateA 
aeveflely with them for suffering tbe poor to starve, whHte 
they covetously kept their riches hoarded up. He read 
them a religions lecture upon the subject, which affected 
them so deeply, that they became regardless of theft* 
riches: " but we do not know,"^ said they, "whom to 
trust with the distribution of them, since almost every 
man is greedy of gain, and makes a merchandise and ad* 
vantage to himself upon such occasions." St. Ephrem 
asked them, "what they thought of him ?" They replied 
that they esteemed him a man of great integrity, as he 
was universally thought to be. " For your sakes, there- 
fore," said he, " I will undertake this work ;" and so, re- 
ceiving their money, he caused three hundred beds to be 
provided and laid in the public porticoes, and took care of 
those who were sick through the famine. And thus he 
continued to do, till, the famine ceasing, he returned tp 
his cell, where be applied himself again to his studies, and 
died not long after, in the year 378, under the emperor Valens. 
Upon his death-bed he exhorted the monks who were about 
him, to remember him in their prayers ; forbade them to 
preserve bis clothes as relics ; and ordered his body to be 
interred without tbe least funeral pomp, or any monument 
erected to him. St. Ephrem was a man of the severest 
piety, but confused in his ideas, and more acquainted 
with the moral law than the gospel. 

There is an edition of St. Ephrem's Sermons, by 
Thwaites, the Greek only, Oxford, 1709, fol. and of his 
whole works, by Asseman, Gr. Syr. and Lat. printed at 
Rome, 1732 — 46, in 6 vols. fol. which is accompanied 
with prolegomena, notes, and prefaces. l 

EPICHARMUS, an ancient poet and philosopher, who 
flourished about 440 B. C. was born in the island of Cods, 
and was carried, as we are told by Laertiu9», into Sicily 
when he was but three months old, first to Megara, and 
afterwards to Syracuse ; which may well enough justify 
Horace and others in calling him a Sicilian. He had the 
honour of being taught by Pythagoras himself; and he and 
Phormus are said to have invented comedy in Syracuse, 
though others have pretended to that discovery. He wrote 
fifty-five, or, according to others, thirty-five plays; but 

1 Care, vol. I. — Dupin. — Gen. Diet.— -Milaer'a Eccl. Hist, rol* II. p. 251;— 
Lardner's Wurke.— Saxii Onomast. 

222 E P I C H A R M U 8. 

his works have been so long lost, that even their character 
is scarcely on record. Horace only has preserved the 
memory of one of his excellences, by commending Plautus 
for imitating it; and that is, the keeping his subject al- 
ways in view, and following the intrigue very closely: 

Plautus ad exemplum Siculi properare Epicharmi, &c. 

Besides his numerous comedies, he wrote a great many 
treatises in philosophy and medicine, but the tyranny of 
Hiero prevented him from assuming the public profession 
of philosophy, and no accurate account of his philosophi- 
cal tenets remains. Aristotle, as Pliny tells us, thought 
that Epicharmus added the letters O and X to the Greek 
alphabet, though others ascribe them to Palamedes. He 
died at the age of ninety,, according to Laertius ; or ninety- 
seven, as Lucian asserts. Laertius has preserved four 
verses, inscribed on one of his statues, which shew the 
high esteem antiquity had of him. 1 

EPICTETUS, an illustrious philosopher of the school 
of the stoics, flourished in the first century of the Christian 
«ra. He was born at Hieropolis in Phrygia, and was sold 
as a slave to Epaphroditus, one of Nero's domestics. He 
was lame, which has been variously accounted for. Suidas 
says, that he lost one of his legs when he was young, in 
consequence of a defluxion ; Simplicius asserts that he was 
born lame ; Celsus relates, that when his master, in order 
to torture him, bended his leg, Epictetus, without disco* 
vering any sign of fear, said to him, " You will break it :'* 
and when his tormentor had broken the leg, he only said, 
" Did I not tell you, you would break it ?" Others ascribe 
his lameness to the heavy chains with which his master 
loaded him. Having, at length, by some means obtained 
his freedom, he retired to a small hut within the city of 
Rome, where, with the bare necessaries of life, he devoted 
himself to the study of philosophy, and passed his days 
entirely alone, till his humanity led him to take the charge 
of a child, whom a friend of his had through poverty ex- 
posed, and to provide it with a nurse. Having furnished 
himself, by diligent study, with the principles of the stoic 
philosophy, and been instructed in rhetoric by Rufus/ who 
was himself a bold and successful corrector of public man- 
ners, Epictetus, notwithstanding his poverty, became a 

1 Gen. Diet.—- Diogenes Laertius.— Brucker. — Saxii Qnemast, — S ec remarks 
on him and his fragments in Cumber land's Observer* 


popular moral preceptor, for which he was admirably qua- 
lified, being an acute and judicious observer of manners* 
His eloquence was simple, majestic, nervous, and pene- 
trating, and while his doctrine inculcated the purest morals, 
his life was an admirable pattern of sobriety, magnanimity, 
and the most rigid virtue* 

Neither his humble station, nor his singular merit, could 
however screen Epictetus from the tyranny of the monster 
Domitian. With the rest of the philosophers he was ba- 
nished, under a mock decree of the senate, from Italy, 
which he bore with a degree of firmness worthy of a phi- 
losopher who called himself a citizen of the world, and 
could boast that, wherever he went, he carried his best trea- 
sures along with him. At Nicopolis, the place which he 
chose for his residence, he prosecuted his design of cor* 
recting vice and folly by the precepts of philosophy. 
Wherever he could obtain an auditory, he discoursed con- 
cerning the true way of attaining contentment and happi- 
ness ; and the wisdom and eloquence of his discourses were 
so highly admired, that it became a common practice 
among the more studious of his hearers to commit them to 
Writing. It is probable from the respect which Adrian en* 
tertained for him that he returned to Rome after the death 
of Domitian ; and the " Conference between Adrian and 
Epictetus," if the work were authentic, would confirm 
this probability ; but it is impossible to compare it with his 
genuine remains, without pronouncing it spurious. 

Epictetus flourished from the time of Nero to the latter 
end of the reign of Adrian, but not so far as the reign of 
the Antonines ; for Aulus Gellius, who wrote in their time, 
speaks of Epictetus as lately dead ; and the emperor Mar- 
cus Aurelius mentions him only to lament his loss. The 
memory of Epictetus was so highly respected, that, ac- 
cording to Lucian, the earthen lamp by which he used to 
study was sold for three thousand drachmas. Epictetus 
' himself wrote nothing. His beautiful Moral Manual, or 
Enchiridion, and his " Dissertations," collected by Arrian, 
were drawn up from notes which his disciples took from his 
lips. Simplicius has left a Commentary upon his doctrine, 
in the eclectic manner. There are "also various fragments 
of the wisdom of Epictetus, preserved by Antoninus, Gel- 
lius, Stobseus, and others. . Although the doctrine of Epic- 
. tetus is less extravagant than that of any other stoic, his 
writings every where breathe the true, spirit of stoicism. 


The tenet of the immortality of the soul was adopted and 
maintained by him with a degree of consistency suited to 
a mote rational system than that of the stoics, who incul- 
cated a renovation of being in the circuit of events, ac- 
cording to the inevitable order of fate ; and his exhorta- 
tions to contentment and submission to Providence are en- 
forced on much sounder principles than those of the stoics. 
He also strenuously opposed the opinion held by the stoics 
in general, concerning the lawfulness of suicide ; and his 
whole system of practical virtues approaches nearer than 
that of any other instructor unenlightened by revelation, 
to the purity of Christian morality. If there were Chris- 
tians in Nero's household, which seems certain, it is not 
improbable he might have been taught some of their prin- 
ciples. There are various editions of the remains of this 
philosopher, published at Leyden in 1670, in Bvo, cum 
cotts variorum ; at Utrecht in 1711, in 4to; at Oxford in 
1740, in 8vo, by Joseph Simpson, together with the Table 
of Cebes, &c ; at London in 1742, by J. Upton, in 2 vols. 
4to, a very excellent edition. The Enchiridion was pub- 
lished by C. G. Heyne, in 1776, in 8vo, and together with 
Cebes's Table, by Schweighauser, in 1798, 15 vols. Svo, 
by far the best edition ever published. These have been 
translated into various languages ; but the most esteemed 
version in our country is that by Mrs. Carter, published in 
1758, with notes. 1 

EPICURUS, one of the most celebrated philosophers 
of antiquity, the real merit of whose system, however, still 
remains doubtful, was an Athenian of the Egean tribe, 
and born at Gargettus, in the vicinity of Athens, at thb 
beginning of the third year of the 109th olympiad, or B. C. 
344. His father Neocles, and his mother Chaerestrata, 
were of honourable descent, but being reduced to poverty, 
they were sent with a colony of 2000 Athenian citizens, 
to the bland of Samos, which Pericles had subdued* to di- 
vide the lands among them by lot ; but what fell to their 
share not proving sufficient for their subsistence, Neocles 
took up the profession of a schoolmaster. Epicurus re*- 
mained at Samos till he was eighteen years of age, when 
he removed to Athens, which the tyranny of Perdieca* 
soon made him leave ; but after passing one year at Mity* 
lene, and four at Lampsacus, he returned to Athtftfe. 

* Brocker. — ArriaD.— 4S«mt OiOfltMt, 

£ P I C U R tJ & 2ii 

From his fourteenth to his thirty-sixth year, he studied 
under the various philosophers of his day, and therefore 
when we read in Cicero that he boasted he was a self* 
taught philosopher, we are to understand only that his sys- 
tem of philosophy was the result of his own reflections^ 
after comparing the doctrines of other sects. About the 
thirty-second year of his age he opened a school at Mity- 
lene, which he soon removed to Lampsacus, where he had 
disciples from Colophon, but not satisfied with this obscure 
situation, he determined to make his .appearance on the 
more public theatre of Athens. Finding, however, the 
public places in the city proper for this purpose, already 
occupied by other sects, he purchased a pleasant garden, 
where he took up his constant residence, and taught his 
system of philosophy ; and hence the Epicureans were called 
the Philosophers of the Garden. Besides this garden, 
•Epicurus had a bouse in Melite, a village of the Cecropian 
tribe, to which he frequently retreated with his friends. 
From this time to his death, notwithstanding all the dis- 
turbances of the state, Epicurus never left Athens, unless 
in two or three excursions into Ionia to visit his friends. 
During the siege of Athens by Demetrius, which hap- 
pened when Epicurus was forty -four years of age, while 
the city was severely (harassed by famine, Epicurus is said 
to have supported himself and his friends on a small quan- 
tity of beans, which he shared equally with them. 

The period in which Epicurus opened his school was 
peculiarly favourable to his design. In the room of the 
simplicity of the Socratic doctrine, nothing now remained 
but the subtlety and affectation of stoicism, the unnatural 
severity of the Cynics, or the debasing doctrine of in- 
dulgence taught and practised by the followers of Aristip- 
pus. The luxurious refinement which now prevailed in 
Athens, inclined the younger citizens to listen to a pre- 
ceptor who smoothed the stem brow of philosophy, and, 
under the notion, of pleasure, led them unawares to mode- 
ration and virtue. Hence his school became exceedingly 
popular, and disciples flocked into the garden, not only 
from different parts of Greece, but from Egypt and Asia. 
Those who were regularly admitted into this school lived 
upon such a footing of friendly attachment, that each in- 
dividual cheerfully supplied the necessities of his brother. 
Cicero describes the friendship of the Epicurean fraternity 
as unequalled in the history of mankind. 



That he might prosecute his philosophical labours with 
the less interruption, Epicurus lived in a state of celibacy* 
In his own conduct he was exemplary for temperance and 
continence, and he inculcated upon his followers severity 
of manners, and the strict government of the passions, as 
the best means of passing a tranquil and happy life. Not- 
withstanding his regular manner of living, towards the 
close of his days, probably in consequence of intense ap- 
plication to study, his constitution became infirm, and he 
was afflicted with the stone. Perceiving from these marks 
of decay that his end .was approaching, he wrote a will, in 
which he .bequeathed bis garden, and the buildings be- 
longing to it, to Hermachus, and through him to the fu- 
ture professors of his philosophy. On the last day of his 
life he wrote to his friend Hermachus, informing him that 
his disease bad for fourteen days tormented him with an- 
guish, which nothing could exceed ; at the same time he 
adds, " All this is counterbalanced by the satisfaction of 
mind which I derive from the recollection of my discourses 
and discoveries." The emperor Marcus Antoninus con- 
firms this account, attesting that Epicurus in his sickness 
relied more upon the recollection of his excellent life than 
upon the aid of physicians, and instead of complaining of 
his pain, conversed with his friends upon those principles 
. of philosophy which he had before maintained. At length, 
finding nature just exhausted, he ordered himself to be 
put into a warm bath, where, after refreshing himself with 
wine, and exhorting his friends not to forget his doctrines, 
he expired. His death happened in the second year of the 
] 27 th olympiad, or B.C. 27 1, and the seventy-third of his age* 
He is said to have written a greater number of works Jrom 
his own invention, than any other Grecian philosopher; 
but none are extant except a compendium of his doctrine, 
preserved by Laertius, and a few fragments dispersed 
among ancient authors. Not only did the immediate fol- 
lowers of Epicurus adorn the memory of their master with 
the highest honours, but many eminent writers, who have 
disapproved of his philosophy, have expressed great re- 
spect for his- personal merit. Yet it cannot be denied that 
from the time when this philosopher appeared to the pre- 
sent day, an uninterrupted course of censure has fallen 
upon his memory ; so that the name of his sect has almost 
become a proverbial expression for every thing corrupt in 
principle, and infamous in character. The charges brought 


against Epicurus are, that he superseded all religious prin- 
ciples, by dismissing the Gods from the care of the world > 
that if he acknowledged their existence, it was only in 
Conformity to popular prejudice, since, according to his 
system, nothing exists in nature but material atoms ; that 
he discovered great insolence anU vanity in the disrespect 
with which he treated the memory of former philosophers, 
and the characters and persons of his contemporaries ; and 
that both the master and the whole fraternity were addicted 
to the vilest and most infamous vices. These accusations 
against the Epicurean school have been more or less con- 
firmed by men distinguished for their wisdom and virtue, 
by Zeno, Cicero, Plutarch, Galen, and many of the 
Christian fathers. By what, therefore, are they to be re- 
pelled ? Brucker, who has examined this question with 
his usual acuteness and erudition, observes, that with re- 
spect to the first charge, that of impiety, it certainly ad- 
mits of no refutation. The doctrine of Epicurus concerning 
nature, not only militated against the superstitions of the 
Athenians, but against the agency of a supreme deity in 
the formation and government of the world ; and his mis- 
conceptions with respect to mechanical motion, and the 
nature of divine happiness, led him in his system to divest 
the Deity of som<? of his primary attributes. It does not 
indeed appear that he entirely denied the existence of su- 
perior powers. Cicero, who is unquestionably to be ranked 
among his opponents, relates, that Epicurus wrote books 
concerning piety, and the reverence due to the gods, ex- 
pressed in terms which might have become a priest ; and 
he charges him with inconsistency, in maintaining that the 
gods ought to be worshipped, whilst he asserted, that they 
had no concern in human affairs ; herein admitting, that 
he revered the gods, but neither through hope nor fear, 
merely on account of the majesty and excellence of their 
nature. But if, with the utmost contempt for popular su- 
perstitions, Epicurus retained some- belief in, and respect 
for, invisible natures, it is evident that his gods were desti- 
tute of many of the essential characters of divinity, and 
that his piety was of a kind very different from that which 
is inspired by just notions of Deity. Not*to urge, that 
there is some reason to suspect, that what he taught con- 
cerning the gpds might have been artfully designed to 
screen him from the odium and hazard which would have 
attended a, direct avowal of atheism. 

Q 2 


Tbe second charge against Epicurui, that of insolence 
and contempt towards other philosophers, seems scarcely 
compatible with the general air of gentleness and civility 
which appears in his character. If he claimed to himself 
the credit of his own system, he did no moire than Zeno, 
Plato, and Aristotle, after availing themselves of every 
possible aid from former philosophers, had done before 
him. But, adds Brucker, calumny never appeared with 
greater effrontery, than in accusing Epicurus of intem- 
perance and incontinence. That his character was distin- 
guished by the contrary virtues appears not only from the 
numerous attestations brought by Laertius, but even from 
the confession of the most creditable opponents of his doc- 
trine, particularly Cicero, Plutarch, and Seneca ; and in- 
deed this is sufficiently clear from the particulars which are 
related concerning his usual manner of living. But no- 
thing can be a greater proof that his adversaries bad little 
to allege against his innocence, than that they were obliged 
to have recourse to forgery. The infamous letters which 
Diotimus, or, according to Athenseus, Theotimus, ascribed 
to him, were proved, in a public court, to have been 
fraudulently imposed upon the world, and the Author of the 
imposition was punished. Whatever might be' the case 
afterwards, therefore, there is little reason to doubt that, 
during the life of Epicurus, his garden was rather a school 
of temperance, than a scene of riot and debauchery. 
• If it be asked, says Brucker, whence it happened, that 
a character, so eminently distinguished by simplicity and 
purity as that of Epicurus appears to have been, was 
loaded with*so many calumnies, he answers, the circum- 
stances of the times in which he lived will sufficiently ac- 
count for the fact. Zeno, and the stoic sect, began to 
flourish about the same time with Epicurus and his school, 
that is, about the hundred and twentieth olympiad; al- 
though the latter is of somewhat later date than the former. 
The father of the Stoics was of a temper naturally severe 
and gloomy ; and his character was, under Antisthenes, 
formed upon the plan of the cynic school } so .that, both 
by disposition and education, he wast inclined to carry his 
moral system beyond the limits, of nature, and framed to 
himself a fanciful image of a wise man, which could have 
no archetype in real life. After pillaging the schools of 
other philosophers, in order to compose, from the plun- 
dered mass, a system of his own, that he might give it an 


air of novelty, he introduced new terms, or affixed new 
significations and definitions to the old ; whence arose dog- 
mas, which had indeed little originality, but which under 
a paradoxical form carried the appearance of profound 
wisdom. By these means, together with the external aid 
of uncommon gravity in language, dress, and demeanour, 
Zeno and his followers obtained such high reputation 
among the Athenians, that they were the only persons 
deemed worthy of the name of philosophers. The temper 
of Epicurus, and the character under which he *chose to 
appear, was the reverse of all this. In his natural dispo- 
sition lively and cheerful, and accustomed, from bis in* 
fancy, to mix in society with men of all descriptions, he 
had acquired a captivating facility of address, and urbanity 
of manners. Nothing could be more contrary to his dispo* 
sition and habitude, than the artificial reserve, and hypo- 
critical affectation of the stoics. His aversion to unnatural 
austerity, and artificial grimace, induced him to open his 
garden in direct opposition to the Porch. Observing that 
all the Athenians were at this time immersed either in plea- 
sures or in ideal and useless disputes, he attempted to lead 
them to such an employment of their rational faculties as 
would be conducive to the true enjoyment of life ; and for 
this purpose introduced among them a system of philoso- 
phy, the professed object of which was, to enable men to 
preserve themselves from pain, grief, and sorrow of every 
kind, and to secure to themselves the uninterrupted posr 
session of tranquillity and happiness. This great end he 
assured himself would be effected, if, by taking off the 
forbidding mask with which the Stoics had concealed the 
fair face of virtue, he could persuade men to embrace her 
as the only guide to a happy life. At the same time Epi- 
curus was convinced, that the subtlety of disputation would 
contribute little towards the accomplishment of his design ; 
and therefore endeavoured to divert the public taste from 
these trifling occupations, and to put an end to the verbal 
contests of the academics, dialectics, and stoics, by in- 
stituting a school, in which greater caution than had hi- 
therto been customary should be exercised in the assump- 
tion of principles, and in the use of terms. The natural 
consequence of this was a crowded school to Epicurus, and 
jealousy and envy among his contemporaries. The stoics, 
above all others, iu opposition to whom he had erected bin 


school, would be disposed to employ detraction and ca- 
lumny against so powerful an opponent. 

Another cause of the discredit, into which Epicurus and 
his followers fell, may be discovered in the nature and 
constitution of his philosophy. He made pleasure the end 
of his doctrine, and only employed wisdom as a guide to 
happiness. The stoics would easily perceive, that a pre- 
, ceptor who attempted to correct the false and corrupt taste 
of the times, and to lead men to true pleasure, by natural 
and easy steps in the path of virtue, would be more likely 
to command the public attention, than one who rested 
bis authority and influence upon a rigid system of doctrine, 
and an unnatural severity of manners. In order, therefore, 
to secure their own popularity, they thought it necessary 
to misrepresent the principles and character of Epicurus, 
and held him to public censure as an advocate for infamous 
pleasures. That they might gain the greater credit by 
their misrepresentations, they invented and circulated 
many scandalous tales, which would obtain a ready recep- 
tion among the indolent and credulous Athenians. This 
might be the more easily effected, as Epicurus passed his 
time in his garden, remote from the crowd, and did not 
scruple, in his retirement, to enjoy such pleasures as he 
judged to be not inconsistent with that virtuous tranquillity, 
which was the chief end of bis philosophy. The calum- 
nies which were thus ingeniously fabricated, and industri- 
ously propagated, against the Epicurean sect, would be 
the more willingly believed, on account of the contempt 
with which Epicurus treated the vulgar superstitions, and 
his avowed rejection of the doctrine of fate, or providence, 
so strongly maintained by the stoics; and especially on 
account of the perverse abuse of his doctrine to the encou- 
ragement of licentiousness, by which many of his followers 
brought disgrace upon their sect. These abuses ought not, 
however, to be imputed to the founder of the school. Se- 
neca himself acknowledges, that the profligates, who in 
vhis time professed themselves disciples of Epicurus, were 
not led into their irregularities by his doctrine ; but, being 
themselves strongly addicted to vice, sought to hide their 
crimes in the bosom of philosophy, and bad recourse to a 
master who encouraged the pursuit of pleasure, not he- 
cause they set any value upon that sober and abstemious 
kind of pleasure which the doctrine of Epicurus allowed, 
.but because they hoped, in the mere name, to find some 


pretext or apology for their debaucheries. If these cir- 
cumstances be duly considered and compared, it will no 
Jonger appear strange, that many eminent men, who had 
addicted themselves to other schools, have given an un- 
favourable judgment concerning Epicurus, whilst the force 
of truth has sometimes led them, at the expence of their 
own consistency, to attest his merit. Others, however, 
have penetrated through the thick cloud of calumny, which 
has hung over the character of Epicurus, and, in opposi- 
tion to the general current of censure, have ventured to 
give him that praise, which, ariiidst all the absurdities of 
his speculative system, was so justly due to his personal 
virtues, and to his laudable attempts to conduct men, by 
innocence and sobriety, to the tranquil enjoyment of life. 

Notwithstanding the violent opposition which Epicurus 
met with from the stoics, he had many friends and follow- 
ers during his life ; and after his death a degree of respect 
was paid to his memory, which fell little short of idolatry. 
His three brothers, Neocles, Cheeredemus, and Aristobu- 
lus, devoted themselves to the study of philosophy, and 
were supported by his liberality. Of his intimate friends 
the most celebrated were, Metrodorus, Polycenus, and 
Hermachus. After the death of Epicurus, his followers 
celebrated his birth-day as a festival. They preserved bis 
image on their rings or cups, or in pictures, which they 
either carried about their persons, or hung up in their 
chambers; and so great was "their reverence for his autho- 
rity, and their regard to his dying advice, that they com- 
mitted his maxims, and some of them the whole body of 
his instructions, to memory. For several ages they ad- 
hered with wonderful unanimity to his system, yielding as 
implicit submission to his decisions, as the Athenians or 
Spartans ever yielded to the laws of Solon or Lycurgus. 
They carried this point so far, that it was deemed a kind 
of impiety to innovate upon his doctrine ; so that the Epi- 
cureans formed a philosophical republic, regulated by one 
judgment, and animated by one souL 

For the philosophical system of Epicurus, we shall refer 
to Brucker ; a short sketch might be insufficient, and a 
long one would certainly be incompatible with our limits. 
What is ethical in it is good, but much, very much of 
what the ancients termed philosophy and theology, com- 
pared with that system which has brought " life and im- 
mortality to light/ 9 is a delusive play of words. Under 

232 E P I C U R U S. 

the article Gassendi, we shall have occasion to say some- 
thing of the modern schools of Epicureans, which have 
done so little credit to the original founder. 1 

EPIMEN1DES, a Cretan philosopher and poet, of the 
city of Gnossus in Crete, flourished in that island, when 
Solon was in great reputation at Athens, in the sixth cen- 
tury B. C. Many fabulous stories are told of him, and it 
is not easy to separate the true from the false part of his 
history. He was supposed to have been the son of the 
nymph Bake. He was a man venerable for religious ob- 
servances, and it was the general persuasion, all over 
Greece, that he was inspired by some heavenly genius; 
and that he was frequently favoured with divine revelations* 
He devoted himself wholly to poetry, and every thing con- 
nected with divine worship. He was the first who intro- 
duced the consecration of temples, and the purification of 
countries, cities, and likewise private houses. He had lit-* 
tie esteem for the people of his own country. St. Paul, in 
his epistle to Titus, when speaking of the Cretans, cites 
one of his verses, where he says (according to our transla-t 
tion), " The Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, slow 
bellies;" which, however, Fenelon translates less obscurely 
in these words, " They were great liars, indolent, yet man 
lignant brutes." 

Among' the miracles, told of him is the following : his 
father one day sent him to the country, in quest of a ewe» 
When returning, Epimenides went a little off the highway, 
and entered a cave directed to the south, in order to enjoy 
a little repose, and remained asleep there for fifty-seven 
years, and when he awoke, . found himself fifty-seven years 
older, and every thing changed in proportion around him. 
An adventure so strange made a great deal of noise over 
the country ; and every one regarded Epimenides as a fa- 
vourite of the gods. Some of them would have done wiser, 
if they had made this fiction the foundation of at satiric ro« 
mance ; but it has been conjectured that he only disap^ 
peared from his family, and spent the fifty-seven years in 
travelling. It is also recorded of him that he had the 
power of sending his soul out of his body, and recalling it 
at pleasure. Perhaps, says Brucker, in his hours of pre- 
tended inspiration, he had the art of appearing totally in- 

1 Brucker. — Diogenes Laertius. -^Fenelon, whose life of Epicurus is the beat 
pf his sketches. — Gen. Diet.— Moreru— Stanley's Risk of Philosophy.— Gassendi 
4f Vita el Morbus Ejpicuri. 


sensible and entranced, which would easily be mistaken, 
by ignorant spectators, for a power of dismissing and re- 
calling his spirit. If, however, the Cretans were notorious 
liars, and it is to them we are indebted for the particulars 
of the life of Epimeuides, the solution of these mysteries 
becomes easy. He probably was a man of superior talents, 
who pretended to an intercourse with the gods, and to 
support his pretensions lived in retirement upon the spon- 
taneous productions of the earth, and practised various arts 
of imposture. During a plague, the Athenians sent for 
him to perform a lustration, in consequence of which the 
plague ceased, and when the Athenians wished to reward 
him munificently, he demanded only a branch of the sacred 
olive, which grew in their citadel. Solon, in whose time 
this lustration was performed (B. C. 596), seems to have 
been no stranger to the true character of Epimenides ; for 
we find that he greatly disapproved of the conduct of the 
Athenians in employing him to perform this ceremony. 
Soon after his return to Crete, he died, as Laertius says, 
at the age of 1 57 years, or, as the Cretans pretend, at the 
age of 299 years. The superstitious Cretans paid him 
divine honours after his decease ; and he has been reckoned 
by some the seventh wise man of Greece, to the exclu- 
sion of Periander from this number. Laertius enumerates 
a variety of pieces written by Epimenides, both in prose 
and verse. Among the former was a treatise " On SacrU 
fices," and " An account of the Cretan Republic ;" and 
among the latter " The Genealogy and Theogony of the 
Curetes and Corybantes," in 5000 verses ; " Of the build- 
ing of the ship Argo, and Jason's expedition to. Colchis," 
in 6500 verses ; "Of Minos and Rhadamanthus," in 4000 
verses ; and a treatise " Of Oracles and Responses," men- 
tioned by St. Jerome, from which St. Paul is said to have 
taken the quotation above-mentioned. l 

EPJPHANIUS, an ancient Christian writer, was bora 
about the year 320, at Besanduce, a village of Palestine, 
His parents are said by Cave to have been Jews; but others 
are of opinion that there is no ground for this suspicion, 
since Sozomen affirms, that " from his earliest youth he 
was educated under the most excellent monks, upon which 
account he continued a very considerable time in JEgypt.'* 

1 Diogenes Laertius. — Gen. Diet. — Stanley's Hist,*— Feneloa's Lives of the 
philosophers, by Cormack.~Brucker. 


It is certain, that, while he was a youth, he went into 
./Egypt, where he fell into the conversation of the Gnostics, 
who had almost engaged him in their party ; but he soon 
withdrew himself from them, and, returning to his country, 
put himself for some time under the discipline of Hilarion, 
the father of the monks of Palestine. He afterwards 
founded a monastery near the village where he was born, 
and presided over it. About the year 367 he was elected 
bishop of Salamis, afterwards called Constantia, the metro- 
polis of the isle of Cyprus, where he acquired great repu- 
tation by his writings and his piety. In the year 382, he 
was sent for to Rome by the imperial letters, in order to 
determine the cause of Paulinus concerning the see of An- 
tioch. In the year 391 a contest arose between him and 
John, bishop of Jerusalem; Epiphanius accused John of 
holding the errors of Origen ; and, going to Palestine, or- 
dained Paulinian, brother of St. Jerom, deacon and priest, 
in a monastery which did not belong to his jurisdiction. 
John immediately complained of this action of Epiphanius, 
as contrary to the canons and discipline of the church, and 
Epiphanius defended what he had done, in a letter to John. 
This dispute irritated their minds still more, which were 
already incensed upon the subject of Origen ; and both of 
them endeavoured to engage Theophilus of Alexandria in 
their party. That prelate, who seemed at first to favour, 
the bishop of Jerusalem, declared at last against Origen ; 
condemned his books in a council held in the year 399 ; 
and persecuted all the monks who were suspected of re- 
garding his memory. These monks, retiring to Constan- 
tinople, were kindly received there by John Chrysostom ; 
which highly exasperated Theophilus, who, from that time, 
conceived a violent hatred to Chrysostom. In the mean 
time Theophilus informed Epiphanius of what he bad done 
against Origen, and exhorted him to do the same; upon 
which Epiphanius, in the year 401, called a council in 
the isle of Cyprus, procured the reading of Origen's writ- 
ings to be prohibited, and wrote to Chrysostom to do the 
same. Chrysostom, not approving this proposal, Epipha- 
nius went to Constantinople, at the persuasion of Theo- 
philus, in order to get the decree of the council of Cyprus 
executed. When he arrived there, he would not have any 
conversation with Chrysostom, but used his utmost efforts to 
engage the bishops,. who were then in that city, to approve 
of the judgment of the council of Cyprus against Origen. 


Not succeeding in this, he resolved to go the tiext day to 
the church of the apostles, and there condemn publicly all 
the books of Origen, and those who defended them ; but 
as he was in the church, Chrysostom informed him, by 
his deacon Serapion, that he was going to do a thing con- 
trary to the laws .of the church, and which might expose 
him to danger, as it would probably raise some sedition. 
This consideration stopped Epiphanius, who yet was so 
inflamed against Origen, that when the empress Eudoxia 
recommended to his prayers the young Theodosius, who 
was dangerously ill, he answered, that " the prince her 
son should not die, if she would but avoid the conversa- 
tion of Dioscorides, and other defenders of Origen." The 
empress, surprised at this presumptuous answer, sent him 
word, that " if God should think proper to take away her 
son, she would submit to his will ; that he might take him 
away as he had given him ; but that it was not in the power 
of Epiphanius to raise him from the dead, since he had 
lately suffered his own archdeacon to die." Epiphanius' s 
heat was a little abated, when he had discoursed with Am- 
monius and his companions, whomTheophilus had banished 
for adhering to Origen's opinions ; for these monks gave 
him to understand that they did not maintain an heretical 
doctrine, and that he had condemned them in too preci- 
pitate a manner. At last he resolved to return to Cyp&is, 
and in his farewell to Chrysostom, he said, " I hope you 
will not dife a bishop ;" to which the latter replied, ." I 
hope you will never return to your own country," and 
both their hopes were realized, as Chrysostom was deposed 
from his bishopric, and Epiphanius died at sea about the 
year 403. His works were printed in Greek at Basil, 1 544, 
in folio, and had afterwards a Latin translation made to 
them, which has frequently been reprinted. At last Pe- 
tavius undertook an edition of them, together with a new 
Latin translation, which he published at Paris, 1622, with 
the Greek text revised and corrected by two manuscripts. 
This, which is the best edition, is in two volumes folio, at 
the end of which are the animadversions of Petavius, which 
however, are rather dissertations upon points of criticism 
and chronology, than notes to explain the text of his au- 
thor. This edition was reprinted at Cologne, 1632, in 2 
vols, folio. r 

Epiphanius was well versed in the Hebrew, Syriac, 
Egyptian, Greek, and Latin tongues, which makes Jerome 




call him rhvrayXwT^, " a man of five tongues ;** and wai 
very conversant in ecclesiastical antiquities, on which ac- 
count he is chiefly regarded ; but his literary character has 
not escaped much rigid censure. M. Daill£ styles him " a 
good and holy man ;" but observes, " that he was little con- 
versant in the arts either of rhetoric or grammar, as ap* 
pears sufficiently from his writings, which defects must 
. necessarily be the cause of much obscurity in very many 
places, as indeed is much complained of by the interpreters 
of this father." Scaliger says he was " an ignorant man, 
who knew nothing of Greek or Hebrew; who, without 
any judgment, was solicitous to collect everything; and 
who abounds in falsities. We have," says he, " a treasure 
of antiquities in him ; for he had good books, which he 
sometimes transcribes to very good purpose ; but when he 
advances any thing of his own, he performs it wretchedly." 
Photius tells us, that his style is very mean and negligent; 
and Dupin observes, that it has neither beauty nor eleva- 
tion, but is low, rough, and unconnected ; that he had a 
great extent of reading and erudition, but no judgment 
nor justness of thought ; that he often uses false reasons to 
confute heretics ; that he was very credulous, inaccurate, 
and frequently mistaken in important points of history; 
that he paid too ready a regard to spurious memoirs and 
uncertain reports ; in short, that he had great zeal and 
piety, but little conduct and prudence. 1 

EPIPHANIUS, named the Scholastic, a native of Italy, 
and an eminent Greek and Latin scholar, was born about 
the year 510. At the request of Cassiodorus he translated 
into the Latin language the ecclesiastical histories of So- 
crates, Sozomen, and Theodoret, a version more entitled 
to commendation for its fidelity than its elegance. Cas- 
siodorus was also indebted to Epiphanius for the improved 
version of the " Codex encyclicus," or collection of sy- 
nodal letters of the year 468, addressed to the emperor 
Leo, in defence of the council of Chalcedon. His histo- 
ries of Socrates were first printed at Augsburgb, 1472, fol. 
and were often reprinted afterwards at Basil and Paris, 1523, 
1528, 1533, &c. &c* 

EPISCOPIUS (Nicholas), or rather BISCHOP, under 
which name, perhaps, he should have been classed, wa» 

1 Cave, toI. I.— Dupin. — Mosheim.— -Ge«. Diet.— Saxii OnomatU 
• Care, vol. L— fabric. Bibl. Ut. Med. 


a celebrated printer at Basil. He was born at Weissem- 
bourg in Alsace, about the end of the fifteenth century. 
His acquaintance with Greek and Latin gave him very su- 
perior advantages when he began the business of printing. 
The famous Frobenius bestowed his daughter on him in 
marriage, and on his death, in 1527, Bischop went into 
partnership with his son Jerome. Among other spirited 
undertakings of this firm was an edition of the Greek 
fathers, which they commenced with the works of St. BasiL 
All writers on the subject of printing bestow high praise 
on the talents of Bischop, who was also much respected by 
the learned of his time. The works which came from his 
press were in general remarkable for correctness, neat- 
ness of type, and beauty of paper, qualities seldom to be 
met with together. Erasmus had so much regard for him 
as to leave him and his partners executors of his wilL 
Bischop died Sept. 27, 1563, leaving a son of the same 
name and profession, who died two years after, in the 
flower of youth. They were a protestant family, and had 
fled from France during the persecutions. 1 

EPISCOPIUS (Simon), a man of very uncommon parts 
and learning, and the chief support of the Arminian sect, 
was descended from a reputable protestant family, and born 
at Amsterdam in 1583. Having a numerous fraternity, 
and his parents not very rich, it was doubted for some 
time whether he should be brought up to learning ; but, 
appearing to have a strong disposition towards it, his friends 
determined to encourage him in the pursuit. After he 
had gone through the Latin schools at Amsterdam, he went 
to study at Leyden, in 1602. His father died of the plague 
in that same year, and his mother in 1604; neither of 
which calamities, however, in the least retarded his studies* 
He was admitted M. A. in 1606, and thenceforward applied 
himself wholly to the study of divinity, in which he made 
so great progress, that he was judged in a short time qua- 
lified for the ministry. The magistrates of Amsterdam , 
wished he might be promoted to it ; but he met with many 
difficulties, because during the violent controversy between 
Gomarus and Arn^inius about predestination, he declared 
for the latter. This made him desirous to leave the uni- 
versity of Leyden, and he went to Franeker in 1609, but 
did not continue there long, for he found that by dis* 

1 Moreri.-— Biog. Universelle, iu art, Bischop* 


puting too vehemently, be had exasperated the professor 
Lubertus, who was a zealous Gomarist. Arminius was at that 
time labouring under the illness of which at length he died; 
on which account Episcopius went to visit him at Ley den, and 
had many conferences with him upon religion, and the state 
of the church. He afterwards, returning to Franeker, had 
more disputes with Lubertus. His adversaries now began 
to charge him with Socinianism ; and Lubertus was so se- 
vere in his reprehensions of him, that he left Franeker, and 
returned to Holland. 

Here he was ordained in 1610, and made minister of the 
village of Bleyswyck, which was dependent upon Rotter- 
dam. He was one of the deputies in the conference held 
at the Hague in 1611, before the states of Holland, be- 
tween six anti-remonstrant and six remonstrant ministers ; 
and here he displayed his wit and learning to the greatest 
advantage. In 1612 he was chosen divinity -professor at 
Leyden, in the room of Gomarus, who had voluntarily re- 
signed; and lived in peace with Polyander his colleague, 
though they held, contrary opinions about predestination. 
The functions, however, of his post and his private studies 
were a light burden to him, compared with the difficulties 
he had to sustain on account of the Arminian controversy ; 
which, though it began in the universities, soon extended 
to the pulpits, and from them to the people, and none 
were more unpopular than Episcopius and the most emi- 
nent men of the Arminian party. The second year of his 
professorship at Leyden, he was abused at Amsterdam at 
church and in the street ; because, being godfather to one 
of his nieces, he had taken upon him to reply to the mi- 
nister who officiated. The minister asked him whether 
the doctrine of the church there was not the true and per- 
fect doctrine of salvation ? Episcopius answered, that he 
admitted it only with certain limitations ; which provoked 
the minister to call him a presumptuous young man ; 
and this altercation exposed Episcopius to the rage of the 
populace, from which he narrowly ercaped. Curcellaeus, 
informs us, that in February 1617, the house of Episco- 
pius's eldest brother was plundered by the mob at Amster- 
dam under this false pretence, that a great many Armimans 
used to meet there to hear sermons. 

In 1614, he began his comment upon the first epistle of 
St. John, which gave occasion to various rumoure, all of 
them tending, to prove him a Sociuian. The year after, 


taking the opportunity of the vacation, he went to Paris, 
for the sake of seeing that city ; but his object was imme- 
diately misrepresented, and on his return home, his adver- 
saries published, that he had bad secret conferences with 
father Cotton, in order to concert the ruin of the protestant 
church and the United Provinces ; that he avoided all con- 
versation with Peter du Moulin, minister at Paris ; or, as 
others say, that the latter declined all conference with him, 
seeing him so intimate with the enemies of his country, 
and of the protestant religion ; and although there was little 
truth in these reports, it was not easy for Episcopius to 
prove his innocence. The states of Holland having invited 
him to come to the synod of Dort, that he might take 
his place in that assembly, as well as the other professors 
of the Seven United Provinces, he was one of the first that 
went thither, and was accompanied by some remonstrant 
ministers. But the synod would not suffer them to sit in 
that assembly as judges, nor admit them but as persons 
summoned to appear. They were obliged to submit, and 
appear before the synod. Episcopius made a speech, in 
which he declared, that they were all ready to enter into 
a conference with the synod ; but was answered, that the 
synod did not meet to confer, but to judge. They ex- 
cepted against the synod, and refused to submit to the 
order made by that assembly : which was, that the remon-* 
strants should neither explain nor maintain their opinions, 
but as far as the synod should judge it necessary. Upon 
their refusing to submit to this order, they were expelled 
the synod; and measures were taken to judge them by 
their writings. They defended their cause with the pen ; 
. and Episcopius composed most of the pieces they presented 
- on this occasion, and which were published some time 
after. The synod then deposed them from their functions ; 
and because they refused to subscribe a writing, which 
contained a promise not to perform privately any of their 
ministerial functions, they were banished out of the terri- 
tories of the commonwealth in 1618, and took up their 
residence at Antwerp: as thinking themselves there in 
the best situation to take care of their churches and fami- 
lies. Episcopius was not now so much taken up with the 
affairs of his party, as not to find time to write against the 
church of Rome in defence of those truths which all the 
protestants in general maintain. When the war between 
the Spaniards and United Provinces began again in 162 i f 


he went to France ; and there laboured by bis writings, as 
much as lay in his power, to strengthen and comfort his 
brethren. He not only composed, iti common with them, 
"A confession of faith;" and published, soon after, his 
" Antidote against the canons of the synod of Dort," but 
he also disputed with great strength of argument against 
Wadingus,. a Jesuit; who treated him very kindly, and, 
taking an advantage of the difficulties he saw him under, 
endeavoured to persuade him to enter into the pale of his 
church. The times being grown more favourable, he re- 
turned to Holland in 1620 ; and was made a minister of 
the church of the remonstrants at Rotterdam. He married 
the year after, but never had any children by his wife, who 
died in 1641. In 1634 he removed to Amsterdam, being 
chosen rector of the college which those of his sect had 
founded there, and continued in that post till his death, 
which was preceded by a tedious and gradual decline. 
August 1640, hiring a vessel, he went with his wife to 
Rotterdam : but in the afternoon, while he was yet upon 
Iris voyage, a fever seized him ; and, to add to his indispo- 
sition, about evening came on such a storm of thunder and 
rain as had not been known for many years. Alb these 
hindrances made them arrive so late at Rotterdam, that 
the gates of the city were shut : and the long time he was 
obliged to wait, before he could get them opened,, in- 
creased his disorder so much, that he was confined to his 
bed for the four following months. He recovered ; yet 
perceived the effects of this illness, in the stone and other 
complaints, as long as he lived. He died the 4th of April, 
1643, having lost his sight some weeks before. Lim- 
borch, with the partiality of a friendly biographer, tells 
us^_ that the moon was under an eclipse at the hour of his 
death ; and that some considered it as a fit emblem of the 
church, as being then deprived of much light by the dis- 
appearing of such a luminary as Episcopius. He tells us 
also* with more truth, that Episcopius' s friends and rela- 
tions had some medals struck with the images of Truth and 
Liberty upon them, in remembrance of him. Yet Epis- 
copius did not always write with that moderation which be- 
comes the patience and humility of a Christian ; and his 
friends who have defended him against this charge, have 
not been very successful. 

It would be endless to collect the extraordinary eulo- 
giums which great and learned men have bestowed upon 

BPISC0P.IU1 241 

Episcopius ; one of which may be quoted as coming from 
an unexpected quarter, from Mabillon, an eminent mem- 
ber and ornament of the church of Rome : " I cannot for- 
bear observing in this place/' says he, in his treatise of 
studies proper for them that live in monasteries, " that, if 
some passages had been left out v of Episcopius/ s theological 
institutions, which Grotius esteemed so much that he car- 
ried them with him wherever he went, they might have 
been very useful in the study of divinity. This work is 
divided into four books ; the method of which is quite dif- 
ferent from that which is generally followed. His style is 
beautiful, and his manner of treating his subjects answers 
his style perfectly well ; nor would the time spent in read- 
ing of it be lost, if it was corrected with regard to some 
passages, in which the author speaks against the Roman 
catholics, and in favour of his own sect" The Arminians 
have had very naturally the highest regard for Episcopius, 
and been careful to preserve his reputation from the at- 
tacks that have been made upon it: so careful, that, in 
1690, they engaged Le Clerc, one of their professors, 
publicly to accuse Jurieu of calumny, because he had 
spoken evil of Episcopius. Le Clerc published a letter 
directed to Jurieu ; in which he observes, that " they who 
have dipped into Episcopius' s works, and are acquainted 
with the society of the remonstrants, have no occasion to 
see them vindicated. And as for those who have not read x 
that author, and never conversed with any of the remon- 
strants, if they were so unjust as to judge only by Mr. 
Jurieu's accusations, they would not deserve the least 
trouble to undeceive them ; for it would show that they 
bad no notion of common equity, and were too stupid to 
hearken to any vindication. But then we are persua- . 
ded," adds he, . "that there is not one person in the Uni- 
ted Provinces, or any where else, that is disposed to be-, 
lieve this accuser upon his bare word. 9 ' After this pre- 
amble, Le Clerc says, " You charge, Episcopius with two 
crimes : the first is, his being a . Socinian ; the second, 
his being an enemy to the Christian, religion." Le Clerc 
confutes the first of these accusations, by referring to se-* 
veral parts of Episcopius' s works, where he explodes the > 
doctrine of the Sociriians ; and afterwards finds it no difi- ; 
cult task to answer the secpnd, because Episcopius's life . 
and writings evidently shew, that he ws*s a virtuous a&d 
Vol. XIIL R 



conscientious man, and very zealous for the Christian re* 
ligion. Le Clerc refers to a passage in Episcopius' s Insti- 
tutions, in which the truth of the Christian religion " is 
proved,'* says he, " in so clear artd strong a manner, that 
we might hope there would not remain any infidels in the 
world, if they would all duly weigh and consider his argu- 
ments. And yet you style him, sir,, an enemy of Chris- 
tianity ; though it does not in the least appear, that you 
have either read his works, or examined his life. There 
is indeed nothing but the disorder of your mind, occasioned 
by your blind teal, for which you have been long noted, 
that can make me say, O Lord, forgive him ; for, in 
reality, rov know not what you do. You could not 
choose a better method to pass in the world for a man 
little acquainted with the duties of Christianity, and even of 
civil society, than by writing as you have done," &c. With 
respect to his opinions on this subject, Episcopius ac- 
knowledges that Jesus Christ is called in Scripture the Son 
of God; not merely on account either of his miraculous 
conception, or of his mediation, or of his resurrection, or 
of bis ascension, but on a fifth account^ which, in his opi- 
nion, clearly implies his pre-existence ; yet he contends, 
that it is not-necessary to salvation, either to know or be- 
lieve this fifth mode of filiation; because it is not any „ 
where said in Scripture to be necessary ; because we may 
have faith in Christ without it ; and because for the three 
first centuries the Christian church did not esteem a pro- 
fession of belief in this mode to be necessary to salvation. 
Bishop Bull attacked with great learning this third reason 
of Episcopius, which has likewise been attacked with equal 
force of reasoning by more recent defenders of the Tri- 
IMtarian doctrine. Of our English divines, Hammond i$ 
Said to have borrowed largely of Episcopius, and Tillotson 
has been accounted one of his disciples. - * "> 

Episcopius's works make two volumes in folio, Amster- 
dam, 4665 and 1671, and reprinted at London in 1678. 
Those contained in the first volume were published in his 
lifetime : the second are posthumous. He left the care 
of them to Francis Limborch, who married the daughter 
of Robert Episcopius, our author's brother ; and Limborch 
gave them to Curcellaeus to publish, who prefixed a dis- 
course containing an account of Episcopius. This Francis 
Lioaborch was the father of Philip. Limborch, who wrote 

* £ p b. 441 


the life of £piscopius ; to which this article is much in* 
debted. * 

EPO (Boetius), a celebrated lawyer, was born at 
Roorda, in Friesland, in 1529. He studied at Cologne, 
and Louvain, and made such rapid progress in the acqui- 
sition of the learned languages, rthat at the age of twenty 
he gave public lectures on Homer. He afterwards taught, 
not only at Louvain but at Paris, jurisprudence, the belles 
lettres, and theology, and afterwards went to Geneva with 
a view to inquire if the religious principles of Calvin were 
worthy of the reputation they had gained. Not satisfied, 
however, with them, be returned to the church of Rome 
in which he had been educated, and confining his studies 
to the civil and Canon law, took the degree of doctor in 
1561, at Toulouse, where he had studied under Berenget 
Ferdinand, one of the most learned lawyers of his time. 
He then returned to Louvain, where he lectured until he 
was chosen one of the professors of the new university of 
Douay, an office which he held for twenty-seven years^ 
He died Nov. 16, 1599. He wrote a great many works 
on law, ecclesiastical history, &c, ; among which are, 1, 
" Juliani Archiepiscopi Prognosticon, sive de futuro se- 
culo, libri tres," 1564, 8vo. 2. " Antiquitatum. Eccle* 
tiastiearum Syntagmata," 1578, 8 vo. 3. " Heroicarum et 
Ecclesiasticarum Questionum libri sex. 19 4. "De Jure 
fcacto, vel principiorum Juris pontificii, libri tres," 1588, 
3 vols. 8vo. In 1711 a new edition of his works was begun 
to be published at Brussels, but we have not discovered 
whether it was completed.-* 

ERASISTRATUS, a physician of great reputation 
among the ancients, is supposed to have been born at Julis, 
in the island of Cea or Ceos. He was the most distin- 
guished pupil of Chrysippus, the Cnidian physician, and 
had attained a high character in his profession; in the fourth 
century B. C. His fame acquired him the notice and 
esteem of Seleucus Nicenor, king of Syria, at whpse court 
he is said to have discovered by feeling the pulse of An- 
tiochus Soter that he was in love with his mother-in-law 
Stratonice. His character, however, is "founded upon 
more solid ground. He may be considered as the father 
of anatomical science, at least conjointly with Herophilus» 

. * Gen. Diet.— Niceron, vols/lIL and X.-^Moreri.— Foppeio Bibl. Belgv* 
Sishop Watson's Tracts, Catalogue at the end of vol. VI. 
: * Moreri in Boetius.— Foppen Bibl. Belg.— and Freheri Tbeatrua w H$9* 



It seems to be clearly established, that, before the time of 
these physicians, no one had dared to dissect human bon- 
ifies ; anatomical 'examinations had been confined exclu- 
sively to the bodies of brutes. The Ptolemies, especially 
JSoter and Philadelphia, being desirous that the arts should 
be cultivated, and having surmounted the prejudices of 
the age, granted the bodies of malefactors to the physicians 
for dissection, of which opportunity Erasistratus and Hero- 
phil us availed themselves largely, and made several im- 
portant discoveries. To what extent these discoveries 
were carried, it is not easy to ascertain ; but they were the 
first who dissected the human brain accurately : according 
to the fragments preserved by Galen, Erasistratus described 
the brain minutely, and inferred that the brain was the 
common sensorium, or source of all the vital actions and 
sensations, which were effected through the medium of 
the nerves. He also examined minutely the structure of 
the heart and of the great vessels, and was the first to 
point out the valvular apparatus, and its peculiar form in 
each of the cavities of that viscus. His physiology, in ge*» 
neral, was not, however, very profound, and his pathology 
necessarily imperfect ; although he attempted to explain 
the causes of diseases from his knowledge of the structure 
of the body. The hypothesis by which he attempted td 
explain the origin of inflammation, resembled, in its lead- 
ing feature, that modern supposition, which, sanctioned 
by the name of Boerhaave, was generally received in the 
medical world for a long series of years. His practice, like 
that of his master Chrysippus, was extremely simple. He 
did not employ blood-letting, nor purgatives ; considering 
that plethora might be reduced more safely and naturally 
by fasting, or abstinence in diet, especially when aided by 
exercise. He advised his patients, therefore, to use such 
articles of diet as contained little nutriment, as melons, 
cucumbers, and vegetables in geueral. He was exceed- 
ingly averse from the employment of compound medicines, 
and especially of the mixture of mineral, .vegetable, and 
* animal substances ; and he exclaimed against the use of 
the antidotes of the physicians of his day, in which sim- 
plicity was altogether shunned. From the fragments of 
his writings to be found in Galen and Cselius Aurelianus, 
it would appear, that Erasistratus wrote an accurate trea- 
tise on the dropsy, in which he disapproves of the opera* 
lion of tapping ; and that he had left other books on the. 


following subjects :— viz. on the diseases of the abdomen, 
on the preservation of health, on wholesome things, on 
fevers, and wounds, on habit, on palsy, and on gout.— 
Having lived to extreme old age, and suffering severely 
from the pains of an ulcer in the foot, Erasistratus is said 
to have terminated his existence by swallowing the juice of 
cicuta, or hemlock. ' 

ERASMUS (Desiderius), one of the most illustrious of 
the revivers of learning, was born at Rotterdam, October 
2a, 1467. His father Qerard, who was of Tergou, in that 
neighbourhood, fell in love with Margaret, the daughter 
of one Peter, a physician of gtevenbergen ; and after pro- 
mises of marriage, as Erasmus himself suggests, connected 
himself with her, though the nuptial ceremonies were not' 
performed. From this intercourse Gerard had a son, whom 
Erasmus calls Anthony, in a letter to Lambert Grunnius, 
secretary to pope Julius IL and whose death, in another letter 
he tells lis, he bore better than he did the death of his friend 
Frobenius. About two years after, Margaret proved with 
child again; and then Gerard 1 s father and brethren (for 
he was the youngest of ten children) beginning to be un- 
easy at this attachment, resolved to make him an eccle- 
siastic. Gerard, aware of this, secretly withdrew into Italy, 
and went to Rome ; he left, however, a letter behind him, 
in which he bade his relations a final farewell ; and assured 
them that they should never see his .face more while they 
continued in those resolutions. At Rome he maintained 
himself decently by transcribing ancient authors, which, 
printing being not yet commonly used, was no unprofitable 
employment. In the mean time, Margaret, far advanced 
in her pregnancy, was conveyed to Rotterdam to lie in 
. privately ; and was there delivered of Erasmus. He took 
his name from this city, and always called himself Rote- 
rpdamus, though, as Dr. Jortin, the writer of his life, inti- 
mates, he should rather have said Roterodamius, or Ro- 
terodamensis. The city, however, was hot in the least 
offeuded at the inaccuracy, but made proper returns of 
gratitude to a name by which she was so much ennobled ; 
and perpetuated her acknowledgments by inscriptions, 
and medals, and by a statue erected and placed at first 
near the principal church, but afterwards rejnoved to a 
station on one of the bridges. 

A Rees»* Cyclopia % --Hall$r, &o. 


f 4* >V R A § M :U .«. 

Qerard's relations, long ignorant what was become of 
him, at last discovered that he was at Rome.; and now re* 
solved to attempt by stratagem what they could not effect 
by solicitation and importunity. They sent him word, 
therefore, that his beloved Margaret was dead; and he 
lamented the supposed misfortune with such extremity of 
grief, as to determine to leave the world, and become a 
priest And even when upon his return to Tergou, which 
happened soon after, he found Margaret alive, he adhered 
to his ecclesiastical engagements ; and though he, always 
retained the tenderest affection for her, never more lived 
with her in any other manner than what was allowable by 
the laws of his profession. She also observed on her part 
the strictest celibacy ever after. During the absence, of 
bis father, Erasmus was under the care and management 
of his grandmother, Gerard's mother, Catharine. He was 
called Gerard, after his father, and afterwards took the 
name of Desiderius, which in Latin, and the surname of 
Erasmus, which in Greek, signify much the same as Gerard 
among the Hollanders, that is, " amabilis," or amiable. 
Afterwards he was sensible that he should in grammatical 
propriety have called himself Erasmius, and in fact, he 
gave this name to his godson, Joannes Erasmius Frobenius. 
As soon as Gerard was settled in his own country again, 
he applied himself with all imaginable care to the . educa- 
tion of Erasmus, whom he was determined to bring up to 
letters, though in low repute at that time, because he dis- 
covered in him early a very uncommon capacity. There 
prevails indeed a notion in Holland, that Erasmus was at 
first of so heavy and slow an understanding, that it was 
many years before they could make him learn any thing ; 
and this, they think, appears from a passage in the life 
written by himself, where be says, that " in his first years 
he made but little progress in those unpleasant studies, for 
which he was not born ; in literis illis inamaenis, quibus 
non natus erat." When he was nine years old, he was 
sent to Daventer, in Guelderland, at that time one of the. 
best schools in the Netherlands, and the most free from 
the barbarism of the age ; and here his parts very soon 
shone out. He apprehended in an instant whatever was 
taught him, and retained it so perfectly, that he infinitely 
surpassed all his companions. Rhenanus tells us that Zin- 
thius, one of the best masters in the college of Daventer^ 

was so well satisfied with Erasmus's progress, and so tho- 


roughly convinced of his great abilities, as. to have foretold 
what afterwards came to pass, that " he would some time 
prove the envy and wonder of all Germany." His memory 
is said to have been so prodigious, that he was able to re- 
peat all Terence and Horace by heart. We must not 
forget to observe, that pope Adrian VI. was his schoolfel- 
low, and ever after his friend, and the ehcourager of his 

When Erasmus was sent to Daventer, his mother went 
to live there ; for she was very tender of him, and wished 
to be near him, that she might see and take care of him. 
She died of the plague there about four years after ; and 
Gerard was so afflicted with the loss of her, that he sur- 
vived her but a short time. It does not appear that either 
of them much exceeded the fortieth year of their age; and 
they both left behind them very good characters. Gerard 
is said to have possessed a great share of that gaiety, wit, 
and humour, which afterwards shone forth with so much 
lustre in Erasmus ; and Margaret might, as Bayle observes, 
have said with Dido, in Virgil, 

" Huic uni forsan potul succumbere culpas." 

From Daventer, Erasmus was immediately removed to 
Tergou, the plague being in the house where he lodged ; 
and now, about fourteen years of age, was left entirely to the 
care of guardians, who used him very ill ; and although he 
was of an age to be sent to a university, they determined 
to force him into a monastery, that they might possess his 
patrimony ; amd they feared that an university might create 
in him a disgust to that way of life. The chief in this plot 
was one Peter Winkell, a schoolmaster of Tergou, to whom 
there is a very ingenious epistle of Erasmus extant, in 
which he expostulates with him for his ill management and 
behaviour. They sent him first to a convent of friars at 
Bois-le-duc, in Brabant, where he lived, or rather, as he 
expresses it, lost three years of his life, having an utter 
aversion to the monastic state. Then he was sent to ano- 
ther religious house at Sion, near Delft ; and afterwards, ' 
no effect towards changing his resolutions having been 
wrought upon him at Sion, to a third, namely, Stein, near 
Tergou. Here, unable to sustain the conflict any longer 
with his guardians and their agents, he entered among the 
regular canons there, in 1486. Though great civilities 
were shewn to him upon his entrance into this convent, 
and in compliance with his humour some la^s and cere- 


monies were dispensed with, yet he bad a design of leaving 
it before he made his profession ; but the restless contri- 
vances of bis guardians, and particularly the ill state of 
his afiairs, got the better of his inclinations, and he was 
at length induced to make it. A monastery, as monaste- 
ries then were, and such as Erasmus afterwards described 
them, devoid of all good learning and sound religion, must 
needs be an irksome place tot one of his turn : at Stein, 
however, it was no small conifort to him to find a young 
man of parts, who had the same taste for fetters with him- 
self, and who afterwards distinguished himself by a collec- 
tion of elegant poems, which he published under the title 
of " Dearum Sylva", This was William Hermann, of 
Tergou, with whom he contracted a very intimate friend- 
ship, which continued after his departure from Stein ; and 
accordingly, we find among his letters some that were writ- 
ten to Hermann. The two earliest letters now extant, of 
Erasmus, were written from this monastery of Stein to 
Cornelius Aurotinus, a priest of Tergou ; in which he de- 
fends with great zeal the celebrated Laurentius Valla agamst 
the contemptuous treatment of Aurotinus. 

Erasmus's enemies, and among the rest Julius Scaliger, 
have pretended that he led a very loose life during his stay 
in this convent, a charge which his friends have endea- 
voured to repell by. going into the other extreme, and at- 
tributing tp him a more virtuous course than he pursued, 
since it is evident from several acknowledgments of his 
own, that he did not spend his younger days with the ut- 
most regularity. In a letter to father Servatius, he owns 
that " in his youth be had a propensity to very great vices ; 
that, however, the love of money, or even of fame, had 
never possessed him ; that, if he had not kept himself 
unspotted from sensual pleasures, he had not been a slave 
to them; and that, as for gluttony and drunkenness, be 
had always held tbem in abhorrence." He also appears to 
have been of a playful turn, of which Le Clerc gives an 
instance, although without producing his authority. There 
was, it seems, a pear-tree in the garden of the convent at 
JStein, of whose fruit the superior was extremely fond, 
and reserved entirely to himself. Erasmus had tasted 
these pears, and liked them so well as to be tempted to 
steal them, which he used to do early in the morning. 
*The superior, missing his pears, resolved to watch the tree, v 
?nd at last saw a monk climbing up into it; but, as itwa* •' 


yet hardly light, waited a little . till he could} discern 
him more clearly. Meanwhile Erasmus had perceived 
that he was seep ; and was musing with himself bow he 
.should get off undiscovered. At length. he bethought fatm- 
•self* that they bad a monk in the convent who was lame, 
and therefore, sliding gently down, imitated as he went the 
limp of this unhappy monk. The superior, now sure of 
the thief, as having discovered him by sign* not equivocal, 
took an opportunity at the next meeting of saying abun- 
dance of good things upon tbe subject of obedience ; after 
which, turning to ttye supposed delinquent, he charged 
him with a most flagrant breach of it, in stealing his pears. 
The poor monk protested his innocence, but in vain. AH 
he could say, only inflamed his superior tbe more ; who, 
•to spite of his protestations, inflicted upon him a very se- 
vere penance. 

Erasmus, however, had no disposition for this way of 
life. " Convents," he says, " were places of impiety ra- 
ther than of religion, where every thing was done to which 
a depraved. inclination could lead, under the sanction and 
mask of piety ; and where it was hardly possible for any 
one to keep himself pure and unspotted." This accottot 
he gives of them in a piece " De contemptu mundt," which 
he drew up at Stein, when he was about twenty years of 
age ; and which was the first thing he ever wrote. At 
length, the happy moment arrived when he was to quit the 
monastery of Stein. Henry a Bergis, bishop of C&mbray, 
who was preparing at that time for Rome, with a view of 
obtaining a cardinal's hat, wanted some person to accom- 
pany him who could speak and write Latin with accuracy 
and ease. Erasmus's fame not being confined to the clois- 
ter, he applied to the bishop of Utrecht, as well as the 
prior of the convent, and they having given their consent, 
Erasmus went to Cambray, but soon found to his mortifi- 
cation that for certain reasons, tbe bishop dropped his de- 
sign. Still, as he was now loose from the convent, he went, 
with tbe leave and under the protection of the bishop, to 
jstudy at the university of Paris. He was in orders when 
be went to Cambray; but was not made a priest till 1492, 
when he was ordained upon the 25 th of February, by the 
bishop of Utrecht. 

How he spent his time with the bishop of Cambray, with 
whom he continued some years, we have no account. 
The bishop, however, was now his patron, and apparently 


very fond of him ; and he promised htm a pension to inafft* 
tain him at Paris. But the pension, as Erasmus himself 
relates, was never paid him ; so that be was obliged to 
have recourse to taking pupils, though a thing highly dis- 
agreeable to him, purely for support: Many noble Eng- 
lish became his pupils, and, among the rest, William Blunt, 
lord Montjoy, who was afterwards his very good friend and 
patron. * Erasmus tells us, that he lived rather than studied, 
** vixit verius quam studuit," at Paris ; for, his patron for- 
getting the promised pension, he had not only no books to 
carry on his studies, but even wanted the necessary com- 
forts and conveniences of life. He was forced to take up 
with bad lodgings and bad diet, which brought on him a 
fit of illness, and changed his constitution so much for the 
worse, that, from a very strong one, it continued ever 
after weak and tender. The plague too was in that city, 
and had been for many years ; so that he was obliged, after 
a short stay, to leave it, almost without any of that benefit 
he might naturally have expected, as the university at that 
time was famous for theology. Leaving Paris, therefore, 
iti the beginning of 1497 he returned to t Cambray, where 
he was received kindly by the bishop. He spent some 
days at Bergis with his friend James Battus, by whom he 
was introduced to the knowledge of Anne Borsala, mar- 
chioness of Vere. This hoble lady proved a great bene- 
, factress to him ; and he afterwards, in gratitude, wrote 
her panegyric. This year he went over to England for 
the first time, to fulfill a promise which be had made to 
his noble disciple Montjoy. This noble lord, a man of 
learning; and patron of learned men, was never easy, it is 
said, while Erasmus was in England, but when he was in 
his company. Even after he was married, as Knight re- 
lates, he left his family, and Went to Oxford, purely to 
proceed in his studies under the direction of Erasmus. He 
also gave him the liberty of his house in London, when he 
was absent; but a surly steward, whom Erasmus, in a let- 
ter to Colet, calls Cerberus, prevented his using that pri- 
vilege often. Making but a short stay in London, he went 
to Oxford i where he studied in St. Mary's college, which 
Itood nearly opposite New-Inn hall, and of which there 
are some few remains still visible* Here he became vefy 
intimate with all Who had any name for literature : with 
Colet, Gtfociyn, Linacer, William Latimer, sir Thom&s 
i4ore, and many others. Under the guidance of these he 


made- a considerable progress in bis studies; Colet en- 
gaging bim in the study of divinity, and Grocyn, Linacer* 
and Latimer teaching him Gre*k % Greek literature was 
then reviving at Oxford; although much opposed by a 
set of tb$ students, who called themselves Trojans, and, 
like the eider Cato at Rome, opposed it as a dangerous 

Upon bis coming to Oxford, he wrote a Latin ode (for 
he was not altogether without a poetical genius) by way of 
compliment to the college in which he was placed; and 
this made John Sixtine, a Phrysiaq, who was one of his 
first acquaintance there, observe, " what before he thought 
incredible, that the German wits were not at all inferior to 
those of Italy." Erasmus was highly pleased with England, 
and with the friends he had acquired there, as appears by 
a letter dated from London, Dec. 5, 1497, and written to 
a friend in Italy ; " in which country," he tells him, " he 
himself would have been long ago, if his friend and patron 
lord Montjoy had not carried him with him to England. 
But what is it, you will say, which captivates you so much 
in England ? If, my friend, I have any credit at all with 
you, I beg you to believe me, when I assure you, that 
nothing yet ever pleased me so much. Here I have found 
a pleasant and salubrious air : I have met with humanity, 
politeness, learning ; learning not trite and superficial, but 
deep, accurate, true old Greek and Latin learning ; and 
withal so much of it, that, but for mere curiosity, I have 
no occasion to visit Italy. When Colet discourses, I seem 
to bear Plato himself. In Grocyn I admire an universal 
compass of learning. Linacer's acuteness, depth, and ac- 
curacy, are not to be exceeded : nor did nature ever form 
any thing more elegant, exquisite, and better accomplished, 
than More. It would be endless to enumerate all ; but it 
is surprising to think, how learning flourishes in this happy 

He left England the latter end of 1497, and went to 
Paris ; whence, on account of the plague, he immediately 
passed on to Orleans, where he spent three months. He 
was very ill, while there, of a fever, which he had had 
every Lent for five years together ; but he tells us, that St. 
Genevieve interceded for his recovery, and obtained* it, 
though not without the assistance of a good physician. 
About April 1498 he had finished his " Adagia." He ap- 
plied hittpelf all the while intensely to the study of the 


Creek tongue ; and he says that, as soon as he could get 
any money, be would. first buy Greek books, and then 
clothes: « Statimque uf pecuniam accepero, Grtecos prU 
mum auctores, deiode vestes, emain." At this time he 
began to experience some of the vicissitudes of patronage, 
and both the marchioness of Vere and the bishop of Cam- 
bray seem to have relaxed from their liberality. The mar- 
chioness, though she entertained him very politely, yet 
gave him little more than civil words, and squandered her 
money upon the monks : and the bishop soon after quar- 
relled with him, upon, pretence that he had spoken .slightly 
of his kindnesses* 

In 1499 he took a second journey to England, as we col- 
lect from a letter of his to sir Thomas More, dated from 
Oxford, October the 28th of that year : but he does not 
appear to have made any considerable stay. In bis return, 
at Dover, be was stripped of all his money, to the amount 
of about six angels, by a custom-house officer, before he 
embarked ; and upon application for redress, he was told, 
that the seizure was according to law, and there was* no re- 
dress to be bad* He had too much sense, however, to impute 
this, as some travellers would have done, to the country at 
large; on the contrary, in June 1500, when he published 
bis " Adagia" at Paris, he added to it a panegyric upon 
England, and dedicated the whole to his friend the lord 
Montjoy ; who, in the mean time, had really been the oc- 
casion of his losing bis money, from not instructing him in 
the laws and usages of the kingdom. About the middle of 
this year he made a journey into Holland ; " where, though 
the air," he says, " agreed with him, yet the horrid man- , 
ners of the people, their brutality and gluttony, and their 
contempt of learning, and every thing that tended to civi- 
lise mankind, offended him highly." Holland had not 
then made the figure she did afterwards as the asylum of 
letters. This year also he published his piece " De copia 
yerboruity" and joined it to another piece, " De conscri- 
bendis epistolis," which he had written some time before 
£t the request of Montjoy. 

He had, now given many public proofs of his uncommon 
abilities and ( learning, and his fame was spread in all pro- 
bability over a great part of Europe ; yet we find by many 
of his letters, that he still continued extremely poor. Hia 
time wjas divided between pursuing his studies, and lopk- 
ing after his patrons/; the principal of whom was Autopius 

ERA9MU9. 253 

2 B6rgis, the abbot of St. Bertin, to whom be bud been 
lately recommended, and who bad received him very gra* 
ciously. This abbot was very fond of htm, and gave him a 
letter of recommendation to .cardinal John de Medkia, 
afterwards pope LeoX.; for Erasmus had professed his 
intention to g(> into Italy, with a view of studying divinity 
some months at Bononia, and of taking there a doctor!* 
degree j also to visit Rome in the following year of th« 
jubilee; and then to return home, and lead a retired life, 
But, although disappointed for want of the necessary means* 
be spent a good part of 1501 with the abbot of St, Bertin ; 
and, the year after, we find him at Louvaio, where he 
studied divinity under Dr. Adrian Florent, afterwards pope 
Adrian VI. This we learn from his dedication of Arnpbius 
to this pope in 1523 ; and also from a letter of that pope 
to him, where he speaks of the agreeable conversation* 
they were wont to have in those hours of studious leisures 
In 1503 he published several little pieces, and amongst 
the rest his " Enchiridion miiitis Christiaoi :" which he 
wrote, he tells us, " not for the sake of shewing his elo- 
quence, but to correct a vulgar error of those, who made 
religion to consist in rites and ceremonies, to the neglect 
of virtue and true piety." Long, indeed; before Luther 
appeared, Erasmus had discovered the corruptions and 
superstitions of the church of Rome* and had made; some 
attempts to reform them. The " Enchiridion,' * however, 
though it is very elegantly written, did not sell upon its 
first publication ; but in 151 S Erasmus having prefixed a 
preface which highly offended the Dominicans, their cla- 
mours against it made its merit more known* . r, 
He had now spent three years in close application to 
the Greek tongue, which he looked upon as so necessary * 
that he could not fancy himself a tolerable divine without 
it. Having rather neglected it when he was young, he 
afterwards studied it at Oxford, under Grocynand Linacer, 
but did not stay long enough there to reap any considerable 
benefit from their assistance ; so that, though he attained 
a perfect knowledge of it, it was in a great measure owing 
to his own application ; and he might truly be called, in 
respect to Greek, what indeed he calls himself, " prorsus 
autodidactus ;" altogether self-taught. His way of ac- 
quiring this language wa$ by translating ; and hence it is 
that we come to have in his works suck a number of pieces, 
translated from JLucian, Plutarch, and others* These trans* 


lations likewise furnished him with opportunities of writing 
dedications to his patrons. Thus he dedicated to our king 
Henry VIII. a piece of Plutarch, entitled " How to dis* 
tinguish a friend from a flatterer ;'* a dialogue of Luciari, 
called " Somnium, sive Gallu's," to Dr. Chfistbpher Urse- 
wiek, an eminent scholar and statesman; the Hecuba of 
Euripides, to Warn am, archbishop of Canterbury, which 
he presented to him at Lambeth, after he had been intro- 
duced by his friend Grocyn  another dialogue of Lucian, 
called " Toxaris, sive de aihicitia, ,? to Dr. Richard Fox, 
bishop of Winchester ; and a £reat number of other pieces 
from different authors to as iraany different patrons, both 
in England and upon the continent. The example which 
Erasmus had set in studying the Greek tongae was eagerly 
and successfully followed ; and he had the pltedstire' of see- 
ing in a very short time Grecian learning cultivated by thfc 
greater part of Europe. - 

As Erasmus had no where more friends and patrons thin 
in England* toe made frequent visits to this island. Of 
these the principal were, Warham, archbishop of Canter* 
bury; Tonstall, bishop of Durham; Fox, bishop of Win- f 
cheater; Colet, dean of St. Paul's; lord Mofttjoy, sir 
Thomas More, Grocyn, and Liriacer; arid he often speaks 1 
of the favours be had received from them with pleasure 
and gratitude. They were very pressing with him to settle 
in England ; and ** it was with the greatest uneasiness that 
he left it, since," as he tells Colet, in a letter dated Pfcfis, 
June !9tb, 1506, "there was no Country which bad fur- 
nished him with so many learned and generous benefactors 
as even the single city of London." He had left it just 
before, and was then at Paris in his road to Italy, 1 where 
be. made but a short stay, lest he should be disappointed, 
as had been the case more than once already. He took a 
doctor of v divinity's degree at Turin ; from whence he pro- 
ceeded to Bologna, where he arrived at the very time it 
was besieged by Julius II. He passed on for the present 
to Florence, but returned to Bologna upon the surrender 
q{ the town, and was timfe enough to be witness to the 
triumphant entry of that pope. This entry was made Nov. 
10, 1506, and was so very pompous and magnificent, that 
Erasmus, viewing Julius under his assumed title of Christ's 
vicegerent, aod comparing his entry into Bologna with 
Christ' 8 entry into Jerusalem, could not behold it without 
the utmost indignation. An adventure, however, befel 


him in this city which had nearly proved fatal; The town 
not being quite clear of the plague, the surgeons, who had 
the care of it, wore something like the scapulars of friars, 
that people fearful of the infection might know and avoid 
them* Erasmus, wearing the habit of his order, went out 
one morning; and, being met by some wild young fellows 
with his white scapular on, was mistaken for one of the 
surgeons. They made signs to him to get out of the way j 
but he, knowing nothing of the custom, and making no 
baste to obey their signal, would have been stoned, if some 
citizens; perceiving his ignorance, had not immediately 
run up to him, and pulled off bis scapular. To prevent 
such an accident for the future, he got a dispensation from 
Julius II. which was afterwards confirmed by Leo X. to 
change his regular habit of friar into that of a secular priest. 
Erasmus now prosecuted his studies at Bologna, and 
contracted an acquaintance with the learned of the place ; 
with Paul Bombasius particularly, a celebrated Greek pro- 
fessor, with whom he long held a correspondence by let- 
ters. He was strongly invited at Bologna to read lectures ; 
but, considering that the Italian pronunciation of Latin 
was different from the German, be declined it lest bis 
mode of speaking might appear ridiculous. He drew up, 
however, some new works here, and revised some old ones. 
He augmented his " Adagia" considerably ; and, desirous 
of having it printed by the celebrated Aldus Manutius at 
Venice, proposed it to him. Aldus accepted the offer with 
pleasure ; and Erasmus went immediately to Venice, after 
having staid at Bologna little more than a year. Besides 
his " Adagia," Aldus printed a new edition of his trans- 
lation of the Hecuba and Iphigenia of Euripides; and also 
of Terence and Plautus, after Erasmus had revised and 
corrected them. At Venice he became acquainted with 
several learned men ; among the Test, with Jerome Ale- 
ander, who for his skill in the tongues was afterwards pro- 
moted to the dignity of a cardinal. He was furnished with 
all necessary accommodations by Aldus, and also with 
several Greek manuscripts, which he read over and cor- 
rected at his better leisure at Padua, whither he was obliged 
to hasten, to superintend and direct the studies of Alex- 
ander, natural son of James IV. king of Scotland, although 
Alexander was at that time nominated to the archbishopric 
of St. Andrew' s. Erasmus studied Pausanias, Eustathius, 
Theocritus, and ot))er Greek nuthors, under the inspection 

256 E R A S M U St- 

and with the assistance of Musurus, who was one of those? 
Greeks that- had brought learning into the West, and wa» 
professor of that science at Padua. 

Not enjoying a very good state of health at Padua, he 
went to Sienna, where he drew up some pieces of elo- 
quence for the use of his royal pupil ; and soon after to 
Rome, leaving Alexander at Sienna. He was received at 
Rome, as Rhenanus tells us, with the greatest joy and wel- 
come by all the learned, and presently sought by persons of ^ 
the first rank and quality. Thus we find that the cardinal 
John de Medicis, afterwards Leo X. the cardinal Raphael of 
St. George, the cardinal Grimani, and Giles of Viterbo, ge- 
neral of the Augustines, and afterwards a cardinal, had a ge- 
nerous contention among themselves who should be fore-, 
most in civility to Erasmus, and have the most of his company. 
There is something interesting in the manner he was intro- 
duced to cardinal Grimani, as related by himself in one of 
his letters, dated March 17, 1531 : "When I was at Rome/ 9 . 
says he, " Peter Bembus often brought me invitations from 
Grimani, that I would come and see him. I never was fond 
of such company ; but at last, that I might not seem to 
slight what is usually deemed a very great honour, I went. 
On arriving at his palace, not a soul could I perceive, 
either in or about it. It was after dinner ; so, leaving the 
horse with my servant, I boldly ventured by myself inter 
the house. I found all the doors open ; but nobody was 
to be seen, though I had passed through three or four 
rooms. At last I happened upon a Greek, as I supposed, 
and asked him whether the cardinal was engaged ? He 
replied, that he had company ; but asking what was my 
business ? Nothing, said I* but to pay my compliments, ' 
which I can do as well at any other time. I was going; 
but halting a moment at one of the windows to observe 
the situation and prospect, the Greek ran up to me, and 
asked my name; and without my knowledge carried it to 
the cardinal, who ordered me to be introduced immediately* 
He received me with the utmost courtesy, as if I had been 
a cardinal ; conversed with me for two hours upon literary 
subjects; and would not suffer me all the time to uncover 
my head; and upon my offering to rise, when his nephew, 
an archbishop, came in to us, he ordered me to keep my 
seat, saying, it was but decent that the scholar should 
stand before the master. In the course of our conversa- 
tion, he earnestly entreated i»e not to think of leaving 

£ R AS m tr s. , ssi 

Rdm£, and offered to make me partaker of his bouse and 
fortunes. At length be shewed me bis library, which was 
full of books in all languages, anjd was esteemed, the best 
in Italy, except the Vatican. If I had , known Grimani 
sooner, I certainly should never have left Rome ; but I 
was then under such engagements to return to England, 
as it was not in my power to break. The cardinal said no 
more upon this point, when I told him that I had been 
invited by the king of England himself ; but begged me to 
believe him very sincere, and not like the common tribe of 
courtiers, who have no meaning in what they say. It was 
not without some difficulty that I got away from him ; nor 
before I promised him, that I would certainly wait on him, 
again before I left Home. I did not perform my promise ; 
for J was afraid the cardinal by his eloquence would tempt 
qie to break my engagements with my English friends. I 
never was more wrong in my life : but what can a man do, 
when fate drives him on ?" 

Erasmus was at Rome when Julius II. made his entry into 
that city from the conquest of Bologna ; and this entry 
offended him as much as that at Bologna had done, For 
be could not conceive that the triumphs of the church, as 
they were called, were to consist in vain pomp and worldly 
magnificence, but rather in subduing all mankind to the 
faith and practice of the Christian religion. While he was 
at Rome he was taken under the protection of the cardinal 
Raphael of St. George ; and at hi? persuasion, employed 
on the ungrateful task of declaiming backwards and for* 
wards upon the same argument. He was first to dissuade 
from undertaking a war against the Venetians ; and thea 
to exhort and incite to the war, upon every variation of 
the pontiff's mind. When he was preparing to leave- 
Rome, many temptations and arguments . were used, to 
detain him; and the pope offered him a place among hj$ 
penitentiaries, which is reckoned very honourable, and a 
step to the highest preferments in that court.' But his 
engagements in England prevented his staying at. Rome > 
though, as we. have already seen, he afterwards repented 
that be did not. He set out from Rome to Sienna, where 
he had left the archbishop of St. Andrew's, his pupil ; who, 
not willing to quit. Italy without seeing Rome, brought 
him back thither again. After a short stay they went to 
Cumae, to see the Sibyl's cave ; and there his pupil parted 
from him, being recalled to Scotland, where he was killed 

Vol, XIII. S 

353- ERA S M U &' 

•• «• 

in a battle fought against the English at Flodden-field 111 
1513. Erasmus lias left a grand eulogium on this young 
nobleman in his " Adagia." 

He left Italy soon after his pupil, without understanding 
the language of that country, which made his journey less 
advantageous as well as pleasant to him. It is said that 
when he was at Venice, he met Bernard Ocricularius of 
Florence, who had written Latin history in the manner of 
Sallust Erasmus desired a conversation with him, and 
addressed him in Latin : but the Florentine obstinately 
refused to speak any thing except Italian ; which Erasmus not 
understanding, they separated without edification on either 
part. Why Erasmus should not understand Italian, it is 
not difficult to conceive ; but it is somewhat singular that 
he should be ignorant of French, which was in a great 
measure the case, though he had spent so much time in that 
country. In his way from Italy to England, he passed 
first to Curia, then to Constance, and so through the Mar* 
tian forest by Brisgau to Strasburgh, and from thence by 
the Rhine to Holland ; whence, after making some little 
stay at Antwerp and Louvain, he took shipping for Eng- 
land. Some of his friends and patrons, whom he visitecl 
as he came along, made him great offers, . and wished him 
to settle among them ; but his heart was at this time en- 
tirely fixed upon spending the remainder of bis days in^ 
England, not only upon account of his former connections 
and friendships, which were very dear to him, but the great 
hopes that had lately been held out to him, of ample pre-* 
ferment, provided he would settle there. Henry VII. died 
in April 1509; and Henry VIII. his son and successor, 
was Erasmus's professed friend and patron, and had for 
some time held a correspondence with him by letters. 
That prince was no sooner upon the throne, than Mont- 
joy wrote to Erasmus to hasten him into England, pro- 
mising him great things on the part of the king, and of 
Warham archbishop of Canterbury, .though indeed he had 
no particular commission to that end from either the one 
or the other. * More, and some other friends, wrote him 
also letters to the same purpose. But he had no sooner 
arrived in the beginning of 1510, than he perceived that 
his expectations had been raised too high, and began se- 
cretly to wish that he had not quitted Rome. However,, 
he took no notice of the disappointment, but pursued his 
studies with his usual assiduity. 


At his arrival in England he lodged with More ; and 
While he was there, to divert himself and his friend, he 
wrote, within the compass of a week, " Encomiunl Moris," 
or u The praise of Folly/' a copy of which was sent to 
f ranee, and printed there, but with abundance of faults ; 
yet it became so popular, that in a few months it went 
through seven editions. The general design of this lu- 
dicrous piece is to shew, that there are fools in all stations, 
and more particularly to expose the errors and follies of 
the court of Rome, not sparing the pope himself; so that 
he was never after regarded as a true son of that church. 
It was highly acceptable to persons of quality, but as 
highly offensive to dissolute monks, who disapproved espe- 
cially of the Commentary which Lystrius wrote upon it, 
and which is printed with it, because it unveiled several 
things from whose obscurity they drew much profit. Soon 
after he came to England be published a translation of the 
Hecuba of Euripides into Latin verse ; and, adding some 
poems to it, dedicated it to archbishop Warham. The 
prelate received the dedication courteously, yet made the 
poet only a small present. As be was returning from 
Lambeth, his friend Grocyn, who had accompanied him, 
asked, " what present he had received ?" Erasmus replied; 
laughing, " A v#ry considerable sum ;" which Grocyn 
would not believe. Having told him what it was, Grocyn 
observed, that the prelate was rich and generous enough 
to have made him a much handsomer present ; but cer- 
tainly suspected that he had presented to him a book 
already dedicated elsewhere. Erasmus asked, " bow such 
a suspicion could enter his head ?" " Because," said Gro- 
cyn, " such hungry scholars as you, who stroll about th6 
world, and dedicate books to noblemen, are apt to b$ 
guilty of such tricks." 

He was incited down to Cambridge by Fisher, bishop of 
Rochester, chancellor of the university, and head of Queen's 
college, accommodated by him in his own lodge, and pro- 
moted by his means to the lady Margaret's professorship in 
divinity, and afterwards to the Greek professor's chair ; 
but how long he held these places we know not : and his 
necessities were still very scantily supplied. In a letter to 
Colet, dean of St. Paul's, he earnestly importunes him for 
fifteen angels, which he had promised him long ago, on 
condition that he would dedicate to him his book " De 
copia rerborum ;" which, however, was not published tiU, 

S 2 


the following year, 1512. It has indeed been alleged, hi 
excuse for this apparent neglect of a man of so much 
merit, that Erasmus was of a very rambling disposition, 
and hardly staid long enough in a place to rise regularly 
to preferment ; and that though he received frequent andt 
considerable presents from his friends and patrons, yet he 
was forced to live expensively because of his bad health. 
Thus he bad a horse to maintain, and probably a servant 
to take care of him : be was obliged to drink wine because, 
malt liquor gave him fits of the gravel. Add to this, that, 
though a very able and learned man, yet, like many others 
of his order, be was by no means versed in ceconomics. 

In 1513, he wrote from London a very elegant letter to 
the abbot of St. Bertin, against the rage of going to war, 
which then possessed the English and the French. H$ 
has often treated this subject, and always with that vivacity, 
eloquence, and strength of reason, with which he treated 
every subject ; as in his Adagia, under the proverb " Dulce 
Bellum inexpertis ;" in his book entitled " Querela Pacis," 
and iri his " Instruction of a Christian Prince." But bis 
rempnstrances had small effect, and the emperor Charles 
Y. to whom the last-mentioned treatise was dedicated, per- 
sisted in his belligerent plans. Erasmus was so singular in 
his opinions on this subject, that he thought it hardly lawful 
for a Christian to go to war; and in this respect, as Jortirt 
observes, was almost a quaker. 

In the beginning of 1514 Erasmus was in Flanders*. 
His friend Montjoy was then governor of Ham, in Picardy> 
where he passed some days, and then went to Germany. 
While he was here, he seems to have written " The Abridg- 
ment of his Life," in which he says, that he would have 
spent the rest of his days in England if the promises 
made to him had been performed ; but, being invited to 
come to Brabant, to the court of Charles archduke of 
Austria, he accepted the offer, and was made counsellor 
to that prince. Afterwards he went to Basil, where he 
carried his New Testament, his Epistles of St. Jerome, 
with notes, and some other works, to print them in that 
city. At this time he contracted an acquaintance witb 
several learned men, as Beatus Rhenauus; Gerbelius, 
CEcolampadius, Ajnberbach, and also with the celebrated 
printer John Frobenius, for whom he ever after professed, 
the utmost esteem. He returned to the Low Countries*, 
*&d there was nominated \>y Char lea of Austria to a, vacatur 


bishopric in Sicily ; but the right of patronage - happened 
to belong to the pope. Erasmus laughed when he heard 
of this preferment, and certainly was very unfit for such a 
station ; though the Sicilians, being, as be says, merry fel- 
lows, might possibly have liked such a bishop. He would 
not settle at Louvain for many reasons, particularly be- 
cause of the divines there, for whom he had much con- 

In 1515 he was at Basil ; and this year Martin Dorpius, 
.a divine of Louvain, instigated by the enemies of Erasmus, 
wrote against bis " Praise of Folly ;" to whom Erasmus 
replied with much mildness, as knowing that Dorpius, who 
was young and ductile, had been put upon it by others. 
He was the first adversary who attacked him openly, but 
Erasmus forgave him, and took him iqto his friendship 
(see Dorpius), which he would not easily have done, if 
he had not been good-natured, and, as he says of himself, 
" irasci facilis, tamen ut placabilis esset." He wrote this 
y^ar a very handsome letter to pope Leo X, in which he 
speaks of his edition of St Jerome, which he had a mind 
to dedicate te him. Leo returned him a very obliging an- 
swer, and seems not to refuse the offer of Erasmus, which, 
however, did not take effect ; for the work was dedicated 
to the archbishop of Canterbury. Not content with writing 
to him, Leo wrote also to Henry VIII. of England, and 
recommended Erasmus to him. The cardinal of St. George 
also pressed him much to come to Rome, and approved 
his design of dedicating St. Jerome to the pope : but he 
always declined going to Rome, as he himself declared many 
years after, or even to the imperial court, lest the pope 
or the emperor should command him to write against Lu- 
ther and the new heresies. And therefore, when the pope's 
nuncio to the English court had instructions to persuade 
Erasmus ta throw himself at the pope's feet, he. did not 
think it safe to trnst him ; having reason to fear that the 
court of Rome would never forgive the freedoms he had 
already taken. 

He soon returned to the Low Countries, where we find 
him in 1516. He received letters from the celebrated Bu- 
deus, to inform him that Francis I. was desirous of inviting 
learned men to. France, and had approved of Erasmus 
among others, offering him a benefice of a thousand livres. 
Stephanus Poncberius, or Etienne de Ponchery, bishop of 
Paris, and the king's ambassador at Brussels, was thp per- 


son who made these offers, but Erasmus excused himself 
alleging that the catholic king detained him in the Low 
Countries, having made him bis counsellor, and given him 
a prebend, though as yet he, had received none of the re- 
venues of it Here, probably, commenced the corre- 
spondence and friendship between Erasmus and Budeus, 
which, however, does not seem to have been very sin- 
cere. Their letters are indeed not deficient in compli- 
ments, but they likewise abound in petty contests, which 
shew that some portion of jealousy existed between them, 
especially on the side of Budeus, who yet in other respects 
was an excellent man ; (See Budeus). — This year was 
printed at Basil, Erasmus's edition of the New Testament, 
a work of infinite labour, and which helped, as he tells us, 
to destroy his health and spoil his constitution. It drew 
upon him the censures of some ignorant and envious di- 
vines ; who, not being capable themselves of performing 
such a task, were vexed, as it commonly happens, to see 
it undertaken and accomplished by another. We collect 
from his letters, that there was one college in Cambridge 
yrhich would not suffer this work to enter within its walls ; 
however, bis friends congratulated him upon it, and the call 
for it was so great, that it was thrice reprinted in less than 
% dozen years, namely, in 1519, 1522, and 1527. This was 
the first time the New Testament was printed in Greek. The 
works of St. Jerome began now to be published by Eras- 
mus, and were printed in 6 vols, folio, at Basil, from 1516 
to 1526. He mentions the great labour it bad cost him to 
put this father into good condition, which yet be thought 
very well bestowed, for he was excessively fond of him, 
and upon all occasions his panegyrist Luther blamed 
Erasmus for leaning so much to Jerome, and ior thinking, 
as he supposed, too meanly of Augustine. " As much/' 
says he, " as Erasmus prefers Jerome to Augustine, so 
much do I prefer Augustine to Jerome." But in this re- 
spect, Jortin is of opinion that Luther's taste was ex- 
tremely bad. 

Thus letters began to revive apace, and no one contri- 
buted more to their restoration than Erasmus. Among 
other things, the " Epistolse obscurorum virorum" were 
published; and ignorance, pedantry, bigotry, and perse- 
cution, met with warm opponents, who attacked them 
with great vigour, and allowed them no quarter. More 
informs Erasmus, that the " Epistolae" were generally ajx- 


proved, even by those who were ridiculed in them, and 
who had not the sense to feel it* This anonymous offspring 
of wit was fathered upon Erasmus, among many others, 
but undoubtedly without reason. If he bad beeu the au- 
thor, it would not have had that surprising effect on him 
which it is said to have had when first he began to read it. 
The effect was this : it threw him into such a fit of laughter, 
that it burst an abscess he then had in his face x whiqh the 
physicians had ordered to be opened. 

The rise of the reformation was a very interesting period 
to Erasmus. Luther had preached against indulgences in 
1517, and the contest between the Romanists and the reform- 
ed was begun and Agitated with great warmth on both sides. 
Erasmus, who was of a pacific temper, and abhorred, of 
all things, dissen&ious and tumults, was much alarmed and 
afflicted at this state of affairs; and he often complained 
afterwards, that his endeavours to compose and reconcile 
the two parties only drew upon htm the resentment and 
indignation of both. ' From this time he was exposed to a 
persecution so painful, that he had much difficulty to sup- 
port it with equanimity ; and invectives were aimed at him 
by the rancorous churchmen, who loudly complained that 
J) is bold and free censures of the monks, and oftheir pious 
.grimaces and superstitions, bad paved the way for Luther. 
" Erasmus," they used to say, " laid the egg, arid Luther 
hatched it." Erasmus seems afterwards to have been con- 
sidered as really a coadjutor in the business of the reforma- 
tion ; for in the reign of Mary queen of England, when a 
proclamation was issued against importing, printing, read- 
ing, selling, or keeping heretical books, his works are 
comprehended amongst them* 

Erasmus received this year, 1518, a considerable pre- 
sent from Henry VIII. as also an offer of a handsome main- 
tenance in England for the rest of his life, he thanked the 
king, but without either accepting or refusing the favour. 
A little time after, he wrote to cardinal Wolsey, for whom, 
however, he had no great affection ; and after, some com- 
pliments, heavily complained of the malice of certain ca- 
lumniators and enemies of literature, who thwarted his 
.designs of employing human learning to -sacred purposes. 
u These wretches," says he, " ascribe to Erasmus every 
thing that is odious ; and confound the cause of literature 
with that of Luther and religion, though they have no 
connection with each other. As to Luther, he is perfectly 



a stranger to me, and I have read nothing of his, except 
two or three pages ; not that I despise him, but because 
* ihy own pursuits will not give me leisure ; and yet, as I am 
informed, there are some who scruple not to affirm, that I 
have actually been his helper. If he has written well, the 
praise belongs not to me; nor the blame, if he has written 
ill ; since in all his works there is not a line that came from 
me. His life and conversation are universally commended : 
and it is no small prejudice in his favour, that his morals 
are unblameable, and that calumny itself can fasten no re- 
proach on his life. If I had really had time to peruse his 
writings, I am not so conceited of my own abilities, as to 
pass a judgment upon the performances of so eminent a 
divine. I was once against Luther, purely for fear he 
should bring an odium upon literature, which is too much 
suspected of evil already," &c. Thus he goes on to de- 
fend himself here, as he does in many other places of 
his writings ; where we may always observe his reserve 
and caution not to condemn Luther, while he condemned 
openly enough the conduct and sentiments of Luther's 
enemies. Though Erasmus addressed himself upon this 
occasion to Wolsey, yet it was impossible for the car- 
dinal to be a sincere friend to him, because he was pa- 
tronized by Warham, between whom and Wolsey there 
< was no good understanding ; and because the great praises 
which Erasmus frequently bestowed upon the archbishop 
would naturally be interpreted by the cardinal as so many 
slights upon himself. In his preface to Jerome, after ob- 
serving of Warham, that he used to wear plain apparel, he 
relates, that once, when Henry VIII. and Charles V. had 
an interview, Wolsey took upon him to set forth an order 
that the clergy should appear splendidly dressed in silk and 
damask ; and that Warham alone, despising the cardinal's 
authority, appeared in his usual habit. 

In 1519, Luther sent a very courteous letter to Erasmus, 
whom he fancied to be on his side ; because he had de- 
clared himself against the superstitions of the monks, and 
because these men hated them both almost equally. He 
thought, too, that he could discern this from his new pre-* 
face to the " Enchiridion militis Christian!," which was 
republished about this time. Erasmus replied, calling Lu-r 
ther " his dearest brother in Christ ;" and informed him, 
" what a noise had been made against his works at Lou vain* 
As to himself, he h$td declared^" j^ says, ** to the divines 


of that university, that he had not read those works, and, 
therefore, could neither approve nor disapprove them ; but 
that it would be better for them to publish answers made 
up of solid argument, than to rail at them before the peo- 
ple, especially as the moral character of their author was 
blameless. He owns, however, that he had perused part 
of his Commentaries upon the Psalms ; that he liked them 
much, and hoped they might be serviceable. He telk 
him, that many persons, both in England and the Low 
Countries, commended his writings. There. is," says he, 
" a prior of a monastery at Antwerp, a true Christian, 
whp loves you extremely, and was, as he relates, formerly 
a disciple of yours. He is almost the only one who 
preaches Jesus Christ, while others preach human fables, 
and seek after lucre. The Lord Jesus grant, you from day 
to day an increase of his spirit, for his glory and the public 
good." From these and other passages, Erasmus appeal's 
to have entertained hopes, that Luther's attempts, and 
the great notice which had been taken of them, might be 
serviceable to genuine Christianity : yet he did not approve 
his conduct, nor had any thoughts of joining hitn : on the 
contrary, he grew every day more shy and cautious of en- 
gaging himself in his affairs. He was earnestly solicitous 
to have the cause of literature, which the monks opposed 
so violently, separated from the cause of Lutheranism; 
and therefore he often observes, that they bad no kind of 
connection. But, as Dr. Jortin remarks, with great truth, 
" the study of the belles lettres is a poor occupation, if 
they are to be confined to a knowledge of language and 
antiquities, and not employed to the service of religion 
and of other sciences. To what purpose doth a man fill 
his head with Latin and Greek words, with prose and verse, 
with histories, opinions, and customs, if it doth not con- 
tribute to make him more rational, more prudent, more 
civil, more virtuous and religious ? Such occupations are 
to bp considered as introductory, and ornamental, and ser- 
viceable to studies of higher importance, such as philoso- 
phy, law, ethics, politics, and divinity. To abandon these 
sciences, in order to support philology, is like burning a 
city to save. the gates." 

About 1520, a clamour was raised against Erasmus in 
England, although he had many friends there ; and, among 
them, even persons of the first quality, and the king him- 
self* He gives a remarkable instance of this in the &eh^« 


.viour of One Standish, who had been a monk, and was 
• bishop of St. Asaph; and whom Erasmus sometimes calls, 
by way of derision, " JCpiscopum a sancto asino." Stan* 
dish had censured Erasmus, in a sermon preached at' St. 
Paul's, for translating the beginning of St. John's gospel, 
" In principio erat sermo," and not " verbum." . He also 
accused Erasmus of heresy before the king and queen ; 
but this charge was repelled by two learned friends, who 
are supposed to have been Pace, dean of St. Paul's,, and 
sir Thomas More. This year, Jerome Aleander, the pope's 
' nuncio, solicited the emperor, and Frederic elector of 
Saxony, to punish Luther. Frederic was then at Cologo, 
And Erasmus came there, and was consulted by him upon 
.this occasion. Erasmus replied, ludicrously at first, say* 
ing, " Lutber has committed two unpardonable crimes : he 
touched the pope upon the crown, and the monks upon 
the belly." He then told the elector seriously, that 
" Luther had justly censured many abuses and errors, and 
that the welfare of the church required a reformation of 
them ; that Luther's doctrine was right in the main, but that 
it had not been delivered by him with a proper temper, 
and with due moderation." The pope's agents, finding 
Erasmus thus obstinately bent to favour, at least not to con- 
demn and write agains^ Luther, as they often solicited him 
to do, endeavoured to win him over by the offer of bishop- 
rics or abbeys. " I know," says he, " that a bishopric is 
at my service, if I would but write against Luther : but 
Luther is a man of too great abilities for me to encounter ; 
and, to say the truth, I learn more from one page of his, 
than from all the volumes of Thomas Aquinas." 

Still we find Erasmus taking all opportuiiies of declaring 
his firm resolution to adhere to the see of Rome. " What 
 connections," says be, " hive I with Luther, or what re- 
compense to expect from him, that I should join with^him 
to oppose the church of Rome, which I take to be a true 
part of the catholic church ; I, who should be loth to resist 
the bishop of my diocese ?" As for the monks, they would 
have been glad to have seen him a deserter, and lodged in 
.the enemy's quarters, because he would have much less 
incommoded them as a Lutheran than as a catholic ; but hfc 
was determined not to stir. His wish was to seek a middle 
way, with a view of putting an end to these contests ; but, 
-above, all, to keep himself from being looked upon as a 
party on either side. Thus, there is a remarkable letter 


tof his, written to Pace, dean of St. Paul's, in 1521, wherein 
he complains equally of the violence of Luther, and of the 
rage of the Dominicans ; as also of the malice of Aleander, 
who ascribed to him some writings of Luther, of which he 
had not even beard. Some affirmed, that Erasmus had 
written a treatise called *' The Captivity of Babylon," 
. although Luther openly acknowledged it for his own : 
others said, that Luther had taken many of his sentiments 
from Erasmus. " I see now," says he, " tbat the Ger- 
mans are resolved at all adventures to engage me in the 
cause of Luther, whether I will or not. In this they have 
acted foolishly, and have taken the most effectual method 
to alienate me from them and their party*. Wherein could 
I have assisted Luther, if I had declared myself for him, 
and shared the danger along with him ? Only thus far, 
that, instead of one man, two would have perished. I can- 
not conceive what he means by writing with such a spirit,: 
one thing I know too well, that he has brought a great 
odium upon the lovers of literature. It is true, that he 
hath given us many wholesome doctrines, and many good 
counsels; and I wish he had not defeated the effect of 
them by his intolerable faults. But, if he bad written 
every thing in the most unexceptionable manner, I had no 
-inclination to die for the sake of tmth. Every man has not 
the courage requisite to make a martyr ; and I am afraid 
that, if I were put to the trial, I should imitate St. Peter. 1 * 
In this Erasmus betrays his genuine character, and it is 
< plain that it was not truth, nor the desire of propagating 
it, but self-preservation only, which influenced his conduct 
throughout this affair. He certainly approved of Luther's 
principal doctrines*, and inwardly wished he might carry' 
his point ; but, as he could not imagine that probable, he 
chose to adhere outwardly to the stronger party. " I fol- 
low," says he, " the decisions of the pope and the empe- 
ror, when they are right, which is acting religiously : I 
submit to them, when they are wrong, which is acting pru- 
dently: and I think it is lawful for good men to behave 
themselves thus, when there is no hope of obtaining any 
more.',' From this principle of policy, he extolled the 
book "of Henry VIII. against Luther, even before he had 
seen it; and he began now to thrpw out hints, that he 

• This does not appear to be strictly true. Milner in his Eccl. Hist has 
clearly proved that £racmus did not coincide with Luther on many essential 
point* «f doctrine. 


would one day enter the lists with the great reformer, yet; 
when his friend and patron Montjoy exhorted him, the same 
year, to write against Luther, he replied, ," Nothing" is 
more easy than to call Luther a blockhead ; nothing is less 
easy than to prove him one : at least, so it seems to me.!' 
Upon the whole, he was exceedingly perplexed how to 
behave to Luther; and frequently appears inconsistent, 
because he thought himself obliged to disclaim before men 
what in his heart he approved and even revered. 

In 1519 a collection of Erasmus's letters was published, 
which gave him, as he pretends, much vexation. As lie 
had spoken freely in them on many important points, he 
could not avoid giving offence. The monks especially, as 
enemies to literature, exclaimed violently against them ; 
and when the Lutheran contentions broke out, these letters 
were still more censured than before, and accused of fa- 
vouring Lutheranism, at a time when, as he says, it was 
neither safe to speak, nor to keep silence. He adds, that 
he would have suppressed those letters, but that Froben 
would not consent : but in this, says Jortin, he could hardly 
speak seriously, since Froben was too much his friend to 
print them without his consent. In 1522 he published the 
works of St. Hilary. " Erasmus, 9 ' says Du Pin, " when 
he published his editions of the fathers, joined to them pre- 
faces and notes full of critical discernment: and, though he 
may sometimes be too bold in rejecting some of their works 
as spurious, yet it must be confessed, that he has opened 
and shewed the way to all who have followed him." He 
had lately published also at Basil his celebrated " Collo- 
quies," which he dedicated to John Erasmus Froben, sen 
to John Froben, and bis godson. He drew up these " Col- 
loquies," partly that young persons might have a book to 
teach them the Latin tongue, and religion and morals at 
.the same time ; and partly, to cure the bigotted world, if 
he could, of that superstitious devotion which the monks 
so industriously propagated. The liveliest strokes in them 
are aimed at the monks and their, religion ; on which ac- 
count they had no sooner appeared, than a most outrage- 
ous clamour was raised against them* He was accused of 
laughing at indulgences, auricular confession, eating fish 
.upon fast-days, &c. and it is certain he did not talk of 
these matters with much respect. The faculty of theology 
at Paris passed a general censure, in 1526, upon the Col- 
loquies of Erasmus, as upon a work in which " the fas^s 


and abstinences of the church are slighted, the suffrage* 
of the holy virgin and of the saints are derided, virginity 
is set below matrimony, Christians are discouraged from 
monkery, and grammatical is preferred to theological eru- 
dition ; and therefore decreed, that the perusal of that 
wicked book be forbidden to all, more especially to young 
people, and that it be entirely suppressed, if possible." la 
1537, pope Paul III. chose a select number of cardinals 
and prelates, to consider about reforming the church ; 
who, among other things, proposed, that young people 
should not be permitted to learn Erasmus's Colloquies. A 
provincial council also, held at Cologn in 1549, con- 
demned these Colloquies, as not fit to be read in schools. 
Yet they must be allowed to contain a treasure of wit and 
good sense, and though they were intended as only a school- 
oook, are not unworthy the perusal of the most advanced 
in knowledge. Colineus reprinted them at Paris in 1527 ; 
and, by artfully giving out that they were prohibited, sold, 
it is said, above four-and -twenty thousand of one impres- 

Adrian VI. having succeeded Leo in the see Gf Roraej 
Erasmus dedicated to him an edition of a Commentary of 
Arnobius upon the Psalms ; and added to it an epistle, id 
which he congratulates this new pope, and entreats him 
not to pay any regard to the calumnies spread against his 
humble servant, without first giving him a hearing. Adrian 
returned him an elegant and artful letter of thanks, ex- 
horting him strongly to write against Luther, and inviting 
him to Rome. Erasmus wrote a second time, and offered 
to communicate to Adrian his opinion upon the fittest me- 
thods to suppress Lutheranism ; for he entertained some 
hopes that his old friend and school-fellow might possibly 
<lo some good. Adrian sent him word that he should be 
glad to have his opinion upon this affair ; and invited him. 
a second time to Rome. Erasmus excused himself from, 
the journey, on account of his bad health, and other impe- 
diments ; but certainly did net repose such confidence in 
Adrian, as to trust himself in his hands. He tells his holi- 
ness, that he had neither the talents nor the authority- 
requisite for answering Luther with any prospect of suc- 
cess. He then proceeded to the advice he had promised : 
and, 1. He disapproves of all violent and cruel methods, 
and wishes that some condescension were shewed to the 
Lutherans. 2. He thinks that the causes of the evil should 


be investigated, and suitable remedies applied; that an 
amnesty should ensue, and a general pardon of all that was 
past; and that then the princes and magistrates should take 
care. to prevent innovations for the future. 3. He thinks it 
needful to restrain the liberty of the press. 4. He would 
have the pope to give the world hopes, that some faults 
should be amended, which could be no longer justified; 
£. He would have him assemble persons of integrity and 
abilities, and of all nations. — Here Erasmus breaks off 
in the middle of a sentence, intending to say more at 
another time, if the pope were willing to hear it. But he 
had already said too much. Adrian utterly disliked bis 
advice; and Erasmus's enerfhies took this opportunity of 
plotting his ruin ; but the death of the pope soon after, 
put a stop to their contrivances. Yet as the monks re* 
ported in all places that Erasmus was a Lutheran, he took 
much pains by his letters to undeceive the public, and 
satisfy his friends. With this view he wrote, in 1523, to 
Henry VIII. and to the pope's legate in England. Cuth- 
bert Tonstall sent him a letter, and exhorted him to an- 
swer Luther; and, unable any longer to withstand the 
importunate solicitations of the Romanists, he sent word 
tp the king that he was drawing up a piece against Luther. 
This was his " Diatribe de libera arbitrio," which was 
published the following year. But this gave no satisfac- 
tion at all to the Romanists; and, although he could have 
proved Luther erroneous in his notion of free-will, this 
had nothing to do with the dispute between Luther and 
the pope, and the Romanists therefore thought themselves 
very little obliged to him. 

Adrian dying this year,* he was succeeded by Clement 
VII. who sent to Erasmus an honourable diploma, accom- 
panied with two hundred florins. < He invited him also to 
Rome, as his predecessors had done : but " at Rome," 
says Erasmus, " there are many who want to destroy me, 
and they had almost accomplished their purpose before the 
death of Adrian. After having, at his own request, com- 
municated to him my secret opinion, I found that things 
were altered, and that I was no longer in favour." The 
cause was manifest, says Jortin : Erasmus had hinted at 
the necessity of a reformation ; and Such language was 
highly disgusting at the court of Rome. If Luther did not 
like Erasmus,, because Erasmus approved not in all things 
either his doctrine or bis conduct, the court of Rome liked 


him as little, because he did not condemn Luther in all- 
things : yet it thought proper to give him good words and 
promises, and to entice him thither if possible ; where he 
would have been in their power, and no better than a 
prisoner at large. 

Jo 1524, Luther, upon a rumour probably that Erasmus 
was going to write against him, sent him a letter, full of 
fire and spirit ; which gives so just an idea of both Lutber 
apd Erasmus, that we think ourselves obliged to present 
the reader with part of it. He begins in the apostolical 
manner: " Grace and peace to you from the Lord Jesus. 
I shall not complain of you for having behaved yourself as 
a man alienated from us, for the sake of keeping fair with 
the papists, our enemies ;• nor was I much offended, that f 

in your printed books, to gain their favour, or to soften 
their fury, you censured us with too much acrimony. We 
saw that the Lord had not conferred upon you the discern- 
ment, the courage, and the resolution, £o join with us in 
freely and openly opposing those monsters ; and therefore 
we durst not exact from you what greatly surpasseth your 
strength and your capacity. We have even borne with your 
weakness, and honoured that portion of the gift of God 
which is in you." Then, having bestowed upon him his 
due praises, as a reviver of good literature, by means of 
which the holy scriptures had been read and examined in 
the originals, he proceeds thus : l( I never wished, that, 
deserting your own province, you should come over to our 
camp. You might, indeed, have favoured 'us not a little 
by your wit and eloquence ; but, forasmuch as you have 
not the courage which is requisite, it is safer for you to 
serve • the Lord in your own way. Only we feared, that 
our adversaries should entice you to write against us, and 
that necessity should then constrain us to oppose you to 
your face. — I am concerned, as well as you, that the re* 
sentment of so many eminent persons of your party hath 
been excited against you. I must suppose that this gives 
you no small uneasiness : for virtue like yours, mere hu- 
man virtue, cannot raise a man above being affected by 
such trial?* — I could wish, if it were possible, to act the 
part of a mediator. between you, that they might cease to 
attack you with such animosity, and suffer your old age 
to rest in peace in the Lord : and thus they would act, 
if they either considered your weakness, or the greatness 
*f the cause in dispute, which hath been long since be* 

272 EH AS M U Si 

yond your talents. Tbey would shew their moderation 
towards you so much the more, since our affairs are ad- 
vanced to such a point, that our cause is in no peril, thotfgh 
even Erasmus should attack it with all his might: so far 
are we from dreading the keenest strokes of his wit. On 
the other hand, my dear Erasmus, if you duly reflect 
upon your own imbecility, you will abstain from those 
sharp and spiteful figures of rhetoric ; and, if you cannot 
defend your sentiments, will treat of subjects which suit 
you better. Our friends, as you yourself will allow, have 
reason to be uneasy at being lashed by you, because hu- 
man infirmity thinks of the authority and reputation of 
Erasmus, and fears it : and indeed there is much difference 
between him and other papists, he being a more formidable 
adversary than all of them put together." This letter 
vexed Erasmus not a little, as may easily be imagined, 
and he wrote an answer to it ; but the answer is not in the 
collection of his epistles. 

In 1525 he published his " Diatribe de Iibero arbitrio," 
already noticed, which Luther replied to, in a treatise en* 
titled " De servo arbitrio." In this he mixes compliment, 
praise, scorn, insult, ridicule, and invective, together; at 
which Erasmus was much provoked, and immediately wrote 
a reply, which was the first part of his "Hyperaspistes :'* 
the second was published in 1527. The year after he pub- 
lished two treatises, in the way of dialogue, entitled " The 
pronunciation of the Greek and Latin languages," and 
" The Ciceronianus." In the former, which is one of the 
most learned of all his compositions, are contained very 
curious researches into the pronunciation of vowels and 
consonants ; in the second, which is one of the most lively 
and ingenious, he rallies agreeably some Italian purists, 
who scrupled to make use of any word or phrase which 
was hot to be found in Cicero : not that be condemned 
either Cicero or his manner of writing, but only the ser- 
vility and pedantry of his imitators, which he thought, and 
very justly, deserving of ridicule. On the contrary, when, 
Froben engaged him, the very same year, to revise a new 
edition of the Tusculan Questions, he prefixed to it an 
elegant preface, in which he highly extols Cicero, both 
for his style and moral sentiments, and almost makes a 
saint of him : and Julius Scaliger, who censured Erasmus 
for his treatment of the Ciceronians, declared afterwards, 
that he was willing to forgive him his blasphemies, and to 

ERASMUS. tff3 

he at peace with him thenceforward, for the sake of this 
preface; which he considered as a kind of penance, and 
of satisfaction made to the manes of the Roman orator. 

In April 1529 Erasmus departed from Basil, where he 
had now lived many years, but where he thought himself 
no longer safe ; and went to Friburg, where at first he had 
apartments belonging to the king, but' afterwards bought a 
house. Here, in 1531, he had a sight of the first oration 
of Julius Scaliger against his " Ciceronianus ;" all the 
copies of which, or at least as many as he could, Erasmus 
is said to have collected and destroyed. " There is some- 
thing," says Dr. Jortin, u ridiculously diverting in the 
pompous exclamations and tragical complaints of Scaliger. 
One would imagine at least, that Erasmus had called Cicero 
fool, or knave : and yet all his crime was, to have be- 
sprinkled the servile imitators of Cicero with a little harm-* 
less banter." After the first oration, Scaliger composed a 
second more scurrilous if possible than the first : but it was 
not published till after Er&smus's death, in 1 537. Some of 
Scaliger*s friends were much displeased at the scandalous 
manner in which he had treated Erasmus, and desired him 
to give over the contention. He declared himself, there- 
fore, though in a proud and awkward manner, willing to 
be reconciled : and, to do him justice, he was at last sorry 
for his rudeness to Erasmus, and wrote a copy of verses in 
his praise, when he heard that he Was dead. 

Erasmus now began to complain to his friends, and to 
represent himself as quite worn down with age, pain, and 
sickness; and in t535 he returned to Basil, to try if he 
could recover his health, where he continued ever after. 
This year B embus congratulates him upon the high regard 
which the pope had for him ; and hopes that it would end 
iw great preferment, by which he probably meant a car- 
dinal's hat. The enemies of Erasmus have affirmed, that 
the court of Rome never designed him such a favour; but 
Erasmus has affirmed the contrary, and says, " that hav- 
ing written to Paul III. tfiat pope, before he had unsealed 
his letter, spoke of him in the most honourable manner : 
that he had resolved to add to the college of cardinals some 
learned mfe, bf whom he might make usi in the general 
council, which was to be called ; and I," says Erasmus, 
* r was'ivatiied to be one. But to my promotion it was ob- 
jdcted> that. my bad state of health would make tne unfit 
for that function, and that my income was not sufficient : 

Vol. XIII. T 


so at present they think of loading me with preferments, 
that I may be qualified for the red hat." He declares, 
however, that his health would not permit him to accept 
such favours, since he could scarce stir out of bis chamber 
with safety ; and he refused every thing that was offered 

He had been ill at Friburg, and continued so at Basil. 
In the summer of 1636 he grew worse ; and the last letter 
which we have of his writing is dated June the 20th of that 
year. He subscribes it thus, " Erasmus Rot. aegra maim." 
He was for almost a month ill of a dysentery ; and he knew 
that his disease would prove mortal. He had foreseen for 
several months, that he could not hold out long; and he 
foretold it again three days, and then two days, before 
his death. He died July 12, in the sixty-ninth year of 
his age ; and was buried in the cathedral church of Basil, 
where his tomb is to be seen, with a, Latin inscription on 
thfe marble, of which a copy is inserted in the first volume 
of his works. He had made his will in February, in which 
he left handsome legacies to his friends, and the remainder 
to be distributed to relieve the sick and poor, to many 
young women, and to assist young men of good characters.: 
hy which it appeared, that he was not in low circumstances, 
nor so. bad an (economist as he sometimes, between jest 
and earnest, represented himself. His friend Beatus 
Rhenanus has given us a description of his person and 
manners, and tells us, that he was low of stature, but not 
remarkably short; that he was well-shaped, of a fair com- 
plexion, with hair in his youth of a pale yellow, grey eyes, 
a cheerful countenance, a lpw voice, and an agreeable 
utterance ; that he was neat and decent in his apparel ; 
that he had a very tender and infirm constitution, and a 
tenacious memory ; that he was a pleasant companion, a 
very constant friend, generous and charitable, &c. He 
had one peculiarity belonging to him, which was, that he 
could not endure even the smell of fish ; so that, however 
he might be a papist in other respects, he had, as be says, 
a very Lutheran stomach. He used to dine late, that lie 
might have a long morning for study. After dinner, he 
would converse cheerfully with his friends upon all sort* 
of subjects, and deliver his opinions freely upon men and 
things. Erasmus objected long to sit for his picture; but 
be conquered that aversion, and was frequently drawn by 


Be dwelt longer at Basil than at any other place* He 
delighted in that city; and though he sometimes made 
excursions, yet he was sure to return. The revolution in 
religion was the only cause that hindered him from fixing 
his abode there all his days. At Basil they show the bouse 
in which he died ; and the place where the professors of 
divinity read their winter-lectures is called the college of 
Erasmus. His cabinet is one of the most considerable 
rarities of the city ; it contains his ring, his seal, his sword, 
])is knife, his pencil, his will written with his own hand, 
and his picture by Holbein, which is a masterpiece. The 
magistrates bought this cabinet, in 16-61, for nine thousand 
crowns, of the descendants of Erasmus's heir : and, if we 
may believe Patin, they made a present of it to the uni- 
versity ; but others say, they sold it for a thousand crowns. 
Nothing has made the city of Rotterdam more famous, 
than its having given birth to this great man : nor has it 
been insensible of the honour, but has testified its high 
regard to him. The house in which he was born is adorned' 
with an inscription, to inform both natives and strangers of 
this illustrious prerogative; the college, where Latin, 
Greek, and rhetoric are taught, bears* the name of Eras- 
mus, and is consecrated to him by an inscription on the 
frontispiece ; a statue of wood was raised to him in 1549 ; 
a statue of stone in 1555, and one of copper in 1622, which 
is admired by the connoisseurs. It is in an open part of 
the city, standing on a bridge over a canal, upon a pe- 
destal adorned with inscriptions, and surrounded with iron 
rails. . > . 

But, with all his greatness, Erasmus had, and it must 
not be dissembled, his failings and infirmities. B&yle has 
observed of him, that he had too much sensibility when he 
was attacked by adversaries ; made too many complaint* 
of them ; and was too ready to answer them : and Le Clerc 
has often censured him for his lukewarmness, timidity, and , 
Unfairness, in the business of the reformation. Dr. Jortirt 
seems to allow some foundation for these censures, yet has 
offered what can be offered by way of excuse for Erasmus. 
To the first of them he replies, that Erasmus " was fighting 
for his honour, and for his life; being often accused of 
nothing less than heterodoxy, impiety, and blasphemy, by 
men whose forehead was a rock, and whose tongue was a 
razor. To be misrepresented as a pedant and a dunce, n 
he says, " is no great matter, for time and truth put folly* 

T2 • 


to flight : lo be accused of heresy by bigots, hypocrites, 
politicians, and infidels, this is a serious affair ; as they 
know too well, who have had the misfortune to feel the 
effects of it" As for his lukewarmness irt promoting the 
reformation, Dr. Jortin is of opinion, that much may be 
said, and with truth, in his behalf. He thinks that Eras* 
mus " was not entirely free from the prejudices of educa- 
tion ; that he had some indistinct and confused notions 
about the authority of the church catholic, which made it 
not lawful to depart from her. corrupted as he believed her 
to be ; and that he was much shocked at the violent mea* 
sures which were pursued by the reformers, as well as by 
the violent quarrels which arose among them." The doc- 
tor cannot be persuaded, " that the fear of losing his pen* 
sions and coming to want ever made Erasmus say or do 
things which* he thought unlawful f * yet supposes, " that 
he might be afraid of disobliging several of bis oldest and 
best friends, who were against the Lutheran reformation, 
such as Henry VIII. CharleB V. the popes, Wolsey, &c. 
and also his patrons, Warham, Montjoy, More, Tonstalf, 
Fisher, Bembus, &c. and all these things might influence 
his judgment, though he himself was not at all aware of it. 
There is 'no necessity to suppose, that he acted against 
his conscience in adhering to the church of Rome : no, be 
persuaded himself that he did as much as piety and pru- 
dence required from him in censuring her defects/' The 
doctor observes, that " though as pro test ants we are cer- 
tainly much obliged to Erasmus, yet we are more obliged 
to Luther, Melancthon, and other authors of the reformat 
tion. This,*' says he, " is true ; yet it is as true, thfct we 
and all the nations in Europe are infinitely obliged 'td 
Erasmus, for spending a long and laborious life in opposing 
ignorance and superstition, and in promoting literature and 
true piety ." 

The works of Erasmus were published at Leydett, 1703, 
in a very handsome manner, in ten volames, folio, under 
the care and inspection of the learned Le Clerc : and we 
think it proper to subjoin die contents of each volume in a 
*ote*, as it will not only present tbe reader with many 

* Vol. I. Be eopia verborum & icribeodi epistoUt. 0b poeris statin* 

eerum libri duo. Theodori Gaze gram- ac liberaliter iastituendis. De ration© 

toatices libri duo. Syntaxis. Ex Lu- studii. I>e laude medicine. Li ban it 

ojano versa- Erasmi declamatio Lu- aliquot decIamatiotMS verse. Simi~ 

«aa» iei ponfcns* De r&tione eon- lkua liber amis. CoHoeuiorum, libe* 



pieces of Erasmus, which could not well be inserted in the 
Course of this article, but also in some measure further 
illustrate the history of his life. ' 

Be recta Latini Oraecique sermonis pro-, 
nnnciatione. Ciceronian us, sive de 
optimo diceadi genere. De civilitate 
morum puerilium. Galeni quaedam 
Latine versa. Epitome, in elegantias 
Laureniii Valise. Euripidis Hecuba 
& Iphigenia versibus Latinis reddita. 
In nucem Ovidii commentarius. Epi- 
jgrammata varii generis & argument!. 
Vol. II. Adagiorum opus, in quo ex- 
plicate proverbia 425J. Vol. III. Epia- 
tolss 129$, Secundum ordinem tempo - 
rum quo script* sunt digests, ab anno 
1439 ad, 1536 : subjuncta append ice 
epistolarum 517, quarum de tempore 
l»n constat. Vol. IV. Ex Plutarcho 
versa. Apophthegms turn libri 8. Stol- 
titise laus. Ad Philippum Burgundio- 
num priheipem panegyricus. Ad Phi- 
lippqm eundeni carmtm epicum grata- 
fatoriuau Institutio principis Chris- 
tian!. ' Isocratis oratio ad Nicoclem 
regem de regno admihistrando, Latine 
versa. Declamatio de morte, sive 
.consolatio ad patrem filii obitu afflic- 
lam. Declamatiuncula nomine epis- 
popi, respondeo* iis qui sibi nomine 
populi gratulati essent, & omnium no- 
mine obedientiam' quam vocant detu- 
iissent. Querela pacts undique gen- 
tium eject® profligatssque. Xeno- 
phontis Hiero Latine versus. Precatio 
ad dominum Jesum pro pace efcclesiss. 
Lingua, sive de* linguss usu atque 
abusu. De. senectutis incommodis : 
carmen heroicum & iambicum dime- 
trum catalecticum, ad Gulielmnm Co- 
pum Basiieensem. Vol. V. Enchiri- 
dion militis Christian!. Oratio de vir- 
tue amplectenda. Ratio vera theo- 
logian. Paraclesis, sive hortatio ad 
philosophise Christianas studium. Exo- 
mologesis, sive modus coo 6 tend i. 
Enarratio psalmi pritni et secundi. 
Paraphrasis in psalmum 3. Concio in 
psalm um 14. De puritate ecclesim 
Christi. Enarratio in psalmum 23. 
De bello Turcis inferendo consultatio. 
Enarratio in psalraos 34 & 39. De 
amabili ecclesise concordia. Concio 

' l Jortiu's Life of Erasmus, the improved edit. 1808, 3 vols. 8vo. — Knight's 
Life. — Burigni's Life, of which a German edition, very much improved, was 

Bublished about thirty years ago by Henry Henke, professor of divinity at 
[elmstadt. — Batesii Vtiae.— Wood's Annals. — An elaborate article on Lather's 
controversy with Erasmus, In vol. IV. part II. p. 845, of Milner's Churcb His- 
tory.— More's Life of Sir Thomas More.— Gen. Diet.— Saxii Onomast, 

in psalmum 86. De magnitudine mt- 
sericordiarum Domini concio. Virgin is 
& martyris comparatio. Concio dt 
puero Jesu. Epistola consolatoria ad 
virgines sacras. Chriatiani matrr- 
monii institutio. Vidua Christians; 
Ecclesiastes, sive de raiione concio? 
nandi. Modus orandi Deum. Sym- 
bolum, sive catechjsmus. Precationest 
Precatio dominica digesta in septesn 
partes juxta dies tot idem. Pasan vir r 
gini matri dicendus. Obsecratio ad 
virginem Mariam in rebus advertise 
De coutemptu mundi. De tssdio & 
pavore Christi disputatio. Ode de 
casa natalitia pueri Jesu. Expostula- 
tio Jesu cum nomine pereunte. Hymni 
varii. Liturgia virginis Lauretana), 
Carmen votivum Genoveva?. Com- 
mentarius in duos hymnos Prudentii, 
de natal i & epiphauia pueri Jesu* 
Christiani hominis institutum, sive 
symbolum; carmen. Epitaphia in 
Odiliam. Vol. VI. Novum Tests*. 
mentum ex Grssca Erasini editione* 
cum ejus versione 5c annotationibus. 
Vol. VII. Paraphrasis Novi Testa- 
ment!. Vol. VI 1L Ex sancto Joanne 
Chrysostomo versa. Ex sancto Atha- 
nasio, ex Origene, ex Basilio versa. 
Oratio de pace & discordia contra fac- 
tiosos, ad Cornelium Goudanum. Ora- 
tio fu neb ris in funere Berths de Heien, 
Goudanss, vidua? probatissimsB. Car- 
mina varia. Vol. IX. Epistola apolo- 
getica ad Martin um Dorpium. Apo- 
logia ad Jacobum Fabrum Stapnlen- 
sem. Ad Jacobi Latomi dialogum de 
tribus linguis & ratione studii theolq- 
gici. Ad Joannem Atensem, pro de- % 
clamatione matrimonii. Apologia d/e 
*' In principio erat sermo." Apologia 
prima ad uotationes Edvardi Lei. Apo- 
logia secunda & tertia. Apologia ad 
Jacobum Lap idem Stunicam 2 & 3. 
Ad versus Sanctium Caranzam. Apo- 
logia in natalem Bedam. Apologia ad- 
versus debacchationes Petri Sutoris. 
Ad antapologiam ejus responsio. Ap- 
pendix de scriptis Jodici Clitovei. De- 


E R A S T U 8. 

ERASTUS (Thomas), an eminent German physician, 
but perhaps more celebrated as a divine, from being the 
reputed founder of the Erastians, or of the opinions so 
called, for they are not a distinct sect, was born in 1523, 
or 1524, at Auggenen, a village in the lordship of Baden- 
weiller, which is in the marquisate of Baden Dourlach. 
His family name was Leiber, or beloved, to which he gave, 
according to the custom of the times, a Greek turn, and 
called himself Erastus. In 1540, he was sent to the uni- 
versity of Basil, where he had some difficulties to struggle 
with, owing to the poverty of his parents ; but, according 
to Melchior Adam, Providence raised him up a patron, 
•who provided for him liberally, and after his studies at 
Basil, enabled him to travel to Italy for farther improver 
ment. At Bologna he studied both philosophy and physic, 
the latter for nine years under the ablest masters. Return- 
ing, with a doctor's degree, to his own country, he lived 
for some time at the court of the princes of Henneberg, 
where he practised physic with great reputation, until the 
elector palatine Frederick III. invited him to his court, and 
made him first physician and counsellor. This prince ap- 
pointed him also professor of physic in the university of 
Heidelberg. In 1581 he returned to Basil, where he was 
also chosen professor of physic, and where he made a 
liberal foundation for the provision and education of poor 
students in medicine, and after superintending and estab- 
lishing this, which was long called the Erastian founda- 
tion, he died Dec. 31, 1'583, or, according to some, Jan. 
I, 1584. His medical works were principally, 1. " Dis- 
putationum de Medicina nova Philippi Paracelsi," p. i. 
Basil, 1572, p. ii. ibid. 1572, p. iii. ibid. 1572, p. iv. et 
ultima, ibid. 1573, all in 4to. In these volumes he refutes 
" the doctrines which Paracelsus had previously taught at 

clamationes adversus oensuras tbeolo- 
gorum Parisiensium. Apologia ad 
Phimostomi cujusdam disputatjonea de 
divort^o. Apologia ad juveoem geron- 
todidascalum. Apologia ad quoad am 
monacbos Hispanos. Apologia prima 
ad Albertum Pium Carporum priuci- 
pem. De esu carnium & hominum 
constitutionibus, ad Cbristopborum 
episcopum Basileensem. De Kbero 
arbitrio diatribe, sea collatio. Vol. X. 
Hyperaspites : diatribe adversus ser- 
vwm arbitrium Martini Lutkeri, ^d- 

versus epistolam ejusdem, praestigi- 
arum libelli cujusdam. detectio. Contra 
pseudevangelicos. Ad Eleutherium, 
ad Grunnium. Ad fratres (*ermani» 
inferioris. Spongia adversus adsper* 
gines Ubrici Hutteni. Pautalabus, sen 
adversus febricitantis cujusdam Hbel- 
lum. Antibarbarorum liber primal. 
Adversus Grssculos, Responsio ad 
Petri Cursii defensionem. Epistola da 
Termini sui inscriptione ad Alphoosum 
Valdesium, Epistola ad Henrietta 

E*R A S T U S. 27* 

fiasil, and had committed to writing, particularly on astro- 
logy and medicine. 2. " Theses de Contagio," Heidelberg, 
1574, 4to. 3. " De Occult. Pharmacor. Potestatibus," 
ibid. 1574, 4to; Francfort, 1611. 4. " Disputat. de Auro 
Potabili," Basil, 1578, 1594, 4to. 5. " De Putredme Li- 
ber," ibid. 1580, 4to ; Lipsiae, 1590. 6. " Epistola de As- 
trologia Divinatrice," Basil, 1580, 4to. 7. " De ^ingue- 
dinis in Animalibus Generatione et Concretione," Heidel- 
berg®, 1580, 4 to. 8. " Comitis Montani, Vicentini, novi N 
Medicorum censoris, quinque Librorum de Morbis nuper 
Editorum viva Anatome," Basil, 1581, 4to. 9. "Ad Arch* 
angeli Mercenarii Disputationem de Putredine responsio," 
ibid. 15S2, 4to. 10. " Varia Opuscula Medica," Franc, 
1590, folio. 

His fame, however, chiefly now rests on what he wrote in 
ecclesiastical controversy. When at Heidelberg, a dis- 
pute having arisen respecting the sacrament, chiefly 
founded on the question, " Whether the terms flesh and 
blood ought to be understood literally or metaphorically ? H 
he published a book " De coena Domini," in which be con- 
tended for the metaphorical sense. He had indeed alt his 
life paid so much attention to contested points of divinity, 
that he was reckoned as good a divine as a physician ; and 
for this reason, in 1564, when a conference was held be- 
tween the divines of the palatinate, and those of Wittem- 
berg, respecting the real presence in the sacrament, Eras- 
tus was ordered by the elector Frederic to be present at it 
The work, however, which excited most attention, in this 
country, at least, if not in his own, was his book oh eccle- 
siastical excommunication, in which he denies the power 
of the church to- excommunicate, exclude, absolve, censure, 
in short, to exert what is called discipline. Denying the 
power of the keys, he compared a pastor to a professor of 
any science who can merely instruct his students ; he would 
have all ordinances of the gospel open and free to all, and 
all offences, whether of a civil or religious nature, to be 
referred to the civil magistrate, consequently the church 
with him was* merely a creature of the state. Some of our 
first reformers adopted these sentiments so far as to main- 
tain, that no one form of church government is prescribed 
in scripture as a rule for future ages, as Cranmer, Red- 
.mayn, Cox, &c; and archbishop Whitgift, in his contro- 
versy with Cartwright, delivers the same opinion. The 
£r*stians formed a party in the assembly of divines in 1643, 

280 E R A S T U S. 

and the cbief leaders of it were Dr. Lightfoot, Mr. Colmati, 
Mr. Selden, and Mr. Whitlock ; and in the house of com* 
mons there were, besides Selden and Whitlock, Oliver 
St. John, esq. sir Thomas Widdrington, John Crew, esq. 
sir John Hipsley, and others. In the. assembly, the Eras* 
tians did not except against the presbyterian government 
as a " political institution," proper to be established by the 
civil magistrate, but they were against the claim pf a 
" divine right. 9 ' Accordingly the clause of divine right 
was lost in the house of commons. It is almost needless 
to add, however, that after the restoration, these opinions 
decayed, and we believe that at this time, there is no sect, 
however hostile in its opinions to the power of the estae- 
blished church, who has not, and does not assert a power 
of its own binding on all its members, in one shape or 
other. In Erastus's life-time, he was opposed by Ursinus, 
bis friend and colleague ; and since has been answered by 
Hammond, " On the power of the Keys," 1647. But it 
is necessary to remark that what is called Erastus's book 
on this subject was not published in his life-time. During 
that, indeed, he published his opinions in the form of 
theses, levelled at Gaspar Olevianus and his colleagues, 
who wanted to introduce ecclesiastical discipline in the 
churches of the Palatinate; and Beza, who foresaw the 
mischiefs pf this controversy, addressed himself both to 
Erastus and Olevianus, recommending peace. Having 
afterwards obtained a copy of the theses which Erastus had 
written, he determined to answer them ; this excited Eras* 
tus to draw up a work in reply, but he declined printing 
it, lest he should disturb the peace of the churches. Six 
years after his death, however, it was published by one of 
{lis disciples, under the title " Explicatio questionis, utrum 
Excommunicato, quatenus religionem intelligentes et am* 
plexantes, a sacramentorum usu, propter admissum faci~ 
pus arcet, mandato nitatur divino, an excogitata sit ab ho- 
minibus, &c." Pesclavii (Puschlaw) apud Baocium SuIdU 
ceterum (fictitious names), 1589, 4to. By a letter of his 
in Goldast's " Centuria Philologicarum Epistolarum," it 
appears that Erastus pronounced his work unanswerable, 
but Beza very soon performed that task in his " Tractatus 
pius et moderates," &c. Geneva, 1690, 4to, and to thfe 
general satisfaction of the divines of that period. ' : '-' 

1 Melchior Adam. — Fraheri Theatratn.— -Moreri— Cleiaent Bibl. Curie*** 
~&*%Vt Hist of foe Puritanj f -*ttaUer nA Maugtt.^Saxii One*!*, 


, ERATOSTHENES, a Greek of Cyrene* librarian^ 
Alexandria under king Euergetes, the son of Ptpl^my 
Philadelphia, was born in the year 275 B. C. He Culti- 
vated at once poetry, grammar, philosophy, mathematics, 
and excelled in the first and the last. He was sjtylgd tip 
Cosmographer, the measurer of tbe universe, the second., 
'Plato, and was the first who discovered a method of mea- 
suring the bulk and circumference of the earth. He con- 
structed the first observatory, and observed tfye obliquity 
of the ecliptic, and found out also a method pf knowing 
the primitive numbers, that is, the numbers that h$ve qp . 
common measure but unity, which was named the sieve of 
Eratosthenes. This philosopher likewise composed a trea- 
tise for completing the analysis, and he solved the problem, 
pf the duplication of the cube, by means of an instrument 
composed of several sliders. Having attained tbe age of 
eighty, and being oppressed with infirmities, he volun- 
tarily died of hunger, in the year 195 B. C. He described iji 
Greek, the reigns of thirty-eight Theban kings, which bad 
been omitted by Manetho, out of the sacred records of the 
Egyptians, at Thebes, and this at the command of king 
Euergetes. Apollodorus transcribed this catalogue- put of 
Eratosthenes, and Sycellus out of Apollodorus. ThU 
catalogue or Laterculus of Eratosthenes is generally owned 
to be the most authentic Egyptian account of all others 
now extant, and reaches from the beginning of that king<- 
dom after the deluge, till the days of the judges, if not alsp 
till tbe days of Solomon : and by Dicsearchps's connection 
of one of its kings with an antediluvian king of Egypt op. 
x>ne side, and with the first olympiad of Iphitus pn the 
other, we gain another long and authentic series pf heathen 
chronology during all that time. The little that remains 
to us of the works of Eratosthenes was printed at Oxford 
in 1672, 8vo. There are two other editions: one in .the 
?' Uranolpgia" of father Petau, 1630; and the other at 
Amsterdam, in the same size, 1703; and in 1795, John 
Conr. Schaubacb edited the " Catasterismi cum interpreta? 
tione Latin* et commentariis," including a dissertation by 
the learned Heyne, printed at Gottingen, 1795, 8vo. l 

ERCHEJVIBERT, of Lombardy, a writer who lived in 
jfhe eighth and part of the ninth century, began early in 
Ufa to bear *jrms„ aqd *yas made prisoner of war, but after* 

l MorerL-Ditt. JJitU-Saxii Onopart. 


wards retired to Monte Cassino, where be embraced the 
rule of St. Benedict at the age of about twenty-five. Thfc 
government of a neighbouring monastery was conferred 
upon him ; but here he was exposed to so many vexations, 
that he was obliged once more to retire ; and in his retreat 
wrote a Chronicle, ot a History at large of the Lombards, 
which is thought to be lost, and an abridgment of the same 
history, from the year 774 to 88$, which forms a sort of 
supplement to Paul the deacon. Anthony Caraccioli, priest 
of the order of regular clerks, published this abridgment, 
which relates some curious facts, with other pieces, at 
Naples, in 1620, 4 to. Camillus Peregrinus inserted it 
afterwards in his history of the princes of Lombardy, 
J 6 43, 4to.* 

ERCILLA Y ZUNIGA (Don Alonzo d'), a Spanish 
poet, was the son of a celebrated lawyer, and was born at 
Madrid in 1533. He was brought up in the palace of 
Philip II. and fought under him at the famous battle of 
Saint Quentin in 1557, after which being desirous to ac- 
quire the knowledge of different countries and their inha- 
bitants, he travelled over France, Italy, Germany, and 
England. Having heard, while at London, that some pro- 
vinces of Peru and Chili had revolted against the Spaniards, 
their conquerors and their tyrants, he was seized with an 
ardent longing to signalize his courage on this new scene 
of action. Accordingly he set out on the voyage; and soon 
after his arrival, he passed the frontiers of Chili into a little 
mountainous region, where he maintained a long and 
painful war against the rebels, whom at length he defeated. 
It is this war which makes- the subject of his poem of the 
" Araucana," so called from the name of the country, and 
which has very considerable merit, and several passages 
glow with all the charms of animated verse. The descrip- 
tions are 'rich, though defective in variety; but we can 
trace no plan, no unity of design, no probability in the 
episodes, nor harmony in the characters. This poenl 
consists of more than 36 cantos, the length of which is 
produced by many repetitions and tedious details. Mr* 
Hayley, however, has bestowed considerable attention on 
it in his " Essay on Epic poetry," with a view to recom- 
mend it*to the English reader. It was printed, for the first 
time, in 1597, 12mo; but the best edition is that of Ma- 

* Diet. Hist.— Mom. 


drid, 1632, 2 vols. 12 mo. The time of his death is not 
known, nor can he be traced beyond 1596. l 

ERDESWICKE (Sampson), an English antiquary; was 
the son of Hugh Erdeswicke, esq. and was born at Sandon 
in Staffordshire. He studied at Brazen-nose college, Ox- 
ford, in 1553 and 1554, as a gentleman commoner, and - 
afterwards returned to Sandon, where he employed much 
of his time in antiquarian researches, especially what re- 
lated to his own county. In this he must Jiave shown 
acuteness and judgment as well as industry, for Camden 
styles him " venerandse antiquitatis cultor maximus." He 
died April 11, 1603, and was buried in Sandon church, 
which he had a little before repaired and new glazed. He 
left behind him, in manuscript, " A short view of Stafford- 
shire, containing the antiquities of the same county." He 
began this, it is said, in 1593, and continued adding and 
improving it till his death. It is now incorporated iit 
Shaw's History of Staffordshire. A very incorrect ^copy 
was published at London in .1717, 8vo, and again in 1723. 
There are two copies of the original in the British Museum, 
and one among Mr. Goiigh's MSS. in the Bodleian library. 
In the Museum are also some MS collections by him of 
genealogies, monuments, arms, &c. It is said that he 

JTOte " The true use of Armory," published puder the 
arae of Will. Wyrley, 1592; but this seems doubtful, and 
Wyrley was certainly very capable himself of writing it. * 

ERE MIT A (Daniel), a native of Antwerp, and secre- 
tary to the duke of Florence, was born at Antwerp in 
1584, of protestant parents, said to be of the same family 
with Peter the Hermit^ so celebrated in the history of the 
<rusades. In his youth Scaliger had a great esteem for 
him, and recommended him in the strongest terms to Ca- 
saubon ; who procured him employment, and endeavoured 
to get him into Mr. de Montaterre's family, in quality of . 
preceptor, and was likely to have succeeded, when Ere- 
mita found means to ingratiate himself with Mr. de Vic, 
who was going ambassador into Switzerland. In the course 
of their intimacy De Vic, a man of great bigotry, and fired 
with a zeal for making converts, soon won over Eremita, 
by means of a conference with a Portuguese monk; and 
he became a Roman catholic, which gave Casaubon great 

J Moreri.— Bayley on Epic Poetry.— Letters from an English Traveller ift 
Spain, 1781, 8vo. 
• Ath. Ox. vol 1. new edit. 1813.— GougVs Topography, vol. II. 

«0* . tREMITA. 

unea$irtes$; Eremita, however, still retained a veneration 
for Scaliger, and, after his death, defended him against 
Scioppius, who in his answer, speaks with very little re* 
ppect of £remita, and informs us that after being at Rom6 
in 1606, he disappeared for some time after, as it was 
Supposed at first from poverty * but it afterwards was dis- 
covered that he had retired, to Sienna, where he made his 
court to archbishop Ascanio. Piccolomini, who recom* 
mended hitti to Silvio Piccolomini, great chamberlain to 
the great duke of Florence. By this means be obtained a 
pension from that prince, as a reward for a panegyric writ- 
ten on the nuptials of the great duke with Magdalen of 
Austria, and published in 1608, and at his earnest request 
he* was sent into Germany with the deputy, to acquaint 
the several princes of the empire with the death of the 
great duke's father. At his return to Florence, he affected 
to be profoundly skilled in affairs of government; and pro- 
mised a. commentary which should exceed whatever had 
been written upon Tacitus. As he looked upon the history 
pf our Saviour as fabulous, so he took a delight in exclaim- 
ing against the inquisitors and the' clergy ; and had many 
tales ready upon these occasions, all which he could set 
off to advantage. 

Such is the character which Scioppius^has given of Ere- 
tnita ; which is in part confirmed by some particulars re- 
lated by Casaubon. He died at Leghorn in 1613. Grse- 
vius published at Utrecht, in 1701, an octavo volume of 
his ." Opera varia ;" among which were "Aulicae vitae ac 
civil is, libri iv." all taken from a manuscript in the duke of 
Florence's library, communicated by Magliabecchi to Grsc- 
•yius, who, in a preface, has endeavoured to refute the 
slanders of Scioppius. The four books, " De Aulica vita 
ac civili," are written with great purity and elegance of 
style, and abound with curious knowledge, which makes 
ibem entertaining as well as useful. Bayle mentions two 
jrther works of our author, which, he says, deserve to be 
fead : " Epistolica relatio de itinere Germanico, quod le- 
jgatione magni Etrurig ducis ad Rodolphum II. impera- 
torem Germanise anno 1609 peractum fuit ;" and his epistle 
" De, Helveticorum, Rhetorum, Sedonensium situ, repub- 
lic*, & moribus." His Latin poems were inserted in the 

second volume of " Deliciae poetarum Belgicorum." * 

t . -. « 

i Geo. Diqt— Morcri in Ermite.— Foppeo BiW. Bek. in Hermite. — Niceom, 

.- ERIGENA (John Scotus), an eminent scholar of the 
.middle age, was born in an early part of the ninth century. 
The most common account of him is, that he was a native 
of Ayr, in Scotland, though dome writers have said that 
•the place of his birth was Ergene, on the borders of Wales, 
and others have contended that he was an Irishman. It ii 9 
we apprehend, most probable that he was a Scotchmari. 
However this may have been, he was animated, in a very 
dark period, with a most uncommon desire of literature. 
Seeing his country involved in great confusion and igno r 
ranee, and that it afforded no means of acquiring the know- 
ledge after which he thirsted, he travelled into foreign 
parts ; and it is even asserted, by several authors, that he 
went to Athens, and spent some years in studying the 
Greek, Chaldaic, and Arabic languages. In whatever 
place he obtained his learning, it is certain that in philo- 
sophy he had no superior, and in languages no equal, ifi 
the age during which he flourished. These extraordinary 
accomplishments, together with his wit and pleasantry, 
which rendered his conversation as agreeable as it was in- 
structive, procured him an invitation from Charles thfe 
Bald, king of France, the greatest patron of literature in 
that period, to reside with him. Of this invitation Erigenfr 
accepted, and lived a number of years in the court of that 
prince, on a footing of the most intimate acquaintance and 
familiarity. He slept often in the royal apartments, and 
dined daily at the royal table. From the following re- 
partee, which is preserved by one of our ancient histo- 
rians, we may judge of the freedom which Scotus used 
with the monarch. As they were sitting one day at table 
opposite to each other, after dinner, the philosopher hav- 
ing said something that was not quite agreeable to the rules 
of politeness, the king, in a merry humour, asked him, 
* * Pray what is between a Scot and a sot ?" To which h& 
answered, " Nothing but the table." Charles, Says the 
historian, laughed heartily, and was not in the least of- 
fended, afc he m&cte it a rule never to be angry with his 
master, as he always called Erigena ; yet, in order to as- 
sist our belief in the above joke, it has been observed, that 
we ought to know in what language Charles and Scotus 
conversed. Charles, however, valued this great man for 
his wisdom and learning, still more than for his wit, and 
retained hfrto about his person, not merely as an agreeable 
companion, but as his preceptor in the sciences, and his 


best counsellor in the most arduous affairs of government. 
While Scotus resided in the court pf France, he composed, 
at the desire of hi£ royal patron, a number of works, .which 
procured him many admirers on the one hand, and many 
adversaries on the other. The clergy, in particular, were 
dissatisfied with some of hjs notions, as not being perfectly 
orthodox. One of the subjects which employed his pen 
was the doctrine of predestination. In his treatise on this 
subject, which was addressed to Hincmar, archbishop, of 
Rbeims, and Pardulus, bishop of Laon, the position he 
begins with is, that every question may be resolved by four 
general rules of philosophy, viz. division, definition, de- 
monstration, and analysis. By these rules he endeavours 
to prove, that there cannot be a double predestination, of 
one to glory, and another to damnation ; and that predes- 
tination does not impose any necessity, but that man is 
absolutely free ; and that, although he cannot do good 
without the grace of Jesus Christ, yet he does it, without 
being constrained or forced to do it by the will of God, by 
his own free choice. Sin, and the consequences of it, and 
the punishments with which it is attended, are, says Eri- 
gena, mere privations, that are neither foreseen nor pre* 
destinated by God ; and predestination hath no place but 
in those things which God hath pre-ordained in order to 
eternal happiness ; for our predestination arises from the 
foresight of the good use of our free-will. Sentiments so 
bold, and delivered in such an age, could not fail of ex> 
citing great indignation. Wemlo, or Ganelo, archbishop 
of Sens, having read the work, collected out of it several 
propositions, which he arranged under nineteen heads, 
according to the number and order of the chapters of Sco- 
tus's treatise, and sent them to Prudentius, bishop of 
Troyes. This prelate, having examined them, found in 
them, as he thought, not only the errors of Pelagius, but 
the impiety of the Collyridians. He employed himself 
therefore, in answering Erigena ; and another answer, to 
him was written by Florus, a deacon of the church of 
Lyons. It does not appear that Scotus engaged any far- 
ther in the controversy. 

Another of his works was upon the subject of the 
eucharist, in answer to a famous book of Paschasius Bad* 
bertus, concerning the body and blood of Christ Upon 
this bead, Erigena had the good sense to oppose the doc- 
trine of transubstantiation. 

E R I G E N A. 26T 

While our author was employed in these discussions, aa*. 
incident occurred, which drew upon him the displeasure of 
the Roman pontiff. Michael Balbus, the Greek emperor, 
had sent, in the year 824, a copy of the works of Diony- 
sius, the philosopher, to the emperor Lewis the pious, as 
a most acceptable present. In France these treatises were 
esteemed to be an invaluable treasure; and therefore 
Charles the bald, who could not read Greek, was earnestly 
desirous of perusing them in a Latin translation. This de- 
sire was undoubtedly increased by an opinion which at that 
time universally prevailed, though without any proof, that 
Dionysius the Areopagite, or St. Denys, was the first 
Christian teacher, or apostle, in France. At the request 
of Charles, Scotus undertook the task of translating the 
works in question, the titles of which were, " On the ce- 
lestial Monarchy ;" " On the ecclesiastical Hierarchy ;'*, 
" On divine Names ;" and, " On mystic Theology." These 
books were received with great eagerness by the western* 
churches ; but the translation having been made without 
the license of the sovereign pontiff, and containing mauy, 
things contrary to the received faith of the church of 
Rome, the pope, Nicholas the first, was highly displeased, 
and wrote a threatening letter to the French king, requir- > 
ing that Scotus should be banished from the tiniversity of 
Paris, and sent to Rome. Charles had too much affection 
and respect for our author to obey the pope's order; but 
Erigena thought it advisable, for his safety, to retire from 
Paris. According to some writers, it was upon this occa- 
sion that he returned to England. It was the translation 
of the works of the pretended Dionysius which revived the 
knowledge Of Alexandrian Platonism in the west, and. laid 
the foundation of the mystical system of theology, which 
afterwards so generally prevailed. Hence it was, that phi- 
losophical enthusiasm, born in the east, nourished by Plato, 
educated in Alexandria, matured in Asia, and adopted 
into the Greek church, found its way into the western 
church, and there produced innumerable mischiefs. 

The most capital work of Scotus was his treatise " On 
the division of nature, or the natures of things jf which, 
after long lying in manuscript, was published at Oxford, 
in 168.1, by Dr. Thomas Gale. In various respects this 
was the most curious literary production of the age in» 
which Erigena flourished, being written with a metaphysical 
subtlety and acuteness then unknown in Europe. This 

tsm ER1GENA. 

•fcBtettess be acquired by reading the writings of the Greek 
philosophers : and by applying the refinement of logic to 
the discussion of theological subjects, be became the fa* 
ther of that scholastic divinity, which made so distin- 
guished a figure in the middle ages, and so lohg resisted 
the progress: of genuine science. The remarks of one of 
oar ancient historians [Hoveden] on Scotus's work are 
ityt unjust. "His book, entitled, ' The Division of Na- 
ture, 9 is of great use in solving many intricate and per- 
plexing questions ; if we can forgive him for deviating from 
the path of the Latin philosophers and divines, and pursu- 
ing that of the Greeks. It was this that made him appear 
a heretic to many ; and it must be confessed that there are 
many things in it which, at first sight at least, seem to be' 
contrary to the catholic faith." Of this kind are bis 
opinions of God and the universe, which bear a consider- 
able resemblance to the pantheism of Spinoza. At the 
entrance of his work, Erigena divides nature into that 
which creates, and is not created ; that which is created, 
and creates; that which is created, and does not create; 
and that which neither creates nor is created. As a farther 
proof of the singularity of John Scotus's genius, we shall 
produce his argument for the eternity of the world : " No- 
thing can be an accident with respect to God; conse- 
quently, it was not an accident with respect to him to 
frame the world : therefore God did not exist before he 
created the world ; for, if he had, it would have happened 
to him to create ; that is, creation would have been an ac- 
cident of the divine nature. God therefore precedes the 
world, not in the order of time, but of causality. The 
cause always was, and is, and will be ; and therefore the 
effect always has subsisted, doth subsist, and will subsist; 
that is, the universe is eternal in its cause." Hence Eri- 
gena taught that God is all things, and that all things are 
God ; by which he might only mean the same with the 
oriental, cabbalistic, and Alexandrian philosophers; and, 
after these, with the followers of Origen, Synesius, and 
the supposed Dionysius, that all things have eternally pro- 
ceeded by emanation from God, and will at length return 
into him as streams to their source. Accordingly he says^ 
that " after the resurrection nature itself will return to 
God ; God will be all in all, and there will remain nothing 
but God alone. 9 * From these brief specimens it appears, that 
the philosophy of Scotus was founded in the enthusiastic 

E K 1 G £ N A; m 

Motions of Universal deification ; and consequently, that he 
is rather to be ranked among the fanatical than among the 
atheistical philosophers. The monastic life* which then 
so generally prevailed, afforded so much leisure 'for indulg- 
ing the flights of imagination, and so many opportunities 
for an ostentatious display of piety; that it was peculiarly 
favourable to the propagation of enthusiasm. To this it 
may be added, that the ignorance of the times made it 
perfectly easy for those, who were inclined to practise upon 
Tulgar credulity, to execute their design. It is not, there- 
fore, surprising, that the dreams of mysticism should be 
extensively propagated, under the authority of a supposed 
apostolical name. 

The concluding period of Erigena's life is involved in 
tome degree of uncertainty. According to Cave and Tan- 
ner, he removed from France to England in the year 877, 
and was employed by king Alfred in the restoration of 
learning at the university of Oxford, but this proceeds 
upon the tradition that Alfred did restore learning at Ox- 
ford, \vhich has no foundation whatever. It is said by Tan* 
fter, that in the year 679 he was appointed professor of 
mathematics and astronomy at Oxford, which is likewise 
very doubtful, although it may not be improbable that he 
read lectures in Little University hall, now part of Brazen- 
nose college, without the rank of professor. Here he is 
reported to have continued three years, when, upon ac- 
count of some differences which arose among the gowns- 
men, he retired to the abbey of Malmesbury, where he 
opened a school. Behaving, however, with harshness and 
severity to his scholars, they were so irritated, that they 
ate reported to have murdered him with the iron bodkins 
which were then used in writing. According to others, 
the scholars were instigated to this atrocious act by the 
monks, who had conceived a hatred against Scotus, as well 
for his learning as his heterodoxy. Such is LelandV ac- 
count, who expressly says that it was the Scotus who trans- 
lated Dionysius. The time of his death is differently 
stated, but is generally referred to the year 883. Some, 
however, place, it in either the year 884 or 886. Such is 
the state of facts, as given by most of the English writers; 
but other authors suppose that our historians have con- 
founded John Scotus Erigena with another John Scot, who 
was an Englishman, and who taught at Oxford. Accord- 
ing to Mackenzie, Erigena retired to Ebglatfd in the year 

Vol. XIIL U 

S90 E K I G E N A; 

464, and died there about the year 874. As * proof of 
the last circumstance, he refers to a letter of Anastasiu* 
the librarian to Charles the Bald, written in the year 875* 
which speaks of Scotus as of a dead  man. Dr. Henry 
thinks it most probable that he ended his days in France. 
Anastasius had so high an opinion of Erigena, that he 
ascribed his translation of the works of Dionysiua to the 
especial influence of the spirit of God. He was undoubt- 
edly a very extraordinary man for the period io which he 
lived. * During a long time he had a place in the list of the 
saints of the church of Rome ; but at length! on account of 
its being discovered that be was heterodox with regard to 
the doctrine of transubstantiation, Baronius struck his name 
out of the calendar. A catalogue of Scotus's works, in 
general may be seen in Cave. Bale has added to the num- 
ber, but probably without sufficient reason. The follow- 
ing are all that have been printed : 1. " De divisione Na- 
turae," Oxon. by Gale, 1681, foL 2. "De prsdestina- 
tione Dei, contra Goteschalcum," edited by Gilb; Maguia 
in his " Vindicis praedestinationis et gratia," vol. I. p. 1 03. 
3. " Excerpta de differentiis et societatibus Graeci Latini- 
que verbi," in Macrobius's works. 4. " De corpore et 
sanguine Domini," 1658, 1560, 1653; Lond< 1686, 8va 
5. " Ambigua S. Maximi, seu scholia ejus in difficiles locos 
S. Gregorii Nazianzeni, Latine versa," along with the 
" Divisio Nature," Oxford, 1681, folia 6. " Opera & 
Dionysii quatuor in Latinam linguam oonversa," in the edi- 
tion of Dionysius, Colon. 1536. Many of his MSS. are 
preserved in various libraries. \ 

ERINNA, a Greek poetess, is mentioned by different 
writers as a native of Lesbos, of Teios, of Rhodes, and of 
Tenos in.Laconia, and is supposed to have been contem- 
porary with Sappho, about the year 600 B. C. but accord- 
ing to the Chronicle of Eusebius 250 years later. She was, 
celebrated in ancient Greece, and several epigrams were 
written upon her, one of which speaks of her as inferior to 
Sappho in. lyrics, and superior in hexameters. Some frag-* 
ments are extant in her name, which are inserted in tha 
4i Carolina Kovera Poetarum Feeminarum," Antw. 1568* 
and In the Edinburgh edition of, Anacreou and Sappho, 
1754, form. min#* 

« Bids;, Brit.-— Mackenzie*! Scotch writers, Vol. I.—- "Wood's Annals, and Col* 
leges and Halls.— Henry's fiist. of Great Britain, vol. IV. p. 47,— Cave, tok I* 
•—Fabric. Bibl. Lit Med-*Bfuck.ef>*»Saxii Onomast* 

* Vossius.-— Fabric, JJibl* Gr»c. 

E it I Z 2 O. 291 


ERIZZO (Sebastian), a numismatical writer of con* 
siderabJe reputation in the sixteenth century, was of a noble 
family in Venice, where he was born in 1530. After a 
very liberal education, he passed some time in political 
employment, but at last devoted himself entirely to literary 
pursuits. In the cpurse of his various studies he published 
a treatise pn the money of the ancients ; an explanation of 
Aristotle's ethics ; and translated into Italian the Timeus of 
Plato, and wrote some other philosophical pieces. . ' At the 
age of forty he was again employed in the affairs of the 
republic, and managed what was entrusted to him with 
great reputation. He died in 1585. His work on money 
was esteemed so much superior to that of Eneas Vico, who 
preceded him, that he was considered in his own country 
as the father of the numismatic science. It was published 
under the title of " Discorso sopra la Medaglie degli anti- 
chi, -con la dichiarazione delle Monete Consolari, e ddle 
Medaglie degP Imperatori," Venice, 4to, without date, but 
some copies have the date of 1 47 1. His other works were* 
1. " Le Sei Giomati, mandate in luce da Ludovico Dolce,** 
Venice, 1567, 4to. 2. " Esposizioue detle tre Canzoni di 
Francesco Petrarca chiamate le tre Sorelle," Venice, 1561, 
4to. 3. " Trattato dello st rumen to, e della via inventrice 
degli antichi," ibid. 1554, 4to. 4. A discourse on Civil 
Government, published with those of Barth. Cavalcanti, 
Venice, 1555,, and 1571, 4to. We have mentioned his 
translation of the Timeus of Plato, which was published at 
Venice in 1558, 4 to, and may now add that he translated 
five other of Plato's dialogues, Venice, 1574, Svo. ' 


ERNESTI (John Augustus), was born at Tannstadt in. 
Tburingia, Aug. 4, 1707, was educated at Witt em berg and 
Leipsic, and became one of the most learned philologers 
of Germany, He studied theology as a profession ; and iii 
1734 was chosen rector of St. Thomas's school. In 1742 
he was appointed professor extraordinary of ancient litera- 
ture, in 1 75 p professor of 'eloquence, and in 1758 doctor 
and professor of divinity, the functions of all which offices 
he discharged with great assiduity and high- reputation, 
and yet found leisure for his numerous original publica- 

* * Moreri in Echm.*~Tirabos6hi.—*Cleme?it Bibliotheque Curieuge.— Haym's 
BftU Italians. 

392 ER N E S TI. 

lions, and those excellent editions of the classics which 
have made his name familiar in the learned world. As a 
divine, he disliked the modern philosophical innovations in 
the study of theology, and was alike hostile to infidelity 
and superstition. He died, with the character of a man of 
consummate learning and irreproachable character, Sept 
1 1, 1781. Among his valuable editions of the classics are, 
1. His (l Homer," Leipsic, 1759, 5 vols. 8vo, which may 
be ranked among the very best. It is formed on the basis 
of Clarke's, containing his text and notes, and the various 
readings of a Leipsic manuscript, with those of the ancient 
editions. 2. " Callimachus," Leyden, 1761, 2 vols. 8vo, 
containing, besides the preface, notes, and version of 
£rnesti, many grammatical and critical observations of 
Hemsterhusius and Ruhnkenius, and the whole of what is 
valuable in Graevius. 3. " Cicero," of whose works he 
published three editions, the first at Leipsic, 1737, 5 vols, 
the others at Halle, 1758 and 1774, in 8 vols. 8vo. The 
second and third, which are the most correct, contain the 
famous " Clavis Ciceroniana," which has been published 
separately. 4. 4i Tacitus/' Leipsic,. 1752, 1772, 2 vols. 
8vo, both valuable, although there are more errors and 
omissions than could have been wished ; yet the preface, 
notes, and indexes are interesting and useful. 5. « Sue- 
tonius," two editions, at Leipsic, 1748 and 1775, 8vo, but 
neither correct, or indeed at all valuable. 6. Aristophanes's 
' "Nubes," Leipsic, 1788, a very useful edition, with the 
ancient scholia, and remarks by the editor and by Nagelins. 
7. Xenophon's *" Memorabilia," of which there have beeti 
several editions, 1737, 1742, 1755, &c. The best is that 
of Leipsic, 1772. Ernesti's other works are, 8. " Initia 
doctrinee solidioris," Leipsic, 1783, 8vo, the seventh edi- 
tion. 9. " Institutio interprets Novi Testairienti," Leipsic, 
1775, 8vo, the third edition, which Alberti of Leyden calls 
& " golden work." 10. An improved edition of Hederic's 
Lexicon, 1754 and 1767. 11. A "Theological Library," 
1760—1771, 11 vols. 8vo. 12. " Opuscula Oratoria, Ora- 
tiones, Prolusiones et Elogia," Leyden, 1762, 8vo. This 
contains thirteen very elegant and judicious academical 
discourses, pronounced on' different occasions, with the 
same number of historical eloges. The subjects of the 
discourses are, 1. Of the study of the belles lettres. 2. 
Tnat eloquence has its real source in the heart. . 3. That 
we must conform to the laws of criticism in the study of 


divinity. 4. Of the revolutions of eloquence. 5. Oft the 
conditions to be observed for studying and teaching philo- 
sophy with success. 6. Of the advantages of real learning* 
7. The arts of peace and war. 8. A parallel between the 
Greek and Roman writers.. 9. Of the name of one's coun- 
try. 10. Of joining the art of thinking to that of speaking* 
II. Of the desire of praise and reputation. 12. Of popu- 
lar philosophy ; and, 13. Of moral or practicable philoso- 
phy. These discourses are written in an .easy flowing 
style, and in elegant Latinity. 11. "Opusculorum orato- 
riorum, novum volumen," Leipsic, 1791, dvo: this and 
another volume published in 1794, forms a complete col- 
lection of Ernesti's smaller tracts. 12. " Archaeologia li* 
teraria," Leipsic, 1768, 8vo, to which we may add his ex* 
cellent new edition, of which he* lived to publish only 3 
volumes, of" Fabricii Bibl. Graeca." — His nephew, Aug us* 
tvs William Ernesji, was born in 1733, and died in 
1801 at Leipsic, where he was professor of eloquence in 
that university from 1770, and well known by his edition 
of Livy, Quintilian, and other classics. To the university 
library there he bequeathed his. very complete collection of 
the works of Gamerarius; and to that of the Senate, his 
collection of the editions and MSS. of Cicero, to complete 
the Ciceronian collection already in it. 1 

ERPENIUS (Thomas), or, as he was called in Dutch* 
Thomas van Erpe, a very learned writer, and eminently 
skilled in the oriental tongues, was descended, both by his 
father and mother's side, from noble families at Boisleduc 
in Brabant, which place his parents had quitted on account 
of their adherence to the protestant religion, and was bora 
at Gorcum in Holland, Sept. 11, 1584. From his earliest 
years he shewed a peculiar disposition for learning, which 
induced his father, though no scholar himself, to send him 
to Leyden, where he began his studies, and prosecuted 
them with s\ich success, as to excite the admiration of his 
masters. In 1608, .at the age of eighteen, he was admitted 
into the university of that city, where .he took the degree 
of doctor in philosophy. Vossius informs .us, . that, soon 
after he became a student in that place, he grew so diffi- 
dent of succeeding in his labours, as to have thoughts of 
laying them entirely aside ; but that, being encouraged to 
persevere, and inspired with fresh courage, be made him-* 

'.Diet. Hiit.~-Rtei'ft Cyclop»dia.— DiWUn's Classics.. 

to* E R P E N I U S. 

self master of several branches of literature, atid particu- 
larly metaphysics, in the pursuit of which last, his patience 
appears to have been invincible. He is said to have read 
over not only Aristotle, but likewise a great number of his 
interpreters, with all the commentaries of Suarez; in 
which he was so conversant, that, several years after he 
had gone through his course of philosophy, and was en- 
gaged in other studies, he could give a distinct account of 
the contents of almost every page of that vast work. 
• He had already passed thrcSugh a course of divinity, and 
gained a considerable skill in the oriental languages, to 
which he had applied himself kt the persuasion of Joseph 
Scaliger, who foresaw his future fame in that important 
branch of knowledge, and afterwards travelled into Eng- 
land, France, Italy, and Germany ; in which countries be 
contracted an acquaintance with the most learned men. 
While at London, he became acquainted with Bedell, who 
was excellently skilled in the oriental tongues. He con* 
tinned a year in Paris, where he learned Arabic of an 
Egyptian Jacobine, named Barbatus, and gained the friend- 
ship of Isaac Casaubon, among whose letters are several 
to Erpenius, In one of April the 7th, 16*10, lie exhorts 
him to prosecute His studies in the Arabic tongue, urging 
that " it would be of the greatest importance to learning; 
that if he looked round the Christian world, he would find 
Ho person who had taken the proper method to gain the 
wis bed -for point in that kind of literature ; that Joseph 
Scaliger had disappointed their hopes; that Bedell, though 
a man of great learning, proceeded slowly ; that the Ger- 
man who made so great a noise, was not to be depended 
on; that the Italians, after raising great expectations, had 
of a sudden deserted them ; in short, that himself was the 
only person who bad laid a solid and firm foundation for a 
future superstructure." During his stay at Venice,' by the 
assistance of some learned Jews and Turks, be acquired 
the knowledge of the Turkish, Persian, and Ethiopic lan- 
guages ; and he distinguished himself in Italy to such ad- 
vantage, that he was offered a stipend of 500 ducats a year, 
to translate some Arabic books into Latin. 

After four years spent in his travels, he returned to 
Leyden in July 1612, about which time there was a de- 
sign to invite him to England, and to settle a liberal sti- 
pend on him ; but in the February following, be was chosen 
by the curators of that university, professor of the Arabio 

E R P E N I U S. 99* 

mud other oriental tongues, except the Hebrew, of which 
there was already a professor. He filled this chair with 
great applause,, and soon after set up, at an extraordinary 
expencd, a press for the eastern languages, at .which be 
printed a great many excellent works. October 1616, he 
married a daughter of a counsellor in the court of Holland, 
by whom he had seven children, three of whom survived 
him. In \€19 the curators of the university erected a se- 
cond chair for the Hebrew language, of which they ap- 
pointed him professor. In 1-620 he was sent by. the prinoe 
of Orange and the states of Holland into France, to solicit 
Peter du Moulin, or Andrew Rivet, to undertake the pro- 
fessorship of divinity at Leyden ; but, not prevailing then, 
he was sent again the year following, and after six months 
stay in France, procured Rivet, with the consent of the 
French -churches, to remove to Leyden. , Some time after his 
return the states of Holland appointed him their interpreter, 
and employed him to translate the letters they received 
from the several prinoes of Africa and Asia, and also to 
write letters in the oriental languages ; and the emperor of 
Morocco was. so pleased wi£b the purity of his Arabic style, 
that he shewed his letters to bis .nobles, as a great cqrio* 
sity, for their- elegance and propriety. In the midst of 
these employments, he was seized with a contagious dis- 
ease, then epidemical, of which he died Nov. 13, 1624, 
aged only forty years. The learned of his time lamented 
him, and wrote the highest eulogiums upon him, as in* 
deed he well deserved, for he was not only most eminent 
as a scholar, but as a man of great piety and benevolence, 
Besides the advantageous offer made him in Italy, he re* 
jected another from the king of Spain and the archbishop 
of Seville, who invited him into that kingdom to explain 
certain Arabic inscriptions. Gerard John Vossius made 
bis funeral oration in Latin, which was printed at Leyden, 
i625, in 4to; and the same year were ..published at the 
same place, in 4to, Peter Scriverius's " Manes Erpeniani* 
cum epicediis variorum." 

His works, which have spread his name all over the world, 
are, 1. " Annotationes ad lexicon Arabicum Francisci 
Raphelengii," Leyden, 1613, 4to, printed with the Lexi* 
«Q». 2. " Grammatica Arabics," 1613, 4to. 3. " Pro. 
verbiorum Arabicorum centuriec II. Arabice & Latine, cum 
scholiis Josephi Scaligeri & Th'omae Erpenii," 1614, 4to. 
ficaliger having translated and written notes upon part tf 


the Arabian .proverbs, Casaubon engaged Erpenius, Sea- 
Jiger being dead, to complete that work. 4- " Lockmanni 
fabi^se & selecta qusedam Arab um adagia, cum interpret 
tatione Latina & notis," 1615, 8vo;, Amst, 1636, and 
1656, in 4to, with the Arabic grammar just mentioned* 
5. " Giarumia grammatica de centum regentibus, sive 
linguae Arabia particulis, Arabice & Latine, cum notis," 
1617, 4to. Giarumia is an Arabic grammar, which takes 
its name from its author, and is highly esteemed in Asia 
and Africa. 6. "Novum Testamentum, Arabice," 1615* 
4to. This is an ancient Arabic version, whose author is 
not known, 7. " Historia Josephi patriarchs ex Alcorano, 
Arabice, cum versione Latina & notis," 1617, 4to. 8* 
*' Canones de literarum EVI apud Arabes natura & per- 
mutatione," 16 IS, 4 to. 9. " Rudimenta lingua Arabic®,'* 
1£20, 8vo : an improved edition of this was published by 
Schultens, at Leyden, in 1733, 4to, with a collection of 
Arabic sentences and a key of dialects. 10. " Versio & 
note ad Arabicam paraphrasin in evangelium Joannis," 

1620. 11. "Grammatica Hebraea^ 1621, 8vo, 12. "Ora- 
tiones tresdelinguarum -Hebrece atque Arabic® dignitate," 

1621, 8vo. 13. t( Pentateuchus Moais, Arabice," 1622* 
4to. This version is&ncient,<aiKUwas made by a Christian; 
14. si Elmactni historia Saracenica," &o. 1625, fol. 15, 
*.* Psalmi Davidis, Syriace, cum versione Latina," 1625, 4to* 
16. « Grammatica Cbaldaea & Syra," 1628, 8vq. 1.7. 
"De peregrinatiohe Galiica u til iter instituenda tractatus," 
14J31, l2mo. 18. " .PrsBcepta de lingua Gnecorum com* 
muni," 1662, 8vo. 19. " Arcanum punctatioois revela- 
turn," &c. 1624, 4to. The whole of these were printed 
at Leyden* and some of them, the reader sees, are posthu- 
mous ; he had a design to have published an edition of the 
Jitjran, with an accurate Latin version and notes, and a 
confutation of it where it was necessary ; a " Thesaurus 
Grammaticus" for the Arabic tongue; and a lexicon of the 
same language, IJut he was prevented by death from exe* 
cuting these designs; as we are informed by Mr. Chap- 
pelow, in the preface to his " Elements ltngute Arabics 
ex Erpenii rudimentis, ut plurimum, desurripta. Cujus 
praxi grammatics novam legefidi praxin addidit Leonardus 
Chappelow, linguae Arabic® apud Cantabrigienses profess 
sor," Lond. 1730, avo. 1 

J G en. Did. — Niceron, vol.V. — Frelieri Tkeatrum.— Morcri.— Foppen BibL 
^elg.— -Clemeut Bibi. Curiease.— S$xii Oadmast. " - - 

E R S K I N E. Ml 

ERSKINE (David), lord Dun, an eminent Scotch law*. 
yer, was born at Dun, co.. Angus, 1670, and brought up 
to the law, partly in the university of St Andrew'^ and 
partly in that of Paris. In 1696 he w*s called to the bar 
in the court of session, and became a famous pleader. He 
opposed the union io the Scottish parliament, and was a 
munificent benefactor to the persecuted episcopal clergy. 
In 1711 he took his seat on the bench in the court of ses- 
sion, under thfe title of lord Dun. In 1713 he was ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners of the court of justiciary, 
which he held till 17.50, when he retired; and in 1752, 
published a most excellent volume in 12 mo, under the title 
of " Lord Dun's Advices." He died at Dun, 1755, aged 
eighty-five. 1 

. ERSKINE (John), baron of Dun, the ancestor of the 
preceding, and one of the protestant reformers in Scotland, 
was born at the family-seat near Montrose* in 1503, or 
1509. His father was John Erskkie, of Dun, a descendant 
of the earls of Marf, and bis mother was a daughter of 
William, first lord Rutbven. He was educated most pro* 
bably at the university of Aberdeen ; and according to the 
ancient custom of the nobility of Scotland, pursued his studies 
for some time in one or other of the foreign universities. 
Buchanan styles him " a man of great learning :" and to 
this character he is amply entitled, as we are informed he 
was the first of bis countrymen who patronized the study of 
the Greek language, which was first taught by his means at 
Montrose. In 1 534, 00 returning from his travels, be brought 
with him a Frenchman skilled in the Greek tongue, whom be 
settled at' Montrose, and upon his departure he liberally 
encouraged others jto.come from Franceand succeed to his 
place ; and from this private seminary many Greek scholars 
proceeded, and the knowledge of the language was gra- 
dually diffused through the kingdom. After his father's 
death, he was employed as the other barons or lairds then 
were, in administering justice in the county of Angus, to 
which he belonged, and occasionally assisting in the meet* 
ings of parliament. He was besides almost constantly 
chosen provost, or chief magistrate of the neighbouring 
town of Montrose. At an early period of his life, he be- 
came a convert from popery, but the precise manner it* 
Which his conversion was accomplished, is not known. He 

* Preceding edjtioi* of this Dictionary. - . i 


was, however, a liberal encourager of those who became 
converts, and especially those who suffered for their re-' 
Kgioi). The castle of Dun was always a sanctuary t& 
protectant preachers and professors, and here be appears 
to have associated wkh a number of persons, some of high 
rank, who strengthened each other in*tbeir principles, and 
by their power and influence contributed much to the re- 
formation in that part of the kingdom. 

- But while Mr. Et^kine was attending to the affairs of re- 
Jigioh, be did not tieglfet the duties which he owed to the 
public as a magistrate and a military knight. In the war 
wkh England, which began in September 1547, the Eug~ 
l**b ships Infested the east coast of Scotland, and some of 
them having landed about eighty men for the purposes of 
pillage, he collected a force from the inhabitants, and re- 
pelled them with such bravery, that not a third of the 
eighty were able to regain their ships. In 1555 be bad an 
interview with the celebrated John Knox, who had just 
arrived from Geneva, and was invited by him to the fa* 
mi ly- seat at Dun, where he preached and was resorted to 
by the principal men in that part of the country; and 
though this afforded a public avowal of Mr. Erskine's prin- 
ciples, the -popish bishops thought him a man too powerful 
to be molested ; and he still proceeded in bis endeavours 
V> promote the reformation. In December 1557, he, along 
with the earl of Atgyle, the earl of Glencairn, and other 
noble and distinguished characters, subscribed a covenant 
in which they bound themselves to advance the protestant 
religion, and to maintain in safety its ministers and pro* 
lessors, (who were now for the first time called the emigre* 
gat ion )^ . by all means in their power, even to the hazard 
pf their lives. 

- -The parliament, which met Dec. 14, 1537, appointed 
fcipa by the title of " John Erakine of Dun, knight and 
provost of Montrose," to go to the court of France, as one 
of the commissioners from Scotland, to witness the young 
queen's (Mary) marriage with the dauphin, and to settle 
the terms of the marriage contract ; and on his return be 
was surprised to find that the reformation was likely to be 
forwarded by the very means taken to suppress it. An 
aged priest named Mil), had suffered martyrdom at St; 
Andrew's, and in the opinion of archbishop Spottiswood, 
" the death of this martyr was the death of popery in this 
realm." The protestants were now increasing in numbers, 


E R S K I N £ Sd» 

and were not a little encouraged by the death of queen 
Mary of England, and the accession of Elizabeth, whom 
they knew to be favourable to their cause* The queen 
regent of Scotland was therefore addressed more boldly 
than before by tbe protestant lords, in behalf of the free 
exercise of their religion, and by Erskine among the rest ; 
but, Although his demands and language are said to have 
been more moderate than the rest, this produced no effect, 
and a proclamation was issued, requiring the protestant 
ministers' to appear at Stirling, May 10, 1659, and there 
to be tried for reputed heresy. The protestant lords and 
other laity determined upon this to accompany and defend 
their ministers, and much confusion would have imme- 
diately ensued, if Mr. Erskine had not obtained a promise 
from the queen regent, that tbe ministers should not be 
tried; and tbe people were ordered to disperse* No 
sooner bad this been done, than the queen broke her pro- 
mise, and a civil war followed, for the particulars of which 
we must refer to the page of history. It may suffice to 
notice here, that Mr. Erskine occasionally assisted as a 
temporal baron, but before the war was concluded, he relin- 
quished his- armour, and became a preacher, for which by 
his learning and study of the controversies between the 
church of Rome and the reformers, he was well qualified;- 
The civil war ended in favour of the protestant party, by the 
death of tbe queen regent in 1 560 ; and a parliament, or 
convention of the estates was immediately held, who began 
their proceedings by appointing a committee of lords, 
barons, and burgesses, to distribute tbe few protestant 
ministers whom they then, had, to the places where their 
services were most required* The- committee nominated 
some of them to the chief cities, and as " The first book 
of Discipline" was now produced, they, agreeably to the 
plan, proposed in that book, nominated five ministers who 
should act in the capacity of ecclesiastical superintend* 
ants. Mr. Erskine was one of these five, and had the su+ 
periatendency of all ecclesiastical matters in the counties 
of Angus and Mearus, and from this period his usual de- 
signation was, "John Erskine of Dun, knight, superin- 
tendant of Angus and Mearus." This was in fact a kind 
of episcopal authority, conferred for life; but for their 
conduct the superintendants were accountable to the ge- 
neral assembly of the clergy. Their office was suffi- 
ciently laborious, as well as invidious ; and we find Mr. 

300 £ R S K I N £. 

Erskine several times applying to be dismissed. In 1559^ 
by virtue of his office, be had to suspend from their offices 
for their adherence to popery, tbe principal, sub~prin* 
cipal, and three professors of KingVcollege, Aberdeen*, 
In 1577, he had a hand in compiling the " Second Book 
of Discipline*," or model for the government of a presby- 
terian church, which still exists; and in other respects be 
.was an active promoter of the reformation as then estab- 
lished, until his death, March 21, 1591, in the eighty-' 
second year of hid age. Buchanan^ Knox, and Spottis* 
wood, agree in a high character of him; and even queen 
Mary preferred him as a preacher, because, she said, he 
" was a mild and sweet natured man, and of true honesty 
and uprightness/' ' 

ERSKINE (John), D. D. an eminent divine of the 
church of Scotland, was born June 2, 1721. He was the 
eldest son of John * Erskine, esq. of Carnock, afterwards 
of Cardross, advocate, and professor of Scotch law in the 
university of Edinburgh, who is well known by his " Insti* 
tntes of the Law of Scotland," a work of the highest autbo* 
rity and reputation. His grandfather, colonel John Er» 
skine, third son of Henry lord Cardross, was a man of 
eminent piety, and distinguished by his services in sop* 
port of the revolution in 1688. Mr. Erskine, the subject 
of this article, was originally intended by his relations for 
the profession of tbe law, and received a suitable educa- 
tion. He appears, however, from his earliest years, to 
have been of a serious turn of mind, and to have preferred 
the study of theology, and the employment of the ministry. 
He entered the university of Edinburgh in 1734, where be 
acquired much useful knowledge, and formed an intimate 
connection with some fellow-students, wha afterwards rose 
to great eminence both in the political and literary world. 
At this time it was the practice, to prescribe discourses to 
the students, on subjects connected with tbe lectures which 
they heard. A volume of essays of this description is pre- 
served in the college library, and in it are two theses de- 
livered April 30, 1737, one by the late eminent historian, 
I>r. Robertson, afterwards Dr. Erskine' s colleague in tbe 
ministry, and at that time his fellow-stodent, under tbe 

title "- De probabilitate historiea, sive de evidentia morali," 


» Scot's Lives of tbe Reformers.— M<Crie's Life of Kooi.— Cook's Hist, of U* 
Reformation in Scotland, 


the other by Dr. Erskine, entitled " De recto rationis usu 
iegitimo, sive de libertate cogitandi." They are both 
written in very pure Latin, and discover a considerable ac- 
quaintance with philosophical discussions. 

Theology, however, was his favourite study; and his 
predilection for the ministerial function increasing, he per- 
severed, notwithstanding the opposition of his relations, in 
the necessary preparatory studies ; which being completed, 
he obtained a licence from the presbytery of Dumblane, 
in 1742. In May *744, he was ordained minister of Kirk- 
intillock, in the presbytery of Glasgow. In 1754 he was 
removed to the borough of Culross, in the presbytery of 
Durrrfermline. In June 1758, he was invited to Edin- 
burgh, and settled in the New Grey- friars' church there; 
and in July 1759, he and Dr. Robertson were admitted 
joint ministers of the Old Grey-friars' church. His un- 
affected piety, attention to pastoral duties, and useful in- 
structions in public and private, bis sympathy with the 
distressed^ and the blamelessness of his private conduct, 
were truly exemplary, and secured him the affections -of 
his people wherever he went, as well as occasioned their 
regret at his removal. While thus employed among his 
people, or in his study, his active mind was also employed in 
watching the progress of religion, both in bis own country 
and in the world at large, and in manifesting his zeal for 
the success of it With a view to procure information on this 
subject, he commenced a correspondence with several per- 
sons of distinguished fame and knowledge, both on the 
continent arid in America. He also procured and read 
every new publication of merit, all the foreign journals, and 
whatever could administer to his purpose. His " Sermons,'* 
which were published in 1798, may be ranked among the 
bescspecimens of pulpit composition: Between 1742, the 
year in which he was licensed, and 1798, the year in which 
his sermons appeared, the literature of Scotland had suf- 
fered a complete revolution, and in nothing was the change 
more apparent than in the manner in which the services of 
the pulpit were conducted. At the former period, ser- 
mons abounded with diffuse illustrations; and were dis- 
graced by colloquial phrases, and vulgar provincialisms. 
In these later years, pulpit composition has attained- a high' 
dignity and elegance. Whoever reads the discourses of 
Dr. Erskine, which in purity and energy of style, no less 
fban in precision of thought and originality Jof sentiment, 

308 £ R S K I N & 

nay challenge a comparison with any contemporary >§&+ 
inons, must be sensible that their author, whose education 
had been completed sixty years before their publication, 
must have paid no common attention to literary composi- 
tion* and could watch the variations of taste, keep pacfe 
with its improvements, and adapt his productions to the 
style of the day. Yet he did not servilely imitate the re-» 
finements of others, or allow himself to be passively borne 
along with the stream of fashion. His labours contributed 
to accomplish that revolution to which we have just now 
alluded, and to form that standard which we admire; but 
be had nobler objects in view than the bare information of 
the literary taste of his countrymen, although he was - far 
from/ indifferent to this object. In the detached sermons 
which he printed when a country clergyman, there was a 
propriety and correctness 'which had never been exhibited 
in any religious productions of North Britain, and which 
was scarcely surpassed in the English language at that 
time. His " Theological Dissertations," which appeared 
so early as 1765, contain several masterly disquisitions on 
some highly interesting branches of divinity. The sub- 
jects, indeed, did not admit a display of eloquence ; bat 
throughout the whole, he has shewn great soundness of 
judgment,, as well as an intimate acquaintance with the 
doctrines of the Gospel, and history of the Christian 

His eagerness to obtain information of the state of religion 
abroad, and bis facility in the acquisition of languages, in- 
duced him, at an advanced period of life, to learn the 
German and Dutch languages, which he did with amazing 
rapidity, by mere dint of private application. This en- 
abled him to examine the productions .of the German di- 
vines, and seems to haVe produced his first volume of 
" Sketches of Church History, 1 ' 1790, 8vo, a work replete 
with new and interesting information respecting the state 
of religion on the continent* A second volume appeared 
in 1797, at a very critical period, in which, he appears to* 
have been the first who detected the plan formed for de-« 
stroying every thing held sacred among men, and which' 
has been since more fully developed by professor Robi- 
son, and the abb£ Barruel. 

His feeble bodily constitution soon felt the approach of 
old age, and for many years before bis death his appear- 
ance was that of a man whose strength was gone* Fcm& 

E ft S K I N E. OTS 

several winters he was unable to preach regularly ; tod 
during the last thirteen months of his life be did not preach 
at all, his voice having become too weak to be distinctly 
heard by his congregation. Still, however, the .vivacity of 
bis look, and the energy of his manner, bespoke the warmth 
ef his. heart, and the vigour of his mind ; and his mental 
faculties remained unaffected by his bodily decay. His 
memory was as ready, his judgment as acute, his imagina- 
tion as lively, and his inclination for study as strong as in 
his youthful years. To the last hours of his beitig he wa* 
eagerly employed in those pursuits which were the busi- 
ness and pleasure of his life. Alter 1801, « he published, 
five numbers of a kind of periodical pamphlet, entitled 
" Religious Intelligence from abroad $" and on the week 
before his death he sent his bookseller notice, that he had 
collected materials for another number. His great mo- 
desty and diffidence in his own talents, rendered him 
averse to publishing much of his own, while he was ever 
ready to bring forward the works of others. The public, 
regretted that he spent his time in labours of this kind ; 
and his friends remonstrated against the impropriety of bit 
depriving the world of the benefit of his own productions; 
He felt the force of these remonstrances, and, in 1738, 
published his " Doctrinal and occasional Sermons/' 1 vol* 
$vo; after which, he was engaged, as bis health per- 
mitted, in preparing for the press a. volume of " Practical 
Discourses,'' and a work of a similar nature with hia 
" Sketches of Church History and Theological Contro- 
versy." The Sermons will probably appear : bat, owing 
to a peculiar obscurity in his hand-writing, the great masa 
of bis other manuscripts will be lost to the world. 

He died on the morning of Jan. 19, 1903. He married 
the hon. Miss Mackay, daughter of lord Rae, who sur- 
vives him, and by whom he had a son and three daughters. 
In his temper, Dr. Erskine was ardent and benevolent* 
His . affections were warm, and his attachments perpetual 
His piety was constant and lively ; and, while he exhibited 
in his conduct a beautiful example of the graces and vir- 
tues of that religion of which he was a minister, he eu~ 
joyed, in a high degree, the cheering hopes which the 
faith of the gospel inspires. He was remarkable for the 
simplicity of his manners, and for that genuine humility, 
which is the attendant and brightest ornament of real 
greatness. His beneficent deeds, which were very nu* 

SOU E R 8 K r N £• 

merous, -and remain a precious memorial -ef him, were 
performed in the unostentatious manner of real charity. 
He was never ashamed to avow his own convictions of the 
truth; and, while he put the most candid construction on 
the motives of those who differed* from him in sentiment, 
he maintained his own principles with firmness. In the 
general assembly of the. church of Scotland* he was Con- 
sidered as a leader of the popular party, liiere, however, 
his openness and integrity of character secured him, what 
few: have enjoyed, the confidence and affection of hid 
friends, and the esteem of his opporierlts. Of the high 
reputation to which his virtue* had raised 1 him, no proof 
more decisive can be given, than a circumstance which 
occurred during the disturbances in Edinburgh, in Febru- 
ary 1779, occasioned by the celebrated bill, proposed at 
that time to have been introduced into parliament for the 
repeal of the penal statutes against the catholics in Scot- 
land. The furious mob, which, in defiance of the military, 
had assembled in the college-court with' the intention of 
demolishing the house of principal Robertson, became 
quiet at his approach; and, in consequence of his exhor- 
tation to. them, desisted from their purpose. Dr. Erskine's 
independence and liberality of mind deserve to be particu- 
larly mentioned. These were qualities that shone con- 
spicuously through the whole of his life ; and which he 
possessed in so eminent a degree, that many thought he 
carried them to an exteme. To his publications we may 
add a " Reply to a printed Letter directed to him by A. C. 
in which the gross and palpable misrepresentations, in the 
said letter, of his Sketches of Church History, as pro- 
moting the designs of the infamous sect of the illuminati, 
are considered,'* 1798. l 

ERSKINE (Henry), a Scotch divine, was one. of the 
younger of the thirty- three children of Ralph Erskine, of 
Shi&field, a family of considerable antiquity in the county 
of Merge, and descended from the noble family of Mam 
He was born at Dryburgh, still the family-seat of the Bu- 
chan family, in 1624, where he received the rudiments of 
his education, and in 1650 took the degree of M. A. in the 
university of Edinburgh. He was ordained to the ministry 
by the presbyterians in England, to the living of CornhiU, id 

, * Principally from a sketch of his Ufe prefixed to the tfcird edition of "Letters 
collected by bim,» 1803, 12p»oV 


Durham, but soon after was ejected bjr the act of unifor- 
mity, ou which he returned to his own country ; but the 
persecution carried on at that time in Scotland against the 
presbyterians, obliged Mr. Erskine to take refuge in Hol- 
land, whence the want of the common necessaries of life 
induced him again to return to his native country, where 
he was apprehended and committed prisoner to the Bass, 
a strong fort iu the mouth of the Forth. There he con- 
tinued near three years; till) through the interest of the 
then earl of Marr, his kinsman, he was set at liberty : but 
such was the violence of the times, that he was again driven 
from Scotland. In 1687, when king James's toleration 
was. proclaimed, Mr. Erskine embraced it; and on the 
re -establishment of presbytery in 1690, he was appointed 
minister of Cboroside iu the county of Berwick. He died 
August 10, 1696, aged sixty-eight, much respected by all 
who knew him, and left behind him several* manuscripts, 
elucidating difficult passages in scripture ; but these hav- 
ing been written in Latin, none of them were ever pub- 
lished. l 

ERSKINE (Ebenezer, A. M.), son of the above, was 
born .in the prison of the Bass, June 22, 1680, and in 1?01 
took his degree of M. A, ifi the university of Edinburgh. 
In .1703 he was. ordained minister of Portmoak in the 
county of Fife, where he discharged the pastoral duty 
with great integrity till 1731, when be was made choice of 
tp be one of the ministers of Stirliug. In April 1 732, being 
chosen moderator of the synod of Perth and Stirling, it 
was his turn to preach at the opening of that synod at 
Perth, and in -his sermon he took occasion to censure some 
late proceedings of the general assembly of the church of 
Scotland, respecting patronage; and this brought on it 
prosecution against him, which was conducted with so 
little judgment or moderation on the part of the assembly, 
as eventually to occasion a schism in the church of great 
extent. This is usually known by the name of the seces- 
sion, and its adherents by that of Seceders, now a very 
numerous body in Scotland, for whose history we may refer 
to a very impartial and well-written account under the 
article Seceders, in the Encyclopaedia Britaitnica, or to 
a tract, where their history is more minutely detailed, 
entitled " An historical account of the rise and progress 

i Life of bit ion, ubi infra.— Calavy. 

Vol. XIII. X 


of tbe Secession,*' by John Brown, minister of the gospel 
at. Haddington. Mr.' Erskine, however, experienced by 
this no falling off in his popularity, being still beloved by 
bis hearers, and esteemed even by those who were his pro* 
fessed enemies, A meeting was built for him at Stirling, 
where be officiated to a very numerous congregation, and 
where he died, June 2, 1754. • As a gentleman and a 
scholar, few ever equalled him ; and, although but in low 
circumstances, his charity was unbounded. Four Volumes 
of his sermons were printed at Glasgow in 8vo, 1762, and 
a fifth volume at Edinburgh, 1765, under the patronage 
of the late duchess of Northumberland, in whose family 
one of his sons lived as a gardener. ' • 

ERSKINE (Ralph, A. M.), brother of the above, was 
born at Monilaws in Northumberland, March 15, 1685, 
was educated along with his brother Ehenezer in the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, and took the degree of A. M. 1704, 
after which be was licensed to preach as a probationer in 
1709. But notwithstanding his popular abilities as a 
preacher, yet he did not obtain a settlement in the church 
till 1711, when he was ordained minister at Dunfermline 
in Fifeshire. There he continued till 1734, when, joining 
the seceders along with bis brother Ebenezer, he was de- 
posed by an order from the general assembly. Esteemed 
and beloved by his hearers, they built a meeting for-.him, 
and attended his ministry till his death, which happened 
Nov. 6, 1752, in the sixty-eighth year of his age. * As' 
a divine, few men were ever more esteemed in Scotland; 
and Jthe character given of him by- the late Mr. Hervey sets 
his abilities in the highest point of view. His works, in 2 
vols. fol. were published in 1764, consisting principally of 
sermons, " The Gospel Sonnets," and "A Paraphrase in 
verse of the Song of Solomon.'* * 

ERXLEJBEN; (John Christian Polycarp), an eminent 
naturalist, was born at Quedlinburgh, June 22, 1744, and 
became professor of philosophy at Gottircgeh, where he 
bad studied, and where he died, too soon for the sciences, ' 
August 15, 1171, aged only thirty- three years, during 
the Jatter part of which his merit had procured him admis- 
sion into most of the learned societies of Europe. In 1771 
he published " Practical Observations' on the Veterinary 

: » •' ' ' • ' 

1 Brown's Historical Account.— and Life prefixed to the Woiks of Ralph £r%> 
feint. * Life prefixed to bis Works. 


Art," in which he had attained great knowledge. This 
work relates to the diseases of domestic animals, .and par* 
ticularjy that among the horned cattle, for which a method 
of inoculation was attempted, the result of which was that 
out of nine only four died from inoculation, whereas in 
the natural way seven out of nine perished : but the chief 
advantage of the experiment was, that the inoculated cattle 
were never subject to a fresh attack of the disease. His 
other works are, " Dissertations relative to Natural. Phi-* 
losophy and Chemistry/ 9 1776;" " Elements of Natural 
History," 2 vols. 8vo, Gottingen, fourth edition, improved 
byGmelin; " Elements of Physic," Francfort, 1794, 8vo, 
sixth edition, with additions by Lichtenberg ; " Elements 
of Chemistry," Gottingen, 1790, 8vq, the third edition, &c l 

ERYCEIRA (Ferdinand de Meneses, Count d'), a 
Portuguese writer, was born at Lisbon, in 1614. After 
having early acquired a taste for literature, he went and 
studied the military art in Italy, and on his return to his 
native country was successively governor of Penicha, and 
of Tangiers, counsellor of war, gentleman of the chamber 
to the infant don Pedro, and counsellor of state. In the. 
midst of these several emplpyments he found time for study 
and composition. On the subject of his numerous publi- 
cations, the reader may consult the " Journal Etranger" 
of 1757. The principal of them are, I. " The History of 
Tangiers," 1723, fol. 2. " The History of Portugal, from 
1640 to 1657," in 2 vols, folio. 3. " The Life of John L! 
king of Portugal." f 

ERYCEIRA (Francis Xavier de Meneses, Count p'),. 
great grandson of the foregoing, and inheritor of the li- 
terary industry of his ancestor, was born at .Lisbon in 1673.. 
He bore arms with distinguished merit; and obtained in 
1735 the title of camp-master general and counsellor at . 
war. He died in 1743, in the seventieth year of his age, . 
member of the academy of Lisbon, of that of. the arcades 
of ftome, and of the royal society of London, to which last 
he was admitted in 1738, and was then director of the 
royal academy of history in Portugal. . He did not put on 
the air^ of a maif of quality among the learned, but was. -. 
easy, polite, and communicative* Pope Benedict XIII. . 
honoured him with a brevet ; the king . of France made . 
him a present of the catalogue of his library, and $1. . 

* Diet Hiit . * Diet Hilt 

x 2 


SOS £ R Y C E I R A. 

volumes of engravings. The academy of St. Petersburg 
addressed its memoirs to him ; several writers of France, 
England, Italy, &c. paid him the compliment of their 
works* His ancestors bad left him a select and numerous 
library, which he augmented with 15,000 volumes and 
1000 manuscripts. He marked his literary career by up- 
wards of a hundred different publications. The most 
known of them are, 1." Memoirs on the value of the 
.Coins of Portugal, from the commencement of the mo- 
narchy," 1738, 4to. 2. " Reflections on academical stu- 
dies." 3. " Fifty-eight Parallels of illustrious men, and 
twelve of illustrious women.'* 4. " The Henriade, an 
Heroic Poem, with observations on the rules to be observed 
in Epic Poetry," 1741, 4to. Among bis manuscripts were 
found a quantity of essays on the number 22, on occasion 
of the 22 sorts of Romau coins presented to the king, and 
dug up at Lisbon the 22d of October 17 U, on which day 
that prince completed bis 22d year ; and from these acci- 
dental circumstances, he proves the number 22 to be the 
rtiost perfect of all. Such puerilities are sometimes found 
in otherwise judicious heads. x 



ESCHENBACH (Andrew Christian), a German di- 
vine and philologer, was born at Nuremberg March 24, 
1663. After studying at Altorf, where, in 1684, he took 
bis degree of master of arts, and received the poetic crown, 
he went to Jena, and, as adjunct of the faculty of philo- 
sophy, taught the classics with great reputation. He after- 
wards travelled through Germany and Holland, and on his 
return assisted bis father, who was pastor of the faux- 
bourg of Wehrd in Nuremberg. Having carried on a 
correspondence with the most eminent scholars of his time, 
and now acquired reputation by his works, he was invited 
by the celebrated Magliabecbi to become librarian to the 
.grand duke of Florence ; and among other advantages, he 
was promised the unmolested exercise of bis religion, which 
was the protestant ; and he would probably have accepted 
so liberal an offer, if he had not at the same time been 
appointed inspector of the schools at Altorf, On which 
charge be entered in 1691. > Four years afterwards he was 
recalled to Nuremberg, ar deacon of the church of St. 

•> Diet. Hist. 

ESC HE N B A C H. 3<J9 

Mary, and professor of eloquence, poetry, history, and the 
Oreek languages in the college of St. Giles/ to which 
office, in 1 705, was added that of pastor of St Clare; But 
these offices do not appear to have been profitable, if, as 
we are told, he found himself in such circumstances as to 
be obliged to sell a good part of his valuable and curious 
library. Here, however, he seems to have remained until 
his death, Sept. 24, 1722. Some of his philological dis- 
sertations were printed in 1700, in the " Syntagma secun- 
dum dissertationum Phiioiogicarum," Rotterdam, 8vo. His 
" Epigenes sive commentarius in fragmenta Orphica" was 
published at Nuremberg in 1702, 4to. He also published 
a new edition, Utrecht, 1689, of the " Orphei Argo- 
naut ica, hymni, et de lapidibus Poema," with notes ; and 
an edition of " Matthei Devarii de particulis Gnecee Lin- 
guae liber singularis," Amst. 1700, l2mo. He translated 
into German Allix on the Truth of the Christian Religion, 
and on the coining of the Messiah ; and count MarsigK's 
Letter on Mineral Phosphorus. He wrote a life of himself, 
which was prefixed to some of his sermons printed after 
bis decease. 1 

ESCOBAR (Anthony), surnamed of Mendoza, a Spa- ' 
nish Jesuit, and famous casuist, who died July 4, 1669, 
aged eighty, is author of several theological works, in 
which he professes to smooth the way to salvation. His 
principles of morality have beep turned into ridicule by 
the ingenious Pascal: they are convenient, he allow*; 
but, says he, the gospel proscribes all conveniences. The 
most known of his books are, 1. " His Moral Theology," 
Lyons, 1663, 7 vols, in folio ; and, 2. " His Commentaries 
on the Holy Scriptures, 99 Lyons, 1667, 9 vols, fol.* 

ESCOBAR (Bartholomew), a pious and learned Jesuit, 
born at Seville in 1558, of a noble and ancient family, 
possessed a large estate, which he employed in works of 
charity. His zeal led him to the Indies, where he took 
the habit of a monk, and died at Lima in 1624, at the age 
of sixty-six. He published, 1. " Conciones quadragesi* 
males et de adventu," fol.* 2. " De festis Domini. 9 ' 3. 
" Sermones de historiis Sacra Scripture j M but these works 
are scarcely known out of Spain. * 

£SOP. SeejESOP. 

1 Moreri.— Saxii Oo«mast. < Moreri.— Diet. Hift. 

» Diet HisC— Antonio Bibl. Hiip. 

310 , ISPAGNA'C. 

ESPAGNAC (John Baptist Joseph de Sahuqcjet Da- 
MARZIL, Baron.d'), a writer on military, affairs, was born at 
Brive-la-Gaillarde, March 25, 1713, and died at Paris, Feb: 
28, 1783. He bore arms at the age of nineteen, signalized 
his prowess in Italy in 1734, and was aid de-camp in the 
campaigns of Bavaria in 1742. Marshal Saxe, who was 
well acquainted with his .military talents, eta ployed him 
either as aide-major-general of the army, or as colonel of 
one of the regiments of grenadiers created in 1 745. Being 
appointed in 1766 governor of the h6tel-des-invalides, he 
not only maintained the utmost regularity, but introduced 
great improvements there. He obtained the rank of lieu* 
tenant-general in 1780. Among bis works are, 1. " Cam* 
pagnesdu roi en 1745, 1746, 1747, et 1748," 4 vols. 8vo: 

2. " Essai sur la science de la Guerre, 1751," 3 vols. 8vo* 

3. " Essai sur les grandes operations de la Guerre," 1755, 

4. vols. 8vo ; works that display the sound knowledge of an 
experienced officer. 4. " Supplement aux Reveries da 
marechal de Saxe, 7 ' Paris, 1773, 2 vols. 8vo. 5. He gave 
the history of this same marechal in 3 vols. 4to, and 2 vols. 
12mo. This performance is highly interesting to military 
men, on account of the plans of battles and of marches 
found in the 4to edition. The author, after having related 
the warlike exploits of his hero, concludes, in the manner 
of Plutarch, with the particular anecdotes and incidents of 
his life. The baron d'Espagnac had married at Brussels, 
the 18th of December 1748, Susanna Elizabeth,' baroness 
de Beyer, by whom he had four sons and a daughter. 
One of these sons went into the church, and was a canon 
at Paris, where he was first distinguished by considerable 
literary talents, and afterwards by his avarice and pecula- 
tion. He belonged at one time to M. Calonne's office, 
from which be was dismissed for improper conduct, but in 
1791 made his appearance in the national assembly with a 
plan, of finance. He was afterwards employed by the re-- 
volutiooary government as commissary to the army of toe 
Alps, and to that of Dumouriez, .by which he got an im-< 
mense fortune, but this he lost, as. well as his life, by a 
decree of the revolutionary tribunal, being guillotined at' 
Paris, April 4, 1794. Of hisjiterary productions, the best 
were bis " £loge de Catinat," and/' Reflexions sur rabbi 
Suger et son siecle." * 

i Diet. Hi*t 

tspiGNr tit 

,.. ESPAGNE (JoflU d'), a French protestaht divine. ih< 
the seventeenth century, was born at Dauphine, and be- 
came minister of the French church in London, an office 
which he sustained during the reigns of James L and 
Charles I. He published several small tracts, which were 
afterwards collected and published at Geneva and* the 
Hague, in three and in two volumes 12mo, about 1670: 
He also published a work, which be dedicated to Charles I: 
entitled " Erreurs Populaires en points generaux qui con- 
eernent intelligence de la Religion, 9 ' and in some of hid 
works has a criticism on the catechism of Calvin, which 
was so much used in the schools at Geneva. l 

ESPAGNET (John o'), president of the parliament of 
Bourdeaux, a man of learning in the seventeenth century^ 
acquired considerable fame by publishing in 1623, a book 
entitled " En coy rid ion physics restitutee. v He did not 
put his name to this, but it is proved to be his by several 
of his acquaintance, as well as by the device at the be- 
ginning, " Spes mea est in agno," and before the treatise 
of chemistry, " Pene nos uuda Tagi," which are both aba- 
grams of his name. It was the first work that appeared iri 
France, professing to contain a complete system of physics 3 
contrary to that of Aristotle. The author, however, while 
be says that he has only re-established the ancient philo- 
sophy, has added many things of his own invention. ' He 
confutes the opinion of materia prima, which was < held td 
be extended every where without being any where per-> 
ceived, . and incessantly tending to the union of forms 
without having any, being the basis and support of coft- 1 
traries, viz. of the elements which are said, to be produced? 
out of it. He -shows that this system of nature is irna* 
ginary, that there is no contrariety in the elements, and' 
that which is observed in them proceeds from the excess of 
their qualities, and that when they are tempered there is 
bo contrariety, in them. Yet he believes that there is a 
materia prima from whence the elements result and become- 
the second matter of things, which are earth and water;' 
for b§ holds neither air nor ifire for elements. Theele^ 
men£$, according to. his notion, are not transformed into 
each other » w&t^r only becomes vapour,- and vapour 'water,' 
by circulation. • He places the real fire of the world in the 
sun, whjuch he calls not only the eye of the universe, but 

1 Gen. Di«t,«— Moreri. , 

31* EfiPAGNET. 

tbe eye of the creator of tbe universe, by which be beholds 
in a sensible manner bis creatures, and which is tbe first 
. agent of the world. The rest of his book abounds in en-* 
rious particulars concerning tbe origin of things, their sub- 
sistence and various alterations, relating to the design of 
this philosopher to treat of chemical matters. He there- 
fore subjoins another treatise, entitled " Arcanum Herme- 
tics philosophise opus," in which be discourses of the mat* 
ter of the philosopher's stone and its digestions, of the 
degrees of fire* of the figure of the vessels and furnace, of 
the composition of the elixir and its multiplication. This 
book was translated into French under the title of " La 
PhUosophie des Anciens retablie en sa puret£." In 161.6 
be published an old manuscript, entitled " Le Rozier des 
Guerres ;" and added to it a treatise of his own upon tbe 
institution of a young prince. This MS. was found at 
Nerac in tbe king's closet. Mr^d'Efpagnet thought his 
edition to be the first, but it bad been .printed in. 1523, m 
folio, which edition is more complete than this of 1616. 
In the MS. of Nerac, was wanting all the second part, and 
the three last chapters of the first. For this account the 
reader is referred to Naudl's "Addition k l'histoire de 
Louis XI. 9 ' p. 72 ; and to " Syntagma de studio militari," 
p. 73. The prologue alone suffices to convince us that 
Louis .XL is not the author of that work, as tbe title pre- 
tends, though he speaks in it as giving instructions to the 
dauphin his son. See tbe << Bibliotheque Cboisie" of M. 
Colomils. In tbe publication of the " Rozier des Guerres,'* 
be punctually retains the old spelling ; and in his adver- 
tisement to the reader gives this reason for it : " This little 
tract, du Rozier," says he, " seemed to me so good that I 
would not embellish or disguise it, but have left in its na- 
tive simplicity : and though the language of it is not in use 
in our times, yet it may. be understood, being so full of 
good sense and. meaning, that with all its jargon k may 
silence tbe affected diction of tbe court and bar. 1 have 
also carefully preserved tbe orthography ; because in add* 
ing or diminishing a letter, a word is often changed, and 
-pf ancient made modern. By this means, in my jndg« 
jneqt, the language of Philip de Commines, in his history* 
has been corrupted : the editors, thinking to mend the 
spelling, and polish the diction, have destroyed the marks 
of its antiquity, so that the style of his book is not the 
styte of bis times j as we may judge both by this little 


manuscript, and by many others of the same age/ which are 
to be found in famous libraries, especially by the history of 
Charles VI. written by John Juvenal des Ursins, and 
lately published by the sieur de Godefroy. I imagine this 
error proceeds from the insufficiency of the Correctors ; 
who, pretending to correct the orthography, haye adul- 
terated it, and thereby rendered themselves plagiaries." 1 

' ESPEN (Zeger Bernard van), an eminent canonist, 
was born at Lou vain in 164$, and after taking his degree 
of doctor of laws in 1675, filled a chair in the college of 
pope Adrian VI. with great success. Being fond of re- 
tirement and study, he is only known to the world by bis 
writings. Having lost bis sight in the sixty-fifth year of 
his age, by a cataract, which was removed two years after- 
wards, he neither lost any thing of his vivacity nor his ap- 
plication. His sentiments on the Formulary, and on the 
bull Unigenitus, and the kind of approbation which he 
gave to the consecration of Steenoven, archbishop of 
Utrecht, brought on him much unmerited persecution, 
chiefly from the envy of individuals. What they made 
him suffer, however, forced him to retire to Maestricht, 
and then to Amersfort, where he died, Oct. 2- 1728*, at the 
age of eighty- three. Van Espen is doubtless one of the 
most learned canonists of his times. His principal work* 
still consulted, is his " Jus ecclesiasticum umversum," in 
which the most important points of ecclesiastical discipline 
are circumstantially discussed with profound knowledge of 
the subject. At Paris, under the imprint of Lou'vain, was. 
published, in 1763, a collection of all the works of Van 
Espen, in 4 vols, folio. This edition, which is enriched 
with the observations of Gibert on the "Jus ecclesiasti- 
cum," and the notes of father Bar re, a canon -regular of 
St. Genevieve, contains every particular of importance 1 in 
ethics, the canon, and even the civil law, and since that 
time a supplementary volume was published by Gabriel de 
BeBegarde.* * 

ESPENCE (Claude »'), a learned French divine, waa 
bort* at Chalons-sur-Marue in 1511, of noble parent*, 
became a doctor of the Sorbonne, and was rector of the uni« 
vfersity of Paris. He preached with considerable applause ; 

but having in one of his sermons called the ." Llgende 

. . • - • * ... 

I 0e» t Dict-^Mowi . t More ri,— Diet. Hist, 

314 E S P E N C E. 


Dor£e" the " Legende Ferine," it was concluded that he 
did not believe in the worship of the saints ; especially, 
from his doubting of certain facts related by the legendary 
writers in the " Golden Legend," of which he ventured to 
speak thus disrespectfully. The faculty of Paris was about 
to pass a censure on him ; but he explained himself in 
another discourse, and the transient storm was succeeded, 
by a calm. The cardinal de Lorraine, who was well aware 
of bis merit, employed him in several affairs of importance, 
D'Espence attended him to Flanders in 1544, for the pur* 
pose of ratifying the peace betweeu Charles V. and 
Francis T. His eminence took him afterwards to Rome in 
1555, where be made so conspicuous a figure, that Paul 
IV. would have honoured him with the purple, in order 
to retain him. But his intention was set aside (says father 
Berthier) as being apparently contrary to the interests of 
France. The imperialists, requested the hat for three 
monks; and therefore the cardinal de Lorraine, who fa- 
voured the design of getting D'Espence into the sacred 
college, relinquished the idea. " 1 rather chose/ 9 says he 
in a letter to the king, " that he should not be there, than 
that three monks should get in; accordingly I entreated 
his holiness to think no more of it, and, by that means, I 
kept out the whole crew." D'Espence, liking far less to 
live at Rome than at Paris, returned to France, and ap- 
peared with consequence at the assembly of the states of. 
Orleans in 1560, and at the conference of Poissy in 1561, 
where he attached himself to the Calvinists, which gave 
much offence to his popish brethren. He died of the 
stone at Paris, Oct. 5, 1571, in the sixtieth year of his age. 
He was one of the most moderate and judicious doctors of 
the age in which he lived, and with all his attachment to 
popery, was the declared enemy of all violent measures, 
and disapproved of persecutions. He was well versed in 
the sciences, both ecclesiastical and profane. His works 
are almost all written in Latin, with an elegance scarcely, 
known to the theologians of that period. The principal 
of them are, 1. " A treatise on Clandestine Marriages ;" in 
which he proves that the sons of distinguished families can-, 
not validly contract marriage, without the consent of their 
relations. 2. " Commentaries on the Epistles of St Paul . 
to Timothy and Titus," full of long digressions on the hie-, 
rarcby and the ecclesiastical discipline. 3. Several con- 


troversial tracts, some in Latin and others in French. All 
his Latin works were collected at Paris in 1619, folio. 1 

ESPERIENTE (Philip Callimachus), an eminent Ita- 
lian historian, was born at San Geminiano, a village of 
Tuscany, in 1 437.- He was of the illustrious family of the 
Buonaccorsi, which name he changed to that of Calli- 
MACO or Callimachus, whfen he had, along with Pomponius 
Laetus, and other men of learning, established an academy, 
the members of which adopted Latin or Greek names. The 
surname of Esperiente, or Experiens, he is supposed to 
have assumed in allusion to the vicissitudes of his life, but 
in that case he must have assumed it after he had met with 
these vicissitudes. It is therefore more reasonable to sup* 
pose that he merely meant to infer that all true knowledge! 
is founded on experience. Paul II. having succeeded 
Pius It. in 1464, did not view Esperiente's academy, and 
his change of name, in the same, favourable light as his 
predecessor, but fancied he discovered something myste- 
rious and alarming in such a society, and even persecuted 
the members of it with some severity. Esperiente was 
therefore obliged to make his escape, and after travelling 
in various countries, came to Poland in 1473, where he 
was kindly received by the archbishop of Leopolor Lena- 
berg, and acquired the esteem of Casimir 111. king of Po- 
land, who appointed him preceptor to his children, and 
some time afterwards employed him as his secretary. Ac- 
quiring the confidence of the king, who perceived his ta- 
lents for business, he was entrusted with several important 
negotiations at Constantinople in 1 475, and at Vienna and 
Venice in I486. In 1488 he had the misfortune to lose his 
library by an accidental fire. The death of Casimir in 
1491, made no difference in his situation, John Albert' 
the successor to the crown, who had been his pupil, ad- 
mitting him to his* confidence, and even to a share of 
power, which excited the resentment of t^e natives, who 
were jealous of the interference of a foreigner and a fugi- 
tive ; .but the virtue and good conduct of Esperiente were' 
superior to the attacks of his adversaries, and he retained' 
his station and favour, with undiminished honour, to the 
close ;of his days.- He died at Cracow Nov. 1, 1496, and' 
his remains were deposited in a tomb of bronze, 'with the • 
following inscription : " Philippus Callimachus Experiens, 

1 Moreri.— Niceron, yoIs. XIII. and XX,-— Cletaent Bibl. Carisusa. 


natione Thuscus, vir doctissimns, utriiisque forturtae er» 
empliini injitandum, atque omnia virtutis cultor prsecir 
puus, divi olim Casimiri et Joannis Alberti, Poloniie re- 
gum, secretarius acceptissimus, relictis ingeuii, ac rerun* 
a se gestaruio, pluribus monumentis, cum summo omnium 
bonoruui moerore, et regiae domus, atque hujus reipublieae 
incommodo, anno salutis nostra 1496, calendis Novembris, 
Vila decedeps, hie sepultus est." 

AU his works, of which the following is a correct list, 
are held in much esteem: 1. " Attila," or, "De-Gestis 
Attilse," without date, but probably Trevisa, 1489, 4toJ 
imprinted at Haguenau, 1531, 4to, Basil, 1541, 8vo, and 
inserted in Bonfinius's collection of Latin historians. 2. 
" Historia de rege Uladislao, sou clade Varnensi," Augs? 
burgh, 13 1 9, 4to. Michael Bruto appears to have been ig- 
riorant of this first edition, when he published one from * 
manuscript, which he entitled " De rebus ab Uladislao 
Hungarite et Poloniae rege gestis ad Casimirum V. libra 
ires," Cracow, 15S2, 4 to. He added, however, a very 
interesting life of Esperiente, which was reprinted at 
Cracow, 1584, 4to» Paul Jovius preferred this work of 
Esperiente to any history since the days of Tacitus. It is 
also printed, with the history of Poland, by Martin Cro- 
mer, 1589, and in Bonfidius's collection. 3. " De clade 
Varnensi epistola," inserted in the second volume of the 
" Chronioon Turcicum" by Louicerus, Bale, 1556, and 
Francfort, 1579, folio. 4. " Oratio de Bello Turcis infe- 
rendo et historia de his qu« a Venetis tentata sunt, Persia 
ac Tartaris contra Turcos movendis," Haguenau, 1533, 4to. 
Among the MSS. be left were some Latin poems, and a 
history of his travels. l 

ESPRIT (James), a French moral writer, was born at 
Beziersin 1611, and entered in .1629 into the oratory, 
which be quitted five years afterwards to mix again in so- 
ciety; in which, indeed, he possessed all the qualities 
adapted to please — sense, wit, and the advantages of a 
good figure. The duke de la Rochefoucault, the chancellor 
Seguier, and the prince de Conti, gave him unequivocal 
testimonies of their esteem and friendship. The first in* 
troduced him into the circles of fashion ; the second ob* 
tained for him a pension of 2000 livres and a brevet of 

» * • * • 

i Biog. UoiTenelle in art. Callimachiu,— TiratooIu.-rRoit#e , i Leo.— F»W« 
)ffed. Lat»«— Saxii Oaemast, 


counsellor of state ; the third heaped his favours upon him, 
mnd consulted him upon all occasions. Esprit died in 1678* 
at the age of sixty-seven. He was a ntember of the French 
academy, and one of those who shone- in the infancy of 
that society. His works are : 1. " Paraphrases on some of 
tlie Psalms/ 9 which cannot be read with moch pleasure 
since the appearance of those of Masillon. 2. " The fal- 
lacy of Human Virtues," Paris, 1678, 2 vols* 12mo;and 
Amsterdam, 4716, 8vo, which was intended as a commen- 
tary en the Maxims of the duke de la Rochefbucault; but 
in some places, say his countrymen, it may be compared to 
the ingenious and lively Horace commented by the heavy 
Dacier. He cannot, however, be censured for directing 
his reflections more on persons than on vices — a defect 
too frequent among modern moralists; and it is to his credit 
that after having shewn the fallacy of merely human vir- 
tues, he concludes all his chapters by proving the reality 
of the Christian virtues. Louis de Bans has taken from 
tfis book, jus " Art of knowing mankind." * 

ESSENIUS (Andrrw), a learned and orthodox Dutch 
divine, was born at Bommel, in the duchy of Guelderland, 
in February 1618,. and after having been instructed in 
classical learning at home, was sent to Utrecht, where he 
studied under Antonius Emilius, who was at that time mo- 
derator of the university. He then went through a course 
of philosophy, mathematics, and theology, under the ablest 
professors, and in 1639 bis name was put into the lifet of 
students who were candidates for the ministry. The fol- 
lowing year he was admitted to his degree of M. A. Ill 
1641 he was appointed pastor of the church of Nederlang- 
broeck. In 1645 he took his doctor's degree in theology ; 
and in 1651 was chosen minister of the church of Utrecht: 
two years after, he was appointed joint professor of divi- 
nity with Walter de Bruyn, and began his course of lec- 
tures, according to the usual mode, by a discourse " De 
traotatione verb* divini." He died May 18, 1672, and an 
eulogium was pronounced on him by his quondam fellow* 
student, John Voetius, as appears by one of Graevius's 
letters in Burmau's " Sylloge,- ' vol. IV. p. 419. His 
works were, L f'Triumphus Cruris, sive fides catholica 
de satisfactione Jesu Christi," Amst. 1649, a work levelled 
at the' S^cinian opinions, especially those of Creiliuj*. It 

* M**a.«~Kicaa», vol. XV. 

318 E S S E N I U S. 

was the reputation of this learned performance which flrst 
pointed him out as fit for the professor's chair. 2. " T>e 
moralitate Sabbathi," 1658. 3. " Disquisitio de moralitate 
Sabbatbi hebdomadalis," 1665. 4. " Dissertationes de 
Decalogo et die Sabbathi ad versus Abrahamum Heida- 
num," Utrecht* 1666, 4to. 5. " Vindiciae quarti prae- 
cepti in Decalogo," ibid. 1666, written in answer to Fran- 
cis Burman, who defended the opinions of Cocceius. 6. 
" Defensio concilii Theologici Ultrajectini de Canonica- 
tibus, Vicariatibus, &c." 1658, 4to, which was answered 
by Desniarais, in his u Vindiciae de Canonicis," printed at 
Groningen, 1660, 4to. 7. " System a Theologicum,** 
Utrecht, 1659, 2 vols. 4to, in the preface to which he 
promises a system of practical divinity. 8. " Synopsis 
controversiarum Tbeologicarum, et index locorutn totius* 
sacrae Scripturca," Amst. 1661, and Utrecht thrice re- 
printed. 9. " Compendium Theologian dogmaticnm,"* 
Utrecht, 1669, and 1685, 8vo. 10. "Apologia pro mi- 
nrstris in Anglra non conformistis." The 'date of this is 
not in our authority, but the work must not be mistaken 
for one with a similar title, supposed by Hickman, men* 
tioned in our account of Durell ; (see Dijrell). 11. " Dis- 
sertatio de subjectione CbrUtt ad legem divinam." 12. 
" Doctrina de nostra redemptione per tneritum Jesu' 
Cbristi." 13, " Instractio salutaris de Judaels." 14. " Re- 
futatio vere catholica contra pontificios." 15. " Oratio 
de celsitudine perseveranti«.* , 16. "Oratio funebris in 
obitum Gualteri de Bairn," Utrecht, 1653. 17. "Ora- 
tio funebris in obitum Gisberti Voetii," ibid. 1 677/ 4to. 
He published also in Dutch, a treatise on the tribute-' 
money, from Matthew xvii. verse 24, &c. and various 
theological dissertations written as theses for disputation. 1 

. ESSEX (Jambs), F. 8. A. a man whose astonishing' 
knowledge of gotbic architecture could only be equalled 
by his modesty, was the son of a- builder and carpen- 
ter at Cambridge, where he wai born in 1723, and was 
educated under Mr. Heath, fellow of King's-college, and 
then master of the college school near the chapel, the 
perpetual contemplation . of which probably inspired 'him 
with that taste for and love of our aneient architecture, 
which so eminently marked the whole of his progress/ The * 

* Barman Traject Erudttam.~-Mereri. 

ESSEX. 319 

repairs and improvements of that celebrated chapel, and 
of Ely* and Lincoln minsters, planned and conducted by 
him, will be a lasting monument of bis skill, even if the 
public should never be indulged with his drawings, ad- 
measurements, and observations, on the first of these ad- 
mirable specimens of that style of building; not to mention 
his improvements of several colleges in Cambridge, and 
6f Madingley, the seat of sir John Hinde Cotton, bart. in 
that county, and his repair of the tower of Winchester 
college chapel, as well as innumerable instances of .his 
friendly assistance.* His proposals for publishing the plans 
and sections of King's-college chapel, in fifteen plates, 
with remarks and comparisons, may be seen in Gougb*s Brit. 
Top. vol. I. p. 237. All that were actually published of his 
writing were, a Remarks on the antiquity of different 
modes of brick and stone buildings in England/* Archseol. 
vol. IV. p. 73. " Observations on Lincoln Cathedral," 
ib. 149, and " On the origin and antiquity of round 1 
churches, and of the round church at Cambridge in par- 
ticular," ib. vol. VI. p. 163, and " On Croyland abbey 
and bridge," which forms the 22d number of the Biblio- 
theca Topog. Britann. He was preparing further remarks 
on the rise and progress of his favourite science in its va- 
rious parts, which death intercepted; His designs for the 
new building of Bene't, King's, and Emanuel colleges, 
Trinity-hall, and the Public Library at Cambridge, were 
engraved 1739, 1741, 1743, 1748, and 1752. The first 
of these drew him into a controversv with the historian of* 
that house, who disputed his claim to the design, and 
obliged him to publish " A letter to his subscribers to the' 
plan and elevation of an intended addition to Corpus 
Christi college, in Cambridge," Cambridge, 1749, 8vo, 
which effectually closed the dispute. Mr. Essex had particu- 
larly made himself master of the ancient site of Cambridge,' 
his native town. He married the daughter of Mr. Thurl- 

* " The upper part of the outward judicious architect likewise is owing < 
eastern front of Ely cathedral had that strength and security which are t 
given way, and hung out of the per- seen in the whole wood-work of the 
pendicular near two feet; but was dome and lantern, which through long' 
restored to its first state under the di- inattention were brought into, a dan-, 
rectioa of Mr. Essex ; who also gave gerous condition ; the main supporters 
the design for the new roo6ng over the being rotted, and the whole threaten-' 
whole eastern part of the church, lately ing ruin by its own weight. This dan- 
finished, and contrived with great jndg- gerous work was taken in nan* in 1757, 
meni to strengthen the stone walls and a complete reparation, effected in 
which give it support. To the same five years." Benthain's Ely, p. 284. 

3?0 ESSEX. 

bourn, bookseller, by whom he left one daughter, wha 
died in 1787, the wife of the rev. John Hammond. Mr«> 
Essex died at Cambridge, Sept. 14, 1784, aged sixty-one,; 
and his widow in 1790. 1 

ESTCOURT (Richard), well known both as an actor 
?nd a writer, was born at Tewksbury, in Gloucestershire, in 
1663, and received his education at the Latin school of that 
town ; but, having an early inclination for the stage, he, 
stole away from bis father's bouse at fifteen years, of age, 
and joined a travelling company of comedians then at Wor- 
cester, where, for fear of being known, he made his first 
appearance in woman's clothes, in the part of Roxana, in 
Alexander the Great. But this disguise not sufficiency 
concealing him, he was obliged to make his escape from a 
pursuit that was made after him. ; and, under the appearances 
of a girl, to proceed with great expedition to Chipping Nor-, 
ton. Here, however, being discovered and overtaken by bi% 
pursuers, he was brought back to Tewksbury; and his father, 
in order to prevent such excursions for the future, soon after, 
carried him up to London, and bound him apprentice to, 
an apothecary in Hatton-garden* From this confinement; 
Mr. Cbetwood, who probably might have known him, and; 
perhaps had these particulars from his own mouth, tells us 
that he broke away, and passed two years in England in ; 
an itinerant life ; though Jacob, and Whincop after  him, 
say tbat be set up in business, but, not finding it succeed 
to his liking, quitted it for the stage, fie this, however,, 
as it will, it is certain that he went over to Ireland, where 
be met with good success on the stage, from whence he 
came back to London, and was received in Drury-lane, 
theatre. His first appearance there was in the part qf 
Dominic, the " Spanish Fryar," in which, although in 
himself but a very middling actor, he established his cha* 
racter by a close imitation of Leigh, who bad been very 
celebrated in it. And indeed, in this and all his other parts*: 
be was mostly indebted for his applause to his powers 
of mimicry, in which he was inimitable, and which not 
only at times afforded him opportunities of appearing a 
much better actor than he really was, and enabling him to 
copy very exactly several performers of capital merit, 
whose manner he remembered and assumed, but also, by, 
recommending him to a very numerous acquaintance in 

'i Nichols's Bowjer.— Cole's MS Alhense in BriU Mus. 

£ S T C V B T. 321 

private life) secured him an indulgence fot- faults in his 
public profession, that he might otherwise, perhaps, never 
have been pardoned ; among which he was remarkable for 
the gratification of that " pitiful ambition," as Shakspeare 
justly styles it, and for which he condemns the low come- 
dians of his own titoe, of imagining he could help his au- 
thor> and for that reason frequently throwing in additions 
of his own, which the author not only had never intended, 
but perhaps would have considered as most opposite to his 
main intention. 

Esteourt, however, as a companion, was perfectly en- 
tertaining add agreeable ; and sir Richard Steele, in the 
Spectator, where, as well as in the Tatler, he is often men- 
tioned, records him to have been not only a sprightly wit, 
but a person of easy and natural politeness. His company 
was extremely courted by every one, and his mimicry so 
much admired, that persons of the fifst quality frequently 
invited him to their entertainments, in order to divert their 
friends with his drollery ; on which occasions he constantly 
received very handsome presents for his company. Among 
others, be was a great favourite with the duke of Madbo- 
rougb $ and at the time the famous beef-steak club was 
erected^ which consisted of the* chicff wits and greatest 
jmen in the kingdom, Mt. Esteourt had the office assigned 
him of their prdvidore; and as a mark of distinction of 
that honour) he used, by way of badge, to wear a small 
gridiron of gold, hung about his neck with a green silk 
ribband. He quitted the stage some years before his death, 
which happened in 1713, when be was interred in the 
parish of St. Paul's, Covent-garden, where his brother 
comedian, Joe Haines, had been buried a few years before. 
He left behind him two dramatic pieces; viz. 1. " Fair 
Example," a comedy, 1706, 4to. 2. «< Prunella," an in- 
terlude, 4to. The latter of these was only a ridicule on 
the absurdity of the Italian operas at that time, in which, 
not only the unnattiral circumstance was indulged, of music 
and harmony attending on all, even the most agitating 
passions, but also the very words themselves which were 
to accompany that tnusic, were written in different lan- 
guages, according ad the performers who were to sing them 
happened to be Italians or English. 1 

1 Biog. Dramatica.— Tatler and Spectator.— See Indexes to the 8vo edition 
Vhlinotes, 1806. . 

Vol. XIII. Y 

823 ESTIU & 

/ . 

ESTIUS (William), an eminent Dutch divine Of tfcre 
popish persuasion, was born at Gorcum, in Holland, about , 
1642, and was a descendant of an illustrious family of the 
lords of the castle, of Est, from whom he took his name. , 
He finished his classical studies under Macropedius, at ; 
Utrecht, studied divinity and philosophy at Louvain, and 
taught these two sciences* for ten years at that place. In 
.1580 he was admitted to his degree of D. D. and some time 
after was appointed to lecture on divinity at Doway, and v 
was made superior of the seminary of that city, and pro- 
vost of the church of St. Peter. He was also elected chan- 
cellor of the university of Doway, and employed all his 
time in teaching or writing. Although esteemed highly 
.learned, he was no less distinguished for his modesty an4 . 
benevolence. He died at Doway Sept. 20, 1613, and was 
buried in the church of St. Peter. His works are, 1* " Mar*- 
tyriura Edmundi Campiani, societatis Jesu," translated, 
from the French; Louvain, 1582, 8vo; (see Campian). 
2. " Historia martyrum Gorcomensium majori numero 
fratrum minorum," Doway, 1603, 8vo. 3. " Orationea 
Theologicae," Doway, 1614, 8vo. 4. " Commentarii in 
quatuor libros Sententiarum," Doway, 1615, 4 vols. foL 
reprinted at Paris, 1638, 3 vols. fol. Dupin says this is 
one of the best theological works the Roman church can 
boast, and recommends it to students in divinity. 5. " Air- 
uotationes in praecipua difficiliora S. Scripturae lnca," Ant*. 
werp, 1621, fol. a work on which a high value appears to 
.have been placed, as it passed through several edition*. 
It resulted from the conferences he held in the seminary 
of Doway, but, according to Dupin, his observations are, 
rather practical than critical. 0. " In omnes B. Pauli et 
aliorum apostolorum ep is tolas Commentaria," Doway, 1614, 
2 vols. fol. Dupin praises this as one of the best works of 
the kind, but it appears that Estius was prevented by death 
.from proceeding farther than 1 John v. and that the rest 
of the commentary was supplied by Barth. de Ja Pierre, 
He wrote also some Latin verses, and an essay " Contra J 
avaritiam scientiae," censuring the selfishness of learned * 
men who keep their improvements and discoveries to them- 
selves. This is inserted in a work by Francis Vianen .of 
Brussels, entitled " Tractatus triplex de ordine amoris," . 
Louvain, 1685, 8 vo. 1 

* ' J)upm.— Foppe* Bibl. Belg.— Freheri Theatram.— Nic«ron, vol, XXWL 

ISTOIL't. 323 

r. . 


^SSTOILE (Peter de l'), was grand-auditor of the 
chancery of Paris, and died in 16 1 1 , but we have no account 
of his early life. He left several manuscripts, of which 
tome were published. 1. His "Journal of Henry HI." 
published by the abbfi Lenglet du Fresnoy, in 1744, in 5 
vols. 8vo, with the addition of several scarce pieces on the 
League, selected from a multitude of pamphlets, satires, 
and polemical works, which those turbulent times pro* 
dnced. This journal begins at the month of May 1574, 
and terminates with the month of August 1589. 2. " Jour- 
nal of the reign of Henry IV." with historical and political 
remarks by the abb£ Lenglet du Fresnoy, and several other 
interesting pieces of the same period ; but the years 1598, 
1599, 1600, and 1601, which are wanting in the journal 
ofTEstoile, have been supplied by an anonymous author 
in this edition, in the way of supplements, published for 
the first time in 1636. The two journals of the grand au- 
ditor were published by, the messrs. Godefroi, at Cologne, 
[Brussels] ; the first under the title of " Journal of Henry 
III." 4 vols. 8vo ; the second under that of " Memoires pour 
servir sL l'histoire de France," 1719,2 vols. 8vo, with plates, 
and as they contain many things omitted in the edition of the 
abb£ du Fresnoy, they are more sought after, and are be- 
come more scarce. L'Estoile, in both these journals, seems 
attached to the parliament, a good citizen, an honest man, 
and a faithful historian, relating impartially the good and 
the bad ; the good with pleasure, the bad with simplicity. 
He was well informed in all the particulars of the reign of 
Henry III. and that of Henry IV. ; and he enters into the 
minutest circumstances. The affairs of government are 
mixed with those of his famity. Deaths, births, the price 
of provisions, the prevailing distempers, ludicrous or sor- 
rowful events, in short, every thing that makes the sub- 
ject of conversation, is the object of his journal; and he 
retracts when he finds himself mistaken, with as good a 
grace as he confirms what he finds to be true. The author, 
under ah appearance of easeand openness, conceals a turn for 
sarcasm, and this no doubt recommended his work to num- 
berless readers. The original manuscript of his Journals, 
in his own hand writing, in 5 folio volumes, was in the li- 
brary of the abbey of St. Acheul, at Amiens, where it had 
been deposited by the nephew of the author, but has been 
lost; -which is rather to be regretted, as it contained many 
curious particulars not in any of the printed editions. 1 

i Moireri.— Diet. Hi«t 

y 2 

324 I8T0IL £- 

ESTOILE (Clause bel'), son of the foregoing, is not 
so noted as bis father, though he was one of the five authors 
employed by cardinal Richelieu iti making bis bad play*. 
He was received into the French academy in 1632, and 
died in 1652, at about tbe age of fifty 'four. Moderately, 
provided with the goods of fortune, but a, man of strict 
honour, be rather chose to quit the capital with a woman 
of worth but of no fortune, whom he had married, than to 
beg at the table of a financier, or to be troublesome to his 
friends. Peiisson says of him, "that he had more gemW 
than learning and knowledge." Yet he had no small know- 
ledge of the laws of tbe drama, and was a fastidious critic, 
both in regard to himself and to others. It is said that he 
caused a young man of Langueddc to die of grief, who 
came to Paris with a comedy which be fancied to be a 
chef-d'oeuvre, and in which the severe critic pointed out 
numerous defects. The same thing is related of Claude 
de Estoile which is told of Malherbe and of Moliere, that 
he read his works to his maid-servant. He wrote se- 
veral pieces for the stage, not above mediocrity ? some 
odes that are rather below it ; and a few other pieces of 
poetry that have great merit. His odes are in the ** Re* 
eueil des Poetes Francois," 1692, 5 vols. 12mo.* 

ESTOUTEVILLE (William a*}, cardinal, archbishop 
of Rouen, was son of John d'Estouteville, of an ancient 
and illustrious family of Normandy, and born in 1403. He 
was charged with important commissions during the reigns 
of Charles VII. and of Louis XI. reformed the university 
of Paris, and patronized the learned- He was* a man of 
great firmness of character, and a Very stern executor of 
justice. It is said that the Barigel of Rome having caught 
a thief in the fact, and resolved to put him to death npott 
the spot, as there Was no hangman to be found, he obliged 
a French priest who happened to be travelling through that, 
place, to execute an office so unworthy of his character* 
The cardinal being informed of the transaction, and Unable 
to account for it, sent for the Barigel, and caused him 
immediately to be hanged at a window of his house. Being 
a zealous partisan for the pragmatic sanction, he called aa 
assembly of bishops at Bourges, to discuss the meafts fefr 
a strict observance of that regulation, and measure* were 
adopted for that end, notwithstanding tbe remonstrance* 

1 Mmrt— Diet, Bfct, * 


of die deputies of the church of Bourdeaux and Peter their 
archbishop, in favour of the pope, to whom they were de- 
sirous of leaving a plenary power. D'Estouteville died at 
Rome* being dean of the cardinals, the 22d of December, 
14&3* at the »ge of eighty. Besides the archbishopric of 
,Rouen, be possessed six bishoprics in France, and in 
Italy four abbeys and three grand priories ; but he em- 
ployed the greater part of the revenues in the decoration 
of the churches of which he had the care, and in relieving 
the poor. It was he who completed the castle of Gaillon, 
.one. of the finest pieces of architecture of the sixteenth 
century, which had been begun by the cardinal George 
D'Amboise. 1 

ESTRADES (Godfrey, Count tf), marshal of France, 
and viceroy of America, was born at Agen, in 1627, and 
served a long time in Holland, under prince Maurice,, with 
whom be acted as agent of France, and proved at once a 
good general and an able negociator. Being appointed 
ambassador extraordinary to England, in 1661, he had an 
affront offered to. him there, Oct 10 of that year, by the 
baron de Vatteville, ambassador from Spain, which his 
.sovereign not only disavowed, but issued orders to bis mi- 
nisters at foreign courts, not to contest with the ambassa- 
dors of France in any public ceremonies. Count d'Estrades 
having negotiated in 1662 the sale of Dunkirk, was com- 
missioned to receive that town from the hands of the Eng- 
lish. Though Charles IL had signed the treaty, the par- 
liament strongly, opposed its execution, and the English 
garrison refused to evacuate the place. But the count 
d'Estrades (according to the French historian's account) 
judiciously distributed considerable sums of money ; and 
the governor and the garrison embarked for London. On 
their passage they met the packet conveying to them the 
order of parliament not to surrender Dunkirk to the 
French; but the affair was already settled, owing to the 
Sbclive and ingenious address of d'Estrades. Being re* 
Iprned to Paris, he was dispatched again to London, in 
1446, .in quality of ambassador extraordinary; and the 
year following went over to Holland, invested with similar 
powers, $nd there concluded the treaty of Breda, He 
distinguished himself not less in 1673, when sent ambas* 

eador extraordinary to the . conferences of Nimcguen for 


326 EST R A DES, 

tbe general peace. He died the 26th of February, 16S6, 
at the age of seventy-nine. He had been appointed two 
years before, governor to the duke of Chartres, and su~ 
perintendant of bis . finances. The negociations of the 
count cT Est rades were printed at the Hague, 1742, in 9 
vols. 12mo, which is merely an. extract from the originals, 
which form 22 vols, folio, the thinnest of which is of 900 
pages. John Aymon published some of them at Amster- 
dam, in 1709, 12mo. ! 

ESTREES (John d'), grand-master of the artillery of 
France, was born in 1486, of a distinguished and ancient 
family, and died in 1567, at the age of eighty-one. He 
was at first page to queen Anne of Brittany, and afterwards 
performed great services to the kings Francis L and 
Henry II. being the first who put the French artillery on * 
respectable footing. He signalized himself at tbe taking 
of Calais in 1558, an4 on several other occasions gave 
eminent proofs of sagacity and courage. He is also said to 
have been the first gentleman of Picardy who embraced 
the protestant religion. Bran tome, in his Capkaines 
Francois, says, "that M. d'Estr£es was one of the worthy 
men of his rank, without offence to others, and tbe most 
.intrepid in trendies and batteries; for he went to diem 
holding np bis head, as if it had been to a hunting party 
in the fields ; and the greatest part of the time he went on 
horseback, mounted on a great German hade, above twenty 
years old, and as intrepid as bis master ; for as to cannon-* 
ades and arquebusades that were fired in tbe trench, neither 
the one nor the other ever lowered their heads for them ; 
and he shewed himself half the body high above the trench, 
for he was tall and conspicuous as well as his horse. He 
was the ablest man in tbe world in knowing the fittest spots 
for erecting a local battery, and in directing it beat ; ac- 
cordingly, he was one of the confidents that 
.Guise wished to have about him for making conquests. add 
taking towns, as he did at- Calais. It was he who the first 
provided us with those fine founderies of artillery. which 
we make use of to this day ; and even of our cannon, which 
do not fear being fired a hundred times one after the otter, 
as I may say, without bursting, without splitting, . without 
breaking, as be proved in one before the king, 'when .the 
$rst essay was made; but we do not choose to cram thepa 

J MorCTi.^Marchwd^Dict, Hi*. 

E S TREES. 337 

Ut this manner, for we spare goodness as much as we can. 
Before this mode of casting, our cannons were not near so 
good* but a hundred times more fragile, aod requiring to 
be very often refreshed with vinegar, which occasioned 
much more trouble. He was of a very large person, a 
f)ne and venerable old man, with a beard that reached 
down very low, and seemed to have been his old comrade 
in? war in the days of. yore, which he had all along made 
bis profession, and where he learned to be somewhat 
«ruel\' u 

ESTREES (Francis Annibal d'), duke, peer, and mar- 
shal of France, son of the subject of the preceding article, 

•was born in the year 1573. At first he embraced the eccle- 
siastical state, and king Henry IV. appointed him to the 

^bishopric of Laon ; but he quitted the churcb to take up 
the profession of arms* He signalized himself on several 
occasions, brought succours»to the duke of Mantua in 1626, 

'took Treves, and distinguished himself no less by his sa- 
gacity than by his valour. Being appointed in 1636 am- 

rbassador extraordinary to Rome, he honourably executed 
that office in supporting the glory and interests of the 

-crown, but not with the prudence requisite in such an of- 
fice; and his rudeness and sallies of temper so involved 
him in differences with Urban VIII. and his nephews, that 
it was- found necessary to recall him; which he much re* 

- sen ted, and refused to appear at court to give an account 

- of his conduct. He died at Paris the 5 th of May, 1670, in 
his ninety^eighth year. The marshal d'Estrles was more 

. calculated for serving the king at the head of his troops, 

, than in intricate negociations. Not .content with making 
bis character respected, he would make his person feared. 
R$ was brother of the fair Gabriel d'Estrdes, whose his- 
tory is given in a subsequent article. He was the. author 
ofV K <* Memoirs of the regency of Mary de Medicis," the 

i best edition of which is that of Paris, 1666, l2mo, which 
has a preliminary epistle by Pierre le Moine. 2. Relatioa 
of the siege of Mantua, in 1630; and another of the Con- 
clave in which Gregory XV. was elected in 1621. In 
these different works, although the style, that of a man 
tnore accustomed to weild the sword than the pen, is in- 
correct, there reigns an air of truth which disposes the 

-feider to think favourably of the integrity of the author,** 

s Morttu-.Di.ct, Siat, . - . » Mi. 

Sfeg" ES-TREES. 

ESTREES {Cjezar v% cardinal, abbot of St. GerwiSrM 
des-Pr&, son of the preceding, was born in 16£8, anil 
raised to the see of Laon in 1659, after baviog receive* 
the doctors hood of Sorbonne. ' The king made choice of 
him, not long after, as mediator between the pope's nunet* 
and the four bishops of Aletb, of Beauvois, of Rainier** 
and of Angers, and he had so far the art of oeneiliatttig tb* 
most opposite tempers, as to effect a short4ived peace to 
the church of France. He went afterwards to Bavaria, by 
the appointment of Louis XIV. to negociate the marriage 
of the dauphin with the electoral princess, And to transact 
other affairs of importance; and afterwards he went tfc 
Rome, where be asserted the rights of France during the 
disputes about the regale, and was charged with all the 
business of the court, after the death of the duke his bra* 
ther, in 1689. He reconciled the disputes of the clergy 
with Rome, and had a great share in the elections ef pope* 
Alexander VIII. Innocent XII. and of Clement XL When 
Philip V. set out to tajte possession of the throne of Spain, 
the cardinal d'Estrles received orders to attend him, to be 
one of the ministry of that prince. He returned to France 
in 1703, and died in his abbey the 18th of December 1714, 
at the age of eighty-seven. The cardinal d'Estr£es was 
well- versed in the affairs both of chureh and state. With 
a comprehensive genius, he possessed agreeable and po- 
lite manners, $n amiable talent in conversation, a great 
. equality of temper, a love for literature, and was charitable 
to the poor. If he was not always successful in bit nego- 
ciations, it was neither the fault of his understanding nor 
tof bis prudence. He wrote, i. " L'Europe vivance et 
. inourante," Brussels (for Paris), 1?*9, 34&o. 2. « Re*, 
plique, au nom do M. Desgrouais, a la lettre de 1'abbe 
Desfontaines, inser£e dans le 6* vol. dea Jugemena de M. 
> Burlon de La Bushaquerie," Avignon, 1745, tSmo, 1 -? 
ENTREES (Gabrielle d'), sister of Francois Annibal 
d'Estr&s, was endowed from her birth with all the gift a and 
: graces of nature. Henry IV. who saw her for tho first 
time in 1591, at the eh&teau de Coeuvres, where she M^ed 
; with her father, was so smitten with ber figure and wk, 
that ha resolved to take her to be his favourite mistress. 
In order to obtain an interview, he disguised himself one 
dftv like a country pian., passed through the eaerev's^uar^ki 

«. WorerU-HBirt. H(fC 

* i 

ESTR E E S. 32$ 

wad punned bis way at the imminent hazard of his life. 
Oabnelle, who was fond of the duke de Bellegard, the 
master of the horse, hesitated at first to comply with the 
ardent affection of the king ; but the elevation of her father 
and of her brother, the sincere attachment of Henry, his 
pfiable and obliging manners, at length prevailed on her. 
Jn order that be might visit her more freely, Henry made 
ber marry Nicholas d'Amerval, lord of Liancourt, with 
whom she never cohabited. Henry loved her to so violent 
a degree, that though he was married, he was determined 
to make her his wife. It was in this view that Gabrielle 
engaged her fond lover to take up the Roman eatholic re* 
ligion, to enable him to obtain from the pope a bull to 
dissolve his marriage with Marguerite de Valois, and united 
Jier utmost efforts with those of Henry IV. to remove the 
obstacles that prevented their union ; but these schemes 
Were defeated by her sudden death, April 10, 1599. It is 
.pretended that she was poisoned by the rich financier 
Zamet: she died, however, in dreadful convulsions, and 
on -the day following her death, her face was so disfigured, 
that it was impossible to be known. Of all the mistresses 
of Henry, he w&s most attached to this woman, whom he 
made duchess of Beaufort, and at her death put on 
.mourning, as if she had been a princess of the blood, yet 
she bad not so entire a sway over his heart as to alienate 
him from his ministers that were not agreeable to her; 
lAuch less to make him dismiss them. She took occasion 
to say to him one day on the subject of Sully, with whom 
- abe was displeased ; " I had rather die, than live under 
the shame of seeing a footman upheld against me, who 
hfear the title of mistress.'* " Pardieu, madame," said 
Henry, '« this is too much; and I plainly perceive that 
yoa have been put upon this frolic as an attempt to make 
me turn away a servant whom I cannot do without. Bu$ 
J will no* comply ; and, that you maysel your heart at 
jcest, and not shew your peevish airs against my will, I de-* 
#lare to you, that if I were reduced to the necessity of 
.parting with one or the other, I could better do without 
ten mistresses like you than one servant like him*." During 
• .- • • . 

s *,Thi« trait of tbetvaperaonafeti* <J'ajme miens mourir que de yWre 

' to eytremely characteristic hi the ori* avec cette vcrgogi\e, de voir soutentt 

ipiftal, that we eacno* iefipt it a ptae*. on valet eontre mot, oui porte le titre 

r— " Kile lui disoit un jour au sujet de nattreise.' — »• * Pawiee, Madame** 

de Sully, doRt el|e etoit nafcoontente, lai repowft qeari* ' c'nt trop ; fc jo 

330 E S T R E E S. 

one of the festivities that Henry occasionally gave to Ga- 
brieile, dispatches were brought him that the Spaniards 
had taken possession of Amiens. M This stroke is from 
heaven," said be, " I have been long enough acting the 
king of France ; it is time to shew myself king of Navarre;*' 
and then turning to d'Estr£es, who, like him, was dressed 
put for the occasion, and who bad burst into tears, be said 
to her : " My mistress, we must quit our arms and mount 
on horseback, to engage in another sort of war." The 
same day he got together some troops ; and, laying aside 
the lover, assumed the hero, and marched towards Amiens. 
Henry IV. had three children by her ; Caesar duke of Ven- 
d&me, Alexander, and Henrietta, who married the marquis 
d'Elbceuf. 1 

ESTREES (Victor Marie d*), born in 1660, succeeded 
John, count d'Estr£es, his father, in the post of vice-ad- 
miral of France, which he filled with great reputation in 
die maritime parts of the Levant. He bombarded Barce- 
lona and Alicant in 1691, and commanded in 1697 the 
fleet at the siege of Barcelona ; being appointed in 1701 
lieutenant-general of the naval forces of Spain by Philip V. 
a station which he held together with that of vice-admi- 
ral of France, and thus had the command of the Spanish 
and French fleets. Two years afterwards, in 1703* he 
pas made marshal of France, and took the name of ma*&- 
chal des Cceuvres. This dignity was followed by those • of 
grandee of Spain, and knight of the golden fleece; ail which 
he merited by his heroic but prudent courage. Though 
the abb6 de St. Pierre describes him as a man of a capri- 
cious temper, he bad an excellent disposition, and was 
capable of strong attachments. The French academy, 
that of sciences, and that of inscriptions, admitted him of 
their societies. Amidst the tumultuous occupations of watf, 
lie never forgot the cultivation of letters. He died at 
Paris, Dec, 28, 1737, in the seventy-seventh year of his 
age, equally lamented by the citizen,- the scholar, and the 
philosopher- . He left no issue by his wife, Lucia Feikia 
-de Noailies.* 

▼ois bien qu'on vous a dressee a ce ba- contre ma ▼olonte, je tous declare, 

dinage, pour essayer de me fa ire que si j'etois reduit en cette necessity 

«hasser ud •ercitcur doqoel je ne puis de perdre I'an ou I'autre, je me pa** 

me passer. Mais je n'en feiai rien ; serois mieux de dix mattresses corame 

!& a&n que tous en teniez votre cceur vous, que d'un semtettr comme lui > . ,> 
en repo*, et ne fassiez plus 1'accariatre 

> Diet Hist * Ibid. 

ESTREES. -331 

ESTREES (Louis CiESAR, Duke d'), marshal of France, 
and minister of state, was born at Paris, July 1, 1695, the 
*q» of Frangois Michel le Tellier de Courtanvaux, captain* 
colonel of the Cent- Suisse*, son of the marquis <Je Louvois 
and Marie Anne Catherine d'Estrees, daughter of John 
count d'Es trees, vice-admiral and 'marshal of France. He 
first bore arms in the short war which the duke of Orleans, 
^regent, declared against Spain, and served under the com* 
jpand of the marechal de Berwick. Having attained. by his 
services the rank of field-marshal and inspector- general of 
(cavalry, he signalized himself in the war, of 17*1. The 
blockade of Egra, the passage of the Maine at Seliag- 
stadt, the battle of Fontenoi, the siege of Moos, that of 
Charleroi, &o. were among the exploits in which, he was 
concerned. He had the greatest share in the victory of 
Laufeldt; and marshal Sa,xe, an excellent judge of mili- 
tary merit, trusted him on various occasions with the moat 
critical manoeuvres. On the breaking out of the war in 
1756, Louis XV. who had promoted him to the rank of 
marshal of France, Feb. 24, 1757, .appointed him to the 
command of the army in Germany, consisting of upwards 
of 100,000 men. He set .out in the beginning of spring, 
after having shewn the monarch the plan of operations. 
" At the beginning of July," said he, " I shall have pushed 
the enemy beyond the Weser, and shall be ready to pene- 
trate into the electorate of Hanover ;" and, not content 
with effecting this, he gave battle to the duke of Cumber- 
land at Hastembeck, the 26th of July ;. after this, he was 
replaced by marshal Richelieu, who profited by the ad- 
vantages that had been gained, to obtain the capitulation 
of Ciosterseven, by which the Hanoverians engaged to re- 
gnain neuter during the rest of the war. Marshal d' Est reel, 
recalled by intrigues at court, and sent to Giessen, after 
the battle of Minden, took no share in the command, bat 
contented himself with giving useful advice to M. de Con- 
tades. He obtained the brevet of duke in 1763,, and be 
,died the 2d of January, 1771, at the age of seventy-si*. 
Marshal d'Estrees children. 1 

ETH ELBERT, king of Kent, and the first Christian 
king among the Anglo-Saxons, succeeded to the throne 
about the year 560. He began his reign, In order to re* 
Vive the reputation of bis family, by making war qyoa the 

1 Diet, HiaU 


Jiiag of Wessex, by whom he was twice defeated, though 
be was afterwards triumphant, and acquired the complete 
ascendancy over Wessex and the other states, except 
Northumberland, and reduced them to the condition of his 
tributaries or dependants. In the reign of Ethelbert* 
Christianity was introduced into England. The king bad 
married Bertha, daughter of the king of Paris, who, being 
a Christian, had stipulated for the free exercise of her re- 
ligion, and bad carried over in her train a French bishop. 
So exemplary in every respect were her life and conduct, 
that she inspired tbe king and bis court with a high respect 
for her person, and for the religion by which she appeared 
to be influenced.. The pope, taking advantage of this cir- 
cumstance, sent a mission of forty monks, at the head of 
whom was Augustin, to preach the gospel in the island. 
They landed in Kent, in the year 597, and were well and 
hospitably received by Ethelbert, who assigned them ha- 
bitations in the isle of Thanet* A conference was held, 
and the king took time to consider of tbe new doctrines 
propounded to him ; and in the mean while gave tbem full 
liberty to preach to his subjects. Numbers were converted, 
*nd s*t length the king submitted to a public baptism* (S$e 
Augustine). Christianity proved tbe means of promoting 
knowledge and civilisation .in this island j and the king, 
with the consent of his states, enacted a body of laws, 
which was tbe first written code promulgated by the nor- 
thern conquerors. Ethelbert died in the year 616, and left 
his crown, after a reign of fifty years, to his son Edbald^ 
ETHEREGE (George), a celebrated wit and comic 
writer in tbe reigns of king Charles II. and king James II, 
is said to have been descended of an ancient family in Ox- 
fordshire, or allied to it He was bom about 1636, o*t 
•very distant from London, it is believed, as some of bis 
nearest relations appear to have been settled not far from 
this metropolis. It is thought he was partly educated at 
the university of Cambridge, but travelled into Franc?, 
'tvi*d perhaps Flanders also, in his younger years. At bis 
retujrn, he studied for a while tbe municipal laws at one of 
the ipns of court in London ; but the polite company he 
kept, and bis own natural talents, inclining him rather to 
court the favour of the muses and cultivate the belles let* 
tres, he produced his first dramatic performance in 1664, 
entitled *' Tbe Comical Revenge; or, Love in a tub/' which 

• Hist, of England. - ; - * 


Rro tight him Acquainted, as he himself infofttis ii3, with 
Charles afterwards earl of Dotset, to whom it is dedicated.. 
Its fame also, with his lively humour, engaging edritfer- 
Nation, and refined taste in the fashionable gallantries of 
the town, soon established him id the societies, and ren- 
dered hiirt the delight of those leading wits among the 
quality and gentry of chief rank and distinction, who made 
pleasure the chief business of their lives, and rendered 
that feign the most dissolute of any in our history ; such as 
George Villiers duk6 of Bucks, John Wilmot eari of Ro- 
chester, sir Car Scroop, sir Charles Sedley, Henry 8avile>, 
&c. Encouraged by his first success, he brought another 
comedy upon the stage, in 16(>8, entitled "She would if 
she could," which gained him no less applause, and it was 
'supposed he would, now make the stage his principal pur- 
suit, but whether from indolence, or his pleasurable en* 
gagements, thef e was an interval of above seven years be- 
fore the appearance of his next and last dramatic produc- 
tion, entitled M The Man of Mode ; or, Sir Fopling Fluttei*." 
It is dedicated by him to the duchess of York, who then 
was Mary, the daughter of the duke of Modena; in the 
service of which duchess our author, as he says in his said 
dedication, then was. This play still exalted his reputa- 
tion, even above what both the former had done ; he hav- 
ing therein, as perhaps he had also partly set himself some 
example in the others before, shadowed forth {but some*, 
what disguisedty) some of bis noted acquaintance and eon- 
temporaries, who were known, or thought to be so, by bis 
"fcaid draughts of them, to many of the audience ; and this 
tendered the play very popular. In the famous poem Writ- 
ten by the lord Rochester, after the example of sir John 
Suckling's upon the like subject, Apolto finds some plau- 
sible pretence of exception to the claim of every poetical 
Candidate for the laurel crown ; therefore our poet, by the 
Scheme of drift of it, could escape no less disappointment 
•than the test: yet his lordship, to do him ample justice, 
bas sufficiently shewed his merits to it, in every thrnfg bat 
ftis pefsevefance to exert them ; which,* after having first 
of all discarded Mr. Dryden, he next expresses thus : 

** Thfe teverend author was no sooner set by, 
But Apollo had got gentle George in his eye $ ' *• 

And fraitfrty confessed, of all men that writ. 
There's none had more fancy, sense, judgment, or wit :; *, 
But i' th* crying sin idleness he was so harden d, 
That his long seven years* sileacp is not to be pardon cL" 

8$4 E T H E R E G E. 

Which shews that the poem in which these Hues are writ- 
ten was just before the publication of our author's last 
comedy* Sir George was addicted to great extravagance?; 
being too free of his purse in gaming, and of his constitu- 
tion with women and wine ; which embarrassed his for* 
tufie, impaired his health, and exposed him to many re- 
flections. Gildon says, that for marrying a fortune he 
was knighted; but it is said in a poem of those times, 
which never was printed (MS collection of satires, in the 
Harleian collection), that, to make some reparation of his 
circumstances, he courted a rich old widow; whose ambi- 
tion was such, that she would not marry him unless he 
could make her a lady ; which he was forced by the pur- 
chase of knighthood to do. This was probably about 1683. 
We bear not of any issue he had by this lady ; but he co- 
habited^ whether before or after this said marriage is not 
known, for some time with Mrs. Barry, the actress, and 
had a daughter by her ; on whom he settled five or six 
thousand pounds ; but she died young. From the same 
intelligence we have also learnt, that sir George was, in 
his person, a fair, slender, genteel man ; but spoiled his 
countenance with drinking, and other habits of intern-' 
perance; and, in his deportment, very affable and cour- 
teous, of a sprightly and generous temper; which, with 
his free, lively, and natural vein of writing, acquired him 
(he general character of Gentle George and Easy Ethercge; 
in respect to which qualities we may often find him com* ' 
pared with sir Charles Sedley. His courtly address, and 
other accomplishments, won him the favour of the duchess * 
of York, afterwards, when king James was crowned, his 
queen ; by whose interest and recommendation he was - 
sent ambassador abroad. In a certain pasquil that was 
written upon him, it is intimated as if he was sent upon 
some embassy to Turkey. Gildon says, that, being in - 
particular esteem with king James's consort, he was settt 
envoy to Hamburgh ; but it is in several books evident, 
that he was, in that reign, a minister at Ratisbon ; at least 
from 1686 to the* time that his majesty left this kingdom, 
if not later ; and this appears also from his own letters 
which he wrote thence ; some to the earl of Middleton, in 
verse ; to one of which his lordship engaged Mr. Dryden 
to return a poetical answer, in which he invites sir Ge6rge 
to write another play ; and, to keep . him in countenance 
for his having been so dilatory in his last, reminds him how ; 


long the comedy, or farce, of the " Rehearsal" liad been 
patching). by the duke of Buckingham, before it appeared: 
but we meet with nothing more of our author's writing for 
the stage. There are extant some other letters of his in 
prose, which were written also from Ratisbon; two of 
which be seat to the duke of Buckingham when he was in 
his recess. As for his other compositions, such as have 
been printed, they consist, for the greatest part, of little 
airy sonnets, lampoons, and panegyrics, of no great 
poetical merit, although suited to the gay and careless taste 
of the times. All that we have met with, of his prose, is a 
short piece, entitled " An Account of the rejoycing at the 
diet of Ratisbonne, performed by sir George Etberege, 
knight, residing therefrom his majesty of Great Britain $ 
upon occasion of the birth of the prince of Wales. In a 
letter from himself. 9 ' Printed in the Savoy, 1688. How 
far beyond this or the next year he lived, the writers on 
our poets, who have spoken of him, have been, as in many 
other particulars of his life, so in the time when he died, 
very deficient. In Gildon's short and imperfect account 
of, him, it is said, that after the revolution he went for 
France to his master, and died there, or very soon after 
his arrival thence in England. But there was a report, 
thai sir George came to an untimely death by an unlucky 
accident at Ratisbon ; for, after having treated some com- 
pany with a liberal entertainment at his house there, in 
'which having perhaps taken his glass too freely, and being, * 
through bis great complaisance, too forward in waiting on 
some of bis guests at their departure, flushed as he was, he 
tunpkbled down the stairs and broke his neck. — Sir George 
ha^l v a brother, who lived and died at Westminster ; he had 
been a great courtier, yet a man of such strict honour, that 
hq was esteemed a reputation to the family. He had been 
jtwice married, and by his first wife had a son ; a littler 
ma»,.of a brave spirit, who inherited the honourable prin- 
ciples of his father. He was a colonel in king William's 
wars; was near him in one of the most dangerous battles 
in Flanders, probably it was the battle of Landen in 1693, 
when his majesty was wounded, and the colonel both lost 
his right eye, and received a contusion on his side. He 
was -offered, .in queen Anne's ceign, twenty-two hundred 
pounds for bis commission, but refused to live at home in 
peace when his country was at war. This colonel Rtherege 
djfcd at Ealing ju Middlesex, about the third or fourth 

336 1 T H E 11 E 61 

year of king George I. and was buried in Kensingtotf 
churchy near the altar ; where ihere is a tombstone ovef 
his vault, in which were also buried his wife, son, and 
sister. That son was graciously received at court by queen 
Anne ; and, soon after his father returned from the wars 
in Flanders under the duke of Marlborough, she gave him 
an ensign's commission, intending farther to promote him, 
in reward of his father's service; but be died a youth : and 
the sister married Mr. Hill of Feversbam in Kent ; but we 
bear not of any male issue surviving. The editors of the 
Biographia Dramatica observe, that, aa a writer, sir George 
Etherege was certainly born a poet, and appears to have 
been possessed of a genius, the vivacity of which had little 
cultivation ; for there are no proofs of bis having been a 
scholar. Though the " Comical Revenge" succeeded very 
well upon the stage, and met with general approbation for 
a considerable time, it is now justly laid aside on account 
of its immorality. This is the case,- likewise, with regard 
to sir George's other plays. Of the " She would if she 
could," the critic Dennis says, that though it was esteem- 
ed by men of sense for the trueness of some of its charac- 
ters, and the purity, freeness, and easy grace of its dia- 
logue, yet) on its first appearance, it was barbarously treat* 
ed by the audience. If the auditors were offended with 
the licentiousness of the comedy, their barbarity did them 
honour ; but it is probable that, at that period, they were 
influenced by some other consideration. Exclusively of 
its loose tendency, the play is pronounced to be undoubt- 
edly a very good one ; and it was esteemed as one of the 
first rank at the time in which it was written. However* 
Shadwell's encomium upon it will be judged to be too ex- 

But the production of sir George Etherege which has 
been most applauded, and on which his reputation has 
been principally founded, is his " Man of Mode* or tit 
Fopling Flutter." " This," says the Biographia Drama* 
tica, " is an admirable play. The characters in k are 
strongly marked, the plot agreeably conducted, add the 
dialogue truly polite and elegant. The character of Dori* 
mant is, perhaps, the only completely fine gentleman that 
has ever yet been brought on the English stage ; at the . 
same time, that in that of sir Fopling may be traced thg 
groundwork of almost all the Foppingtons and petit-maftre^ 
which appeared in the succeeding comedies of that period. 91 

E T H E R E G & 38t 

In another patt of the Biographia Dramatica it is asserted, 
that " The Man of Mode" is, perhaps, the most elegant 
comedy, and contains more of the real manners of high 
life, than any one with which the English stage was ever 
adorned. That the play exhibits a spirited representation 
of what were then living characters is Hot denied ; but, to 
the praises which are so generally and indiscriminately 
given of it, we must be permitted to oppose the censures 
of sir Richard Steele, in the sixty- fifth number of the 

In Spence's anecdotes we learn that sir Gfeorge was him- 
self a great fop, and exactly his orirn sir Fopling Flutter* 
but that he designed Doriolant for his own picture. * 

ETHRYG (George), or Etheridge, or, as in Latin he 
writes himself, Edrycus, probably an ancestor of the pre- 
ceding, was born at Thame in Oxfordshire, and admitted 
of Corpus Christi college, Oxford, in 1534; of which he 
was made probationer fellow in 1539. In 1543 he wad 
licensed to proceed in arts ; and, two years after, admitted 
to read any of the books of Hippocrates' s aphorisms* At 
length, being esteemed an. excellent Grecian, he was 
made the king's professor of that language about 1 £53, 
and so continued till some time after Elizabeth came to the 
crown, when, on account of his joining in the persecution 
of the protestants in Mary's reign, was forced to leave it. 
He practised medicine with great success in Oxford, where 
he mostly lived ; and also took under his care the sons o( % 
many popish gentlemen, to be instructed in the several 
arts and sciences ; among whom was William GifFord, af- 
terwards archbishop of Rheims. He was reckoned a very 
sincere man, and adhered to the last to the catholic reli- 
gion, though he suffered exceedingly by it. Wood tells 
us, that he was living an ancient man in 1588 ; but does 
net know when be died. He was a great mathematician, 
skilled in vocal and instrumental music, eminent for his 
knowledge of- the Greek and Hebrew languages, a poet, 
and, above all, a physician. There are musical composi- 
tions and Latin poems of his still extant in manuscript. In 
manuscript also he presented to queen Elizabeth, when she 
was at Oxford in 1566, "Acta Henrici Octavi, carmine 
Gwbco." He also turned the psalms into a short form of 

1 Biog, Brit.— Biof, Dram.— Nichols's Poenps.-^Tatler aitf Spectator, witk 
»*tes, edit. 1801, 8vo, 

Vol. XIII. Z 


Hebrew verse ; and translated the works of Justin Martyr 
into Latin. In 1538 was published by him in 8vo, u Hy- 
pomnemata qusedam in aliquot Kbros Paoli jEginetse, seu 
observationes medicamentorum qui hac state in usu sunt?" 
The antiquary Leland was his intimate friend, and in hi* 
fcfe~time celebrated his praises in these lines : 

" Scripsisti, juvenis, multa cum laude libellos > 
Qui regi eximie perplacuere meo." ! 


ETTMULLEti (Michael), a physician, was born at 
Leipsic, May 26, 1644, and studied there and at Wittem- 
berg. He took his master's degree at Leipsic in 1662', tra- 
velled for two years in Italy, France, England, and Holland; 
on his return was admitted M. D. at Leipsic in 1666, where 
he assiduously read and disputed, was appointed in 1676 as- 
sessor of the faculty, and afterwards, in 1681, ordinary pro- : 
fessor of botany, and extraordinary professor of surgery, 
and anatomy. He wrote, 1. "Synopsis collegii institu- 
tionum medicarum." 2. " Institutions medico/' 3. 
"Collegium chymicum." 4. " Collegium pharmaceutic 
cnm." 5. " De pnescribendis formulis." 6. " Collegium., 
practicum ddctrinale." 7. " Tract, de morborum cura- 
lionibus.'* 8. " Ftmdamenta medicinal vera." 9, Chy- * 
nria rationale & experimentalis curiosa ; which ld£t Was 
published by John Ephraim Aussfeldt, Leyden, 1684, 4to^ 
10. " Dissertationes de corpulentia nimia," and many other 
topics, which were published together in 1 708, at franc- 
fort On the Mayne, by his son Dr. Michael Ernest Ettmul- 
ler, and also in 1729 at Naples by professor Cyrillo, in 5 
roU. folio, with annotations, and are highly esteemed not 
orily in Germany buf over all Europe. He fell ill, after an 
Unsuccessful cherriical operation, and died in the prime of 
life, March 9, 1683. f 

ETTMULLER (Michael Ernest), a physician, son of 
the preceding, was born at Leipsic, Aug. 26, 1673. In 
1692 he entered of the academy at Wittemberg, and in 
1694 removed to Leipsic, where he took his master's de- 
gree, after which he set out on a tour through England, 
Holland, and Germany, and took the degree of M. D. at 
Leipsic, in 1697. In 1702, he was made professor, extra** 
ordinary of medicine, and member of the imperial acade- 

* Atb. Ox. rol. I.— Warton's History of Poetry, ?o). Ill, f» 0S4*— Do&fcs , 
Church History, vol I. 
t Morcri^-MwigeU— Uallter BiH. M«d. Pwrt. 

E-T'f M tJ t L E ft. &*0 

my Nature Curiosorum ; in 1706 extraordinary professor 
of anatomy and surgery t and physician to the Lazaretto at 
Leipsic ; io 1710 assessor of the medicinal faculty; in! 
17 J 9 professor of physiology in ordinary; in 1724 profes- 
sor of pathology of the academy decemvir, and collegiate 
of the grand ducal college; and in 1730, director of tfye 
imperial academy of Naturae Curiosorum. tie died Sept, 
25th, 1733. He published his father's works, with a pre- 
face, and wrote various dissertations on medical subjects, 
and contributed various papers to the "Acta Eruditorum," 
and to the Collections of the " Naturae Curiosorum." ' 

EUBULIDES, of Miletus, a philosopher of the Megaric, 
school, who flourished about the 105th olympiad, or the, 
year 360 B. C. was the disciple and successor of Euclid, 
and a strenuous opponent of Aristotle, whose writings and 
character he took every occasion of censuring and calum- 
niating: He is rrtost remarkable, however, for. having in-J. 
troduced new* subtleties into the art of disputation,, several . 
of which, though often mentioned as proofs of great inge- 
nuity, deserve only to be remembered as examples of 
egregious trifling. Of these sophistical modes of reason- 
ing, tailed by Aristotle Eristic syllogisms, the following 
^may suffice: 1. Of rfie sophism, callea fronj the example, 
The tying : " if' when you speak the truth, you say ypu , 
lie, you lie; but you say you lie, when you speak the 
truth; therefore, in speaking the truth, you lie." 2. TAe# 
Occult, u Do you know your father ? Yes. Do you Ipow \ 
this man who is veiled ? No. Then you do not know vpur. 
father; for it is your father who is veiled.'* 3. &orites p 
€€ Is one grain a heap t No. Two grains ? No. Three 
grains r No. Go on, adding one by one; and, if one 
grain b£ Hot a heap, it will be impossible to say, what 
number of grains make 1 a heap/' 4. The tlomed. " You . 
bate what you have riot lost; you have not lost horns; 
therefore you have horns." In such high repute were 
these silly inventions for perplexing plain truth, that CJiry- 
feipptis wrote six books upon the first of these sophisms; \ 
and Philetas, a Choan, died of a consumption which he 
contracted by the close study which he bestowed upon, it. \ . 

EtJCMftRIUS, archbishop of Lyons, of the fifth cejp- : 
tury, wad of an illustrious family, and so reputed tor his.. 

piety that he jyas afterwards sainted. He retired with hit 

> i 


1 Monri^—Hctler. • Brocker.— StMley't Hurt^— Dion. LMrttafe 

Z 2 


sons .Salonius j*nd Veranius info .the solitude of Llrins, 
after having distributed a part, of his property among the 
poor, and divided the other part between his daughters. 
After some time he quitted the isle of L6rins, where the 
fime of his Virtues brought him much applause, and went 
over to that of L6ro, at present called St. Marguerite. It 
#as not till after repeated solicitations that he was prevailed 
ujioh to leave this desert for the see of I*yons, » which dig- 
lirty he accepted about the year 434. In this capacity he 
assisted at the first, .council of Orange in the year 44 1 1 
where he acquired much reputation for bis judicious 
speeches. He died about the year 454. History has not 
handed down to us the events of his episcopate : but Clau- 
cHan Mamertius informs us, that Euchcrius frequently. held 
(Joniferehces &t 'Lyons, in which he gave proofs of his learn-* 
. ing ajrd judgment, that he often preached, and always with 
silfccess, and that he was accounted the greatest prelate of 
his age. He wrotq several books in the ascetic taste of the 
titties. I. " In praise of the desert," addressed to St. 
Hilary^ in which, it must be ow t necj, he paints that of 
E^rins in very pleasing colours, and the style is in general 
elegant. 2/ A tract' "On the .contempt of the world ;*• 
translated into French by Arnauct d'Apdiliy, a$ well as the 
ftirmer; 1672, 1 2mo. They are both in the form of letters ; 
the latter addressed to his kinsman* Valerian. 3. " On spi- 
ritual formularies j" for the use of Veranius, one of his 
'sons. ; 4. " T^ie history of St Maurice aud the Martyrs of 
the Thfebaic legion. *\ All these are in the Bibliotheca. 
Pat rum.. His two sons, Salonius and Veranius, were bi- 
shops .even during the lifetime of their father. l 

EUCLID, an eminent philosophers who flourished in 
the 97th olympiad,* about 390 B. C. was the founder of the 
Megaric sect, which Was so-called from Megara, where he 
Was 'born. He was endued by nature with a sqbtlq and 
penetrating genius, and applied himself early to the study 
of piulosophy. The • writings of Pai;menides first taught 
bim the art 'of disputation," Hearing ofc the fame of So- 
cfates, Euclid removed from ftfegara to Athens, where he \ 
long remained a constant hearer, and zealous disciple, of that 
philosopher; and such'wa^ his regard for' him, that, when, 
in consequence of the enmity Which subsisted between the 
Athenians and Megariaris,' a decree was passed by the for- 

1 Cave, vol* L— Dopin.— Moreii— Saxii Onomasticon. 


E"U C L I D.' 3*^ 

mer, that any inhabitant of Megara, who shduld be'sefm* 
in Athens should forfeit his life, he frequently' dame' tip 
Athens by night, from the distance of about 1 twenty 'rriil€s^ 
concealed in a long female cloaVanri veil, -to visit hflP 
master. But as his natural propensity to'dispatattott was 1 - 
not sufficiently gratified itf the tranquil rfi^thdd of :j phi** 
losophisinglidopted by Socrates, he frequently ehga'g^lf ii^ 
the business and disputes of the civil courts, at whi*h v *So«^ 
crates, who despised forensic contests, expressed^'somfe* 
dissatisfaction. This probably was the occasion <4f 'a'sejft-]* 
ration between Euclid and his master; for we Btid'tolm^ 
after this time, at the head of a school in* Megafayiif 
which his chief employment was, to teach the art of cMsjte* 1 
tation, which he did with so mifch vehemence, that T4monf 
said, Euclid had carried the? madness of contention ; fir<*iri 
Athens to Megara. He was,however, at tinted sufficiently 
master of his temper, as appears from hife reply to his- bro- 
ther, who in a quarrel had said, " Lei me perish if -I ber 
hot revenged on you :° " and let me perish," returned 
Euclid, u if I do not subdue ydur rfesentmertt by forbear-' 
ance, and make you love me as much as ever." • In <Hspu-» 
tation, Euclid was averse to the analdgical method of rea* 
soning, and judged, that legitimate argumentation consists 
in deducitig fair conclusions from acknowledged premises* 
He held, that there is one supreme good,' which he called 
by the different names of Intelligence, Providence, -God • 
and that evil, considered as an opposite principle to the 
sovereign good, has no physical exrstehce.' The supreme 
good he defined to be that which is always the same. Good! 
he therefore considered abstractedly, as residing in the* 
Deity, and he seems to have maintained, that all things 
which exist are good by their participation of the first 
good, and that in the nature of things there is no real evil; 
When Euclid was asked his opinion concerning the gods, 
be replied, " I know nothing more of them than this: that 
they hate inquisitive persons, 9 ' an answer which at that 
time, and remembering the fate of Socrates, shows his pru- 
dence at least. l 

EUCLID, the celebrated mathematician, according to 
the account of Pappus and Prod us, was born at Alexan- 
dria, in Egypt, where he flourished and taught mathe- 
matics, with great applause, under the reign of Ptolemy 

I Gen, Di<jt,— Brucker*— SUnUy's Hift,— Diogenes Lacrtios, 

34fc E U C L I a 

LagQs, about 280 years before Christ Apd here, from his 
time till the conquest of Alexandria by the Saracens, all 
the eminent mathematicians were either born, er studied ; 
am) it is to Euclid, and his scholars, we are beholden for 
Eratosthenes^ Archimedes, Apollonius, Ptolemy, Theon, 
&c. &c. He reduced into regularity and order all the fun-* 
damental principles. of pure mathematics, which had been 
delivered down by Tbales, Pythagoras, Eudoxus, and other 
Mathematicians before him, and added many others of his 
awn discovering : on which, account it is said be was the. 
first who reduced, arithmetic and geometry into the form of 
a, science. He likewise applied himself to the study o£ 
mixed mathematics, particularly, to astronomy and optics, 
flis works, as we learn frdnot Pappus and Proclus, are the; 
$ieipents, Qtata, Introduction to Harmony, Phenomena, 
Qptica, Catoptrics, a Treatise of the Division of Super- 
ficies, Porisws, Loci ad Superficiem, Fallacies, and four 
books pf Conies. The most, celebrated of these, is the 
filaments of Geometry, first published at Basil, 1533, by 
Simon GryneBus, of which there have been numberless 
editions, in all languages; and a fine edition of all his 
\yorfcs was printed in 1703, by Dr. David Gregory, Sa- 
yijian professoj- of astrpnomy at Oxford, which is the most^ 
complete, and is illustrated by the notes of sir Henry" 
Savile, and dissertations and discussions on the authenti- 
city of the several pieces attributed to Euclid* 

The Element?, as commonly, published, consist of 1 5 
bpokfr/of which the two last it is suspected are not Euclid's, 
but a comment of Hypsicles of Alexandria, who lived 200 
years after EucJicJ. They are divided into three parts, viz* 
tb# Contemplation of Supecfipies, Numbers, and Solids: 
the first 4 .hooks treat of pl^n^s only ; the 5th of the pro-* 
portion*. of magpitijdes in general; the 6th of the propor- 
tion of plane figures ; the 7th, 8th, and 9th give us the 
fuudamental prqpertie? of numbers; the 10th contains the 
theory of cpmqiensurable and incommensurable lines and 
spaces; the |lth, 12th, 13th, 14th, and 15th, treat of the 
doctrine of solids. There can be no doubt that, before Eu« 
clid, Elements of Geometry were compiled by Hippocrates 
of Chips, Eudoxus, Leon, and many others, mentioned by 
Prpclus in the beginning of his second book ; for he af- 
firms that Ei*clid new ordered many things in the Elements 
of Eudoxus, completed many things in those of Theatetus, 
and besides strengthened such propositions as before were 

EUGLItt S43 

(oo slightly, or but superficially established, with the moat 
firm and convincing demonstrations. 

Euclid, as a writer on music, has ever been held in the 
highest estimation by all men of science who have treated 
of harmonics, or the philosophy of sound. As Pythagoras 
was allowed by the Greeks to have been the first who found 
but musical ratios, by the division of a monochord, or 
single string, a discovery which tradition only had pre? 
served, Euclid was the first who wrote upon the subject, 
and reduced these divisions to mathematical demonstration* 
His " Introduction to Harmonics," which in some MSSv 
was attributed to Cleonidas, is in the Vatican «opy given 
to Pappus; Meibomius, however, accounts for this, by 
supposiug those copies to have teen only two different MS 
editions of Euclid's work, which had been revised, cor- 
rected, and restored from the corruptions incident to fre« 
quent transcription by Cleonidas and Pappus, whose names 
were, on that account, prefixed. It first appeared in print 
with a Latin version, in 1498, at Venice, under the title 
of " Cleonidae Harmonicum Introductorium :" who Cleo- 
nidas was, neither the editor, George Valla, nor any one 
else pretends to know. It was John Pena, a mathemati- 
cian in the service of the king of France, who first pub-! 
lished this work at Paris, under the name of Euclid, 1557/ 
After this, it went through several editions with bis othet 

His u Section of the Canon," follows * his " Introduce 
tion ;" it went through the same hands and the same edi* 
tions, and is mentioned by Porphyry, in bis Commentary on l 
Ptolemy, as the work of Euclid. This trapt chiefly con- 
tains short and clear definitions of the several parts of 
Greek music, in which it is easy to see that mere melody 
was concerned ; as he begins by telling us, that the science ! 
of harmonics considers the nature and use of melody, and 
consists of seven parts : sounds, intervals, genera, systems, 
keys, mutations, and melopceia ; all which have been se- 
verally considered in the, dissertation. Of all the writings 
upon ancient music,, that are come down to u*, this seems, 
to be the most correct and .compressed; the rest are gene- 
rally loose and diffused; the authors either twisting and 
distorting every thing to a favourite system, or filling their 
books with metaphysical 1 jargon, with Pythagoric dreams,. 
and Platonic fancies, wholly foreign to music. But Eu- 
clid, in this little treatise, is like himself, close and clear ; 


yet so mathematically short and diy, that he bestows not 
a syllable more upon the subject than is absolutely neces- 
sary. His object seems to have been the compressing into 
a scientific and elementary abridgment, the more diffused 
and speculative treatises of Aristoxenus. 

History is silent as to the time of Euclid's death, or his 
age* He is represented as a person of a courteous and 
agreeable behaviour, and in great esteem and familiarity 
with king Ptolemy ; who once asking him, whether there 
was any shorter way of coming at geometry than by his 
Elements, Euclid, a$ Proclus testifies, made answer, that 
there was no royal way or path to geometry. l 

EUD^EMON (John Andrew), a learned Jesuit, was a 
native of Crete, and supposed to be descended from the 
imperial family of the Palaeiologi. He went to Rome in 
pursuit of knowledge, and entered himself a member of the 
society of Jesus.. He was afterwards professor of philoso- 
phy, and then of theology in the university of Padua, rec- 
tor of the Greek college in Rome, and censor of the inqui- 
sition. He was honoured with the esteem and friendship 
of pope Urban VIII. who appointed him chaplain to his 
nephew cardinal Francis Barberini, when he was sent papal 
legate into France. He died at Rome Dec. 24, 1625. He 
was suspected to be the author of a work entitled " Ad- 
monitio ad Regem Ludovicum XIII." which attacked the 
authority of the kings of France, in matters of an ecclesi- 
astical nature. This treatise brought the Jesuits into gene- 
ral disrepute ; it was likewise censured by the faculty of 
the Sorbonne, and the assembly of the clergy at Pans in 
1626, and condemned by the parliament. He merits no- 
tice here, however, chiefly for having frequently entered 
the lists of controversy with many eminent English divines, 
who wrote against popery about the beginning of the 
seventeenth century, particularly Burhill, Prideaux, Ab- 
bot, and Collins, but the titles of his works niay now be 
spared. 1 - • 

• EUDES (John), brother of the celebrated historian Me- 
zerai, was bom at Rye in the diocese of Se£s in 1601, and 
was educated, and studied for eighteen years in the con- 
gregation of the oratory, under the eyes of the cardinal de 

i Huttoo's Math. Diet.— Martin** Biog . Phjlosopbica.— BurneyY History of 
Music, vol. I. and article in Reel's Cyclopaedia. — Saxii Onoraast 
? Alegambe.Tt-Moreri.— Cletfient Bifcl. C^rieysc^Dodtfs Qburcfe flirt. 

EUDES. 34 $ 

BernUe. This he quitted in 1 643, to institute the eongrega* 
tion of the Eudists, or as it was called, " The congregation 
of Jesus and Mary.'' His former brethren opposing the 
establishment of this society, Eudes concealed a part of 
his project, and confined his views to a house at Caen,* for 
the purpose of bringing up priests, " but without any tier 
feign," said he, " to form a new institution," and bis scherife 
succeeded by means of this pious fraud; Eudes 'wai 
reckoned a good preacher in his time, when the eloquence 
of the pulpit was in its ruder state ; and, being followed 
on account of this talent, his congregation increased, pritfl- 
cipally in Normandy and Bretany. Eudes died at Gaenj 
Aug. 19th, 1680, in the 79th year of bis age; leaving/be- 
hind him several works of the popish mystical kind, the 
principal of which are, 1. M Traite de la devotion et dfe 
1' office du cceur de la Vierge," 1650, 12mo. 2. "LeCon- 
trat de l'homme avec Dieu," 12mo. The congregation of 
the Eudists had had eight superior-generals at the time of 
the revolution. •* * 

EUDOCIA, a Roman empress (wife to Theodosius the 
younger), whose proper name was Athenats, was the 
daughter of Leontius, an Athenian philosopher, and born 
about the year 400. Her father took such care of her edu- 
cation, that she became at length so accomplished in learn- 
ing, that, at his death, he left his whole estate to his two 
sons, except an hundred pieces of gold, which be be- 
queathed to his daughter, with this declaration, that " her 
own good fortune would be sufficient for her."- This com* 
pliment, however, did not satisfy her, and having gone to 
law with her brothers, without success, she carried her 
cause to Constantinople, where she was recommended to 
Pulcheria, sister of the emperor Theodosius the younger, 
and became her favourite. • In the year 42 1 9he embraced 
Christianity, and changed her name from Athen&is to En* 
docia* and the same year was married to the emperor, 
through the powerful recommendation of his sister; by 
which event her falher's prophecy appeared to be fulfilled. 
, Amidst all the grandeur of her hew situation,' she stilLcon- 
-tinued to lead a very studious and philosophic life,* spend- 
ing much of her time in reading and writing;- and lived 
very happily till the year 445,* when an apparently trifling 
accident exposed her to the emperor's jealousy. The em- 
peror, it is said, having sent her an apple of an extraordinary 

I Moreru— 0kt. Hist, 

*4« EUDOCU. 

size, she sent it to Paulinus, whom she respected on atf* 
count of his learning. Paulinus, not khp wing from whom 
it came, presented it to the emperor ; who, soou after see- 
ing the empress? asked her what she had done with it. 
She, being apprehensive of raising suspicions in her hus- 
band^ if she, should tell him that she had given it to Pan* 
Unus, very unwisely declared that she had eaten it, which 
excited a suspicion of her intimacy with Paulinus, that; 
seemed to be confirmed by her confusion on his producing 
the apple. lie also put Paulinus to death. Upon this she 
went to Jerusalem, where she spent many years in building 
and adorning churches, and in relieving the poor. It is 
said that even when here, the jealousy of Theodosius pur- 
awed her, and that bearing she visited the priest Severus 
and the deacon John, he sent Saturninus with orders to 
put them both to death. Eudocia was so irritated at this 
barbarous persecution, that she for once stained the purity 
of her own life, by procuring Saturninys to be murdered. 
Dupin says, she did not return while the emperor lived ; 
but Cave tells 119, that she was reconciled to him, returned 
to Constantinople, and continued with him till his death j 
after which, she went again to Palestine, where she spent 
the remainder of her life in pious works. She died about 
A* D. 4GO; and, as Cave says, upon her death-bed, took 
a soleihn oath, by which she declared herself entirely free 
from any*tains of unchastity. 

She wrote several pieces in prose and verse ; of the lafc* 
ter sort, I. An heroic poem, mentioned by Socrates, upon 
the victory gained by her husband Theodosius over the 
Persians. £. A paraphrase of the eight first books of the 
Bible; and, 3. A history of the martyrs Cyprian and Jus- \ 
tina, in heroic metre likewise: of the former kind, 4. A ' 
paraphrase upon the prophecies of Daniel ai)d Zecharias, 
which, according to Photius, must rather be deemed a 
translation, and a strict one ; for he says, that she adheres 
closely to the sacred text, without adding, diminishing, or 
changing any thing* Cape tells us also, that she finished 
and digested the Centones Honaerici, or the life of Jesus 
Christ, in heroic verses, taken from Homer, which were 
begun by Pelagius, a patrician. This was printed under 
the title " Homerici centonefc, Virgiliani cfen tones, Nonni 
paliphrasia evangelii Joaiinis," Gr. & Lat. H. Stephamis* ' 
1578, 16 mo. It is also in the Bibl. Patjrum. ' , .*..-.,. < 

* Gen. Diet— Cave, vol. I»*-Dapia.--3iof . Unir, art Athenaif ,— Saxii Chiom. 

E U D 9 X I U S. 14? 

EUDOXIUS, the founder of a sect of heretics in tha 
fourth century, was a native of Arabissus in Armenia Minor, 
and patriarch of Antioch, to which he was advanced in the 
year 256, and of Constantinople, to which he was pro- 
moted in the year 359, and which he retained till bis death 
in the year 370. He was a great defender of the Aria* 
doctrine, though represented as somewhat fluctuating and 
unsteady in his principles, and was a bitter persecutor of 
the catholics. Of his works no remains are extant, except 
some fragments of a treatise " De Incarnatione Dei verbi; 1 ' 
to which Cave has referred. The Eudoxians adhered ty 
the errors of the Arians and Eunomians, maintaining tba$ 
the Son was created out. of nothing ; that he had a will- 
distinct and different from that of the Father, &c. * 

EjUDOXUS, a Pythagorean philosopher, of C nidus, ^ 
city of Caria. in Asia M in or v flourished about 370 years 
before Christ. He learned geometry from Arcbytas, and. 
•afterwards travelled into Egypt to learn astronomy and 
other sciences. There be and Plato studied together, as 
Laertius informs us, for the space of thirteen years ; and 
afterwards came to Athens, fraught with all spits of kpow* 
ledge, which they had imbibed from the priests. Here 
Eudoxus opened a school, which be supported with so 
mych glory and renown, that even Plato, though his 
friend, is said to have envied him ; he also composed ele-» 
ipents of geometry, from whence Euclid liberally borrowed* 
as mentioned by Proclus. Cicero calif Eudoxus" the greatest 
astronomer that had ever lived : and Petronius says, he 
spent the latter part of his life upon the top of a very high 
mountain, that he might contemplate the stars and the ' 
heavens with more convenience and l^ss interruption.: a^4 
we learn from Strabo, that there were some remains of hia 
observatory at Cnicjus, to be seen even in his time. . None 
of his works are extant, but he is said by Fabricius (Bibl* 
Gnec. lib. iii. c. 5.) to have written upon music, and he 
gathers from Theon of Smyrna, p. 9$, that Eudoxus was 
the first who expressed the ratios of* concords by. numbers* 
and who discovered that grave and acute sounds depend on 
the slow or quick vibrations of the sounding body. He 
died in the fifty-third year of his age. * 

EUGENE (Francis), prince of Savoy, an illustrious gp? 
neral, wa? born in 1663, and descended from Carignau, 

r ' ' 

» Moreri.— Cue, Tfi L * Martin's Bio*. Pbilos.— Brucker.— Reea's Cyclopad. 


one of the three branches of the house of Savoy. His 
father was Eugene Maurice,/ general of the Swiss and 
Prisons, governor of Champaigne in France, and earl of 
Soissons; his mother donna Olympia Mancini, netce to 
cardinal Mazarin. In 1670 he was committed to the tuition 
6f a doctor of the Sorboniie ; but his father dying before 
he was ten years of age, after the French king had given 
him the grant of an abbey as a step to a cardinal's hat, and 
the governip&it of Champaigne being given out of his 
family, occasioned an alteration in his intended profession ; 
tohieb was indeed by no means suitable to his genius, al- 
though he gave great and early hopes of proficiency in 
the belles lettres, and is said to have been particularly 
fond of Curtius and Caesar. He was a youth of great spirit, 
and so jealous of the honour of his family, that when his 
mother was banished by the-kirtg's order from the French 
court to the Low Countries, soon after her husband's de- 
cease, he protested against the injustice of her banishment, 
and vowed eternal enmity to the authors and contrivers of 
it. After being for a time trained to the service of the 
church, for which he had no relish, he desired the king, 
who maintained him according to his quality, to give him 
tome military employment. This, however, was denied 
birtv sometimes on account of the weakness of his consti- 
tution, sometimes for want of a vacancy, or a war to employ 
the troops in. Apprehending from hence that be was hot 
likely to be considered so much as he thought he deserved 
in France, and perceiving that he was involved in the dis- 
grace of his mother, he resolved to retire to Vienna with 
one of his brothers, prince Philip, to whom the emperor's 
ambassador had, in his master's name, promised a regiment 
of hotee. They were kindly received by the emperor; and 
Eugene presently became a very great favourite with his 
imperial majesty. He had in the mean time many flatter- 
ing promises and iuvitations to return to France ; but his 
fidelity to the emperor. was unshaken, and he resolved to 
think no more of France, but to look on himself as a Ger- 
man, and to spend his life in the service of the house of 

When these two brothers arrived in Germany, the Turks 
were descending upon the Imperialists, In order to make 
an irruption into the hereditary country. There prince* 
Philip received his death's wound by the fall of h^s horse, 
after be bad gallantly behaved himself in a skirmish with 

the Turks, and left his command to his brother Eugene; 
This* prince, in 1683, signalized himself at the raising of 
the siege of Vienna^ where he made a great slaughter of 
the Turks, in the presence of John III. king of Poland; 
the elector of Bavaria, John George I IT. elector of Saxony, 
Charles V. duke of Lorrain, Frederic prince of Waldeck,- 
Lewis William margrave of Baden, and many other- great 
meu, 6f whom he learned the art of war. After raising 
the siege of Vienna, it was resolved not to give the Turksr 
time to recollect themselves. The project was laid <o 
reduce the most important fortresses in Hungary: and the 
next year, 1684, he again distinguished himself at the 
sieges of Newhausel and Buda. He behaved so gallantly, 
at the siege of Buda, that the duke of Lorrain wrote a 
letter in his cqmmendation to the emperor. • He was con- 
stantly in the trenches, and one of the first who entered 
the town sword in hand: and at their return to Vienna,' 
when Newhausel was* taken, the duke presented bi'm to the* 
emperor in these words* " May it please you* majesty, - 
this young Savoyard will some time or other be the greatest 
captain of the age:" jvhicjh prophecy, it is universally 
agreed, was afterwards fulfilled.' His imperial'majesty ca- 
ressed him upon all occasions, and had that firm and well- 
grounded confidence in his merit, that when Buda was 
taken, and the army gone into winter quarters, he invested 
him with the chief command of his troops, .during the ab- 
sence of the sup/erne officers. . Thus he rose daily in the 
favour of the court of Vienna; and every campaign was 
only a new step in his advancement to the : first military 

In 1688 Belgrade was besieged and taken; where Eu-: 
gene, who was always among the foremost in any onset, 
received a cut through his helmet by a sabre, but repaid' 
the blow by laying the Turk who gave it him dead at his . 
feet. Lewis XIV. had now^ invaded the empire with a 
powerful army, and declared war against the emperor; 
which caused a great alteration in the^affairs of Vienna,' 
and forced that court to form a new plan for the campaign . 
of 1689. As the emperor was more concerned to defend .. 
hjinself against the French than the Turks:, the dukes of 
Lorrain and Bavaria were appointed to command upon- the 
Rhine, and prince Lewis of Bade.a in Hungary. The duke 
of Savoy having informed the court of Vienna of the dan- 
ger he was in ,,by the app^oafih ,<rf frertch Jiropps, the im- 



perial minister* promised themselves great advantages from 
the war in Italy, on the account of the powerful diversion 
that his royal highness might be able to make therein 
favour of the empire. Eugene was intrusted by the court 
of Vienna td manage this expedition; and was thought 
the most proper person, not only because he was related 
to the duke of Savoy, but because of the vast reputation 
he had lately acquired in Hungary, which rendered him 
et mare acceptable to his royal,bighness, who receive^ 
tm with alt the marks of sincere friendship. Accordingly, 
he took upon him the command of the emperor's forces in 
Italy, and blocked up Mantua, which had received a French 
garrison, of whom he killed above 500 in several sallies : 
so that during 1691 and 1692 they never durst attempt the 
Itest excursion. In 1692, at his return from Vienna,. 
whither be had been to give the emperor an account of 
the last campaign, he entered Dauphtny. The inhabitants 
of Gap brought hiift the keys of the town, and all the 
neighbouring countfy submitted to contribution : but the 
great designs he had formed soon vanished ; for the 
Spaniards would stay no longer in the army, nor keep the* 
pott of Guillestre,. though Eugene, whom they very much 
esteemed, endeavoured to make them change their resolu- 
tion. This miscarriage is also partly attributed to the sick* 
ness of the duke of Savoy, who was persuaded to make a 
will at this time, wherern be declared Eugene administrator, 
or regent, during the minority of his successor. 

In 1 696, after the separate peace between France and 
Savoy, at which Eugene was extremely dissatisfied, the 
French king made very large offers to draw him over to 
his interest. He offered him particularly his father's go- 
vernment of Chaoipaigne, the dignity of a marshal of 
France, and an annual pension of 2000 pistoles : but no- 
thing was capable of shaking his fidelity to the emperor, 
who afterward* made him commander of bis army in Hun- 
gary, preferably to many older generals. In 1697, being 
commander in chief of the imperial army in Hungary, he 
gave the Turks th6 greatest blow they had ever received in 
the whole war, and gained a complete victory' over them 
at Zenta, not far from. Peterwaradin. The grand seignior 
came to command bis armies in person, and lay encamped 
on both sides the Thiesse, having laid a bridge over the 
river. Eugene marched up to him, and attacked his camp 
o« the west side of the river ; and^ after a short dispute, 

%UG*BN^ tit 

fcroke in, made himself master of it, and forced- r aU'wh<r 
lay on that side over the river, whither he' followed them, 
and gave them a total defeat In this action the Germans 
had no more than 430 men killed, and 1683 wounded : but 
of the Turks 22,000 were killed in the field, among whom 
were, the grand visier, and the aga of the janisaries ; 10 or 
12,000 were drowned in the Thiesse, and 6000 wodnded 
and taken prisoners, among whom were 27 pashas, and 
several agas. The Imperialists took 9Q00 laden waggons, 
after 3000 had been thrown into the river ; the grand 
seignior's tent, valued at 40,000 livres, with all the rest 
belonging to his army; 17,0Q0 oxen, (5000 camels, all* 
keavy laden; 7000 horses, 100 heavy cannon, and 70 \ 
field-pieces, besides 500 drums, and as many colours, 707 
horses tails, 83 other standards, a scymitar of inestimable - 
value, the sultan's great seal, his coach drawn by eight' 
horses, wherein- were ten of the women of his seraglio; 7* 
pair of silver kettle-drums, all the grand seignior's papers, 4 
arid all the money that was to pay the, ftrmy, wbich came 
to above 3,000,000 livres; and it is, said, that the whole 
booty amounted to several, millions pf pounds sterling. 

In 1699 the peace of Carlowitch was concluded, and an 
end put at length to the war, which had lasted fifteen years: 
and it was a great satisfaction to Eugene to have contri- 
buted so much to the finishing of it by this famous victory 
at^enta. He had passed the first years of hfe youth in • 
th£ wars of Hungary ; was in almost all the battles, where 
he had eminently distinguished himself; and it seemed 
now, that he had nothing to do but to enjoy at Vienna that 
tranquillity which is sometimes^ although not always, re± 
lished by men who have spent their lives amidst the noise 
of arms and dangers. But this repose was not to last long. 
The king of Spain's death, and the dreaded union of that 
monarchy with France which followed, kindled a new war, 
which called him to Italy to command the emperor's army 
there. His Imperial majesty published a manifesto, set* 
ting forth his title to the crown of Spain, when Eugene 
was upon the point of entering Italy. The progress erf hi* 
arms under this general made the French king resolve to' 
send marshal Villeroy into Italy, in the room of marshal 
Catinaf, wW had not given satisfaction. But' Eugene' 
sOoh let Kim see ttjat numbers alone, .in which the French 
Were greatly superior, could not gain a victory; for he 
foiled him in every skirmish and engagement, and at length 


took him prisoner by a contrivance conducted with so 
much secrecy, that the French had not the least suspicion, 
of it. Eugene went to put himself-at the head of a body 
he brought from the Oglio, and ordered another to come; 
from the Parmezan at the same time to force the bridge. 
He marched with all secrecy to Cremona; add sent in,, 
through the ruins of an old aqueduct, men who got through; 
and forced one of the gates ; so that he was within the 
town before Villeroy had any apprehension of an army 
being neat* him. Awakened on a sudden with the noise,, 
be got out to the street, and there was taken prisoner. At 
the instant that one of the German officers laid hold on 
him he whispered him, and said, " I am marshal de Vil- 
leroy : I will give you ten thousand pistoles, and promise 
you a regiment, if you will carry me to the castle." But 
the officer answered him, " I have a long time faithfully- 
served the emperor my master, and will not now betray 
him." So he was sent to the place where Eugene was ;• 
who sent bim to one more secure, under a strong guard. 
But, notwithstanding this, the other body neglecting to 
come up at the time appointed, an Irish regiment secured: 
the bridge ; and the design of capturing the garrison failed, 
although it was so well contrived and so happijy executed 
on one part. Eugene had but four thousand men with him, 
and the other body not -being able to join him, he was 
forced to march back, which he did without any consi- , 
derable loss, carrying marshal Villeroy and some other 
prisoners with him. In this attempt, though he had not 
au entire success, yet he gained all the glory to which the 
ambition of a military man could aspire, and was considered; 
as the greatest and happiest general of the age. 

The queen of England now concerted measures with the 
emperor for declaring and carrying on a war with France. » 
Her Britannic majesty highly resented the iudignity of- * 
fared to herself, and the wrong done die house of Austria, - 
by the duke* of Anjou's usurping the crown of Spain. She* 
acted, therefore, to preserve the liberty and balance of* 
Europe, to pull down the exorbitant power of France, and 
at the same time to revenge the affront offered her, by. 
the king of France's owning the pretended prince of Wales 
for king of her dominions. Eugene was made president of* 
the council of war by the emperor, and all the world ap* 
proved his choice ; as indeed they well might, since this . 
priaca no sooner entered ou the execution of his office than 

EUGENE. 55a" 

affairs took quite anew turn. The nature and Jttntet of our 
piati will not suffer us to enlarge upon the many memorable* 
actions which were performed by this great statesman and 
soldier during the course of this war, 1 whteh proved so fatal' 
to the glory of Louis XIV, The battles of Sdhellenburg/ 
Blenheim, Turin, &c are so particularly related in almost 
evety history, that we sbaU not insist upon them here. In 
17 LO the enemies of Eugene, who had vowed his destfuc^ 
tiop, sent him a letter, with a paper inclosed, whidl was 
poisoned to such a degree, that it made his highness, with 
twp or three more who did but handle it, ready to swoon ; 
and killed a, dog immediately, upon his Wallowing it after 
it was greased. The next year» 17 J 1, in April, the em- 
peror Joseph died of*tbe small-pox ; when Eugene marched 
into Germany, to secure the election of his brother to the 
throne.- The same year, the grand visier sent one of his 
aga* in embassy to his highness, who gave him a very 
splendid audience at Vienna, and received from him at 
letter written with the grand visier- s own hand, wherein 
he styles his highness " the great pattern of Christian 
princes, president of the Aulic council of war to the em- 
peror of the Romans, the most renowned and most excel- 
lent among the Christian princes, first peer among all the 
nations that believe in' Christ, and best beloved visier of 
the emperor of the Romans." 

- In 1712, after having treated with the States General 
upon the proposals of peace then made by the court of 
France, he came over to England, to try if it were possible 
to engage our court to go on with the war, for it met with 
great obstructions here : but was surprised to find, the day 
before * his arrival, which was on Jan,. 5, that his good 
friend the duke of Marlborough was turned out of all his' 
places., < However, he concealed his uneasiness, and made 
a visit to the lord presidentof the council, and to the lord 
treasurer; and having had an audience of the queen, the 
day after his arrival, he paid his compliments to the foreign 
.minister^ and the new ministry, especially the duke o£ 
Oragtond* whose friendship he courted for the good of the 
common cause. But, above all, he did not neglect his 
fast friend and companion in military labours, the dis- 
carded general; but passed his time chiefly with him. He 
was entertained by most of the nobility, anil magnificently 
feasted in the city df London by those merchants who had 
.formerly jtontiributed to the Sitesian loan. But the cour- 
Vot. XIII. ' • A a 

«t* EUGENE.. 

*4<*w, tbmgh titey caressed him for his own worth, meOr 
not forward to bring hb negotiations to an happy issue ;.M* 
did the queen, though she used bio) civilly, treat bim whb 
that distinction which was due to his high merit. Shft 
ipade him a present of a sword set with diamonds, worth 
%bout $QQ(tf. which he wore on her birth-day ; an^U had the 
honour at night to lead her to add from the opera per-? 
forced pp this occasion at court. After he had been told 
that his, master's affairs should be treated of at Utrecht* 
be bad his audience of leave March the LSth, and (be 17ti| 
*et out to open -the campaign in Flanders* where he expe* 
riencod both good and ill fortune at Qpg&noy and La*** 

In 1713, though forced to act only defensively o* tb^ 
Rhine against the French, who now threatened toxnemm 
the empire, he nevertheless so sjgnajized himself by bis 
vigilance and conduct, that he obliged thpm to spend one 
whole summer in taking Landau and Fribuig. March 6, 
1714, be concluded with marshal Yilbus, at jRastadt, pre- 
limipa,ry article* of a general peace between Ahe .empire 
and France ; which were signed by biro, as bis imperial 
majesty's plenipotentiary, Sept. the 27th fallowing, in a 
solemn treaty of peace, at Baden io Ergau : in which 
treaty be is entitled " The most high prince and lord 
Eugene, prince of Savoy and Piedmont knight of the 
golden fleece, counsellor of sjtate to bis sacred imperial 
majesty, president of the council of war, lieutenant-general 
*nd marshal jof the holy Roman empire." Upon bU mum 
to Vienna, he was received with the loudest .acclamations 
of joy by the .people, and with the most cordial affection by 
the emperor, who presented bim with ? fine <s>VQrd richly 
adorned with diamonds. He now seemed to bate some 
Despite from the fatigues of war; but neither w*s> this to 
last long : for, though peace wan concluded wi*h France, 
yet war broke out on the side of the Turks, who in i 7 16 
began to make extraordinary preparation* Eugene, mm, 
sent with the command of the imperial army into jbUtagary, ; 
attacked the Turks in their camp, and obtained a complete 
victory over them. He took the important fortress of 
Temeawaer, after the Turka had been in po&sesaion of it 
)64 years; and next invested Belgrade, whifh he ilso took,, 

After .making pepce with the Turks, be bad a Long sua* . 
pension from those glories which constantly attended hit , 
victorious sword ; for. in the war which jeroiiei tattceJl 


* » « 

E U GENE, 555 

the e,mp$rar and the king 1 of Spavin, count Merci bad tS^ 
coipqiand of the army in Italy, and Eugenie had no sham 
in ft, pny farther than in council ; and at the conclusion 
of it, wben he was appointed the emperor's first plenipor 
tentiary in the treaty of Vienna, in 1725/ We next find 
him engaged in 4 new scene of action, in the war between 
tjie emperor his master and the kings of France, Spain, 
and Sardinia, in which, from 1733 to 173£, he experienced 
Various success. This illustrious hero died at Vienna, 
April IP, 1736, in his seventy-third year. He was found 
dead in his bed* though he had been very gay the night 
before with company, whom he bad entertained at supper, 
without making the least complaint.; and it was supposed 
(hat he was choaked by an immoderate defiuxion of rheum, 
with which, it seems, he was sometimes troubled. « 

Among the valuable effects left by prince Eugene, wer* . 
found a rich crucifix, embellished with diamonds, with 
which he was presented by the emperor, upon bis last cam- 
paign into Hungary ; six gold-hiked swords, set with dia- 
monds ; one presented by bis late imperial majesty, another 
by queen Anne, a third by the king of Prussia, a fourth 
by George I. before his accession to the crown, a fifth by 
(he republic of Holland, and a sixth by the state of Ve- 
nice ;, an exceeding rich string of diamonds for a hat, with 
£ buckle of the same ; twenty gold watches, set with dia- 
monds ; besides a prodigious quantity of silver plate, jewels, 
$c. to an immense value. He likewise left a large and 
vurious library of books ; among which were several rare 
panuscripts, brides a fine cabinet of medals, and other 

As to a general character of prince Eugene, it may easily 
be collected from what .has already been said of him. He 
was alwaj6 reiparkable for his liberality ; one instance of 
which he shewed, while he was here in England, to Mrs. 
pentlivre, the poetess; who, having addressed to him a 
trifling poem on his visiting England, received from him a 
£oid snnfF-bo?£, v^lufd at about 35 pistoles. He was also a 
Bjan of great ,and unaffected modesty, so that he could 
fcarcely bear* with any tolerable grace, the just acknow- 
ledgmenu th^t were paid hitn by all the world. Burnet,* 
whp flraa admitted several times to much discourse with 
Ipab.aays, that "he descended to an easy equality with 
$Q9£ wh<> conv^r^d with hijri, and seemed to assume no* 
•Awng $9 himself, wb#S he reasoned with others. 9 ' He saio\ 

AA 2 

**f E U GENE 

jokingly one day, when the duke of Marlborough vhtt 
talking o( his attachment to his queen, Regina pecuniae 
** Money is his qdeen." ^ This great general was a man of 
letters; he was intended for the church, and was known at 
the court of France by the name of the abbe* deSavrie; 
Having made too free in a letter with some of old Louisrthe 
Fourteenth's gallantries, be fled out of France, and served 
as a volunteer in the emperor's service in Hungary against 
the Turks, where he soon distinguished himself by hit 
talents- for the military art. He was presented by the em- 
peror with a regiment, and a few years afterwards made 
commander in chief of his armies. Louvob, the insolent 
war-minister of the insolent Louis XIV. had written to htm 
to tell him, that he must never think of returning to bis 
'country r his reply was, " " Eugene entrera un jour en 
France en depit de Louvois & de Louis." In all bis mili- 
tary expeditions, he carried with him Thomas a Kempis 
" de Imitatione." He seemed to be of the opinion of thte 
great Gustavus Ad crip bus,- king of Sweden, " that a good 
Christian always made a good soldier." Being constantly 
busy, he held the passion of love very cheap, as a mere 
amusement, that served only to enlarge the power of wo- 
men, and to abridge that of men. He used to say, " Les 
amoureux sont dans la soctete* ce que les fanatiques sont eh 
religion." His amusement was war, and in the Memoirs 
written by himself, and lately published, he speaks of some 
of its horrors with too little feeling. It is said that be was 
observed to be one day very pensive, and was asked by bis 
favourite aid- de- camp on what he was meditating sp 
deeply ? " My good friend," replied he, " I am thinkings 
that if Alexander the Great had been obliged to wait for 
the approbation of the deputies of Holland before he at*, 
tacked the. enemy, how impossible it would have been for 
him to have made half the conquests that he did !" This 
illustrious conqueror lived to a great age/ and being tain 
Mercurio quam Marte, '" as much a scholar as a captain," 
amused himself with making a fine collection of books; 
pictures, and prints, which are now in the emperor's cot* 
jection at Vienna. The celebrated cardinal Passionei, then 
ttuncio-at Vienna, preached his funeral sermon, from the 
following text of apocryphal Scripture: # * Alexander, son 
of Philip the Macedonian, made many wars, took many 
strong holds, went through the ends of the earth, took 
spoils of many nations j- the earth was qukt before hint.' 

EUGENE, 337 

Jtfter these things he fell sick; and perceived thai he should 
jiae"— Maccabees. 1 

EUGENIUS, catholic bishop of Carthage, was elected 
to. that see in the year 430 or 481, in the reign of Huq* 
neric, and at the request of the emperor. £eno, and for 
some time presided over that; diocese without disturbance. 
In the year 483, however, Hunneric issued a proclamation 
ordering all the bishops who believed in the trinitarjan 
doctrine, to appear at Carthage, and bold a conference 
.with the Avian bishops. The catholics at first remons- 
trated Against obeying this order without the approbation 
p{ the transmarine bishops. The meeting, . however, hail- 
ing taken place, the first debates were respecting the titlfe 
of Catholics, by which Engenius and bis party were distin- 
guished, and the title of Patriarch assumed by Cyrita, the 
head of the Ariai* 1 bishops. Eugenius then presented jl 
confession of. faith, or statement of his principles* and of- 
fered to defend t Bern in argument with the Arians ; : but 
Hunneric, who was himself an Arian, not only refused tp 
hear him, but banished ..all the catholic bishops, ^od among 
them Engenius, who was sentenced to the desart* in the 
province of Tripoly, whe^re he remained until the death of 
ilunherie in-the year 484. During the jrpign of Gonde* 
Jbald, he continued on his diocese in peaoe ; but Tbrasav 
ttiund, the next king, banished him again, into that part of 
Gaol where Alariqus, king of the Visigoths, then reigned* 
£ugeaiius retired to. Albi, where he was unmolested during 
the remainder of his life, lie died at Viance in, that te*» 
fitQry, Sept. 6, in the year 505. There are some small 
discourses of his extant, in defence of the catholic faith, 
as, *« EKpositio fidei Cathotici ;" " Apologecicus pro fi4$>" 
^•Altercatio cum Arianw," &o»* . . > 

EUGENIUS, archbishop of Toledo in the seventh cetv- 
*ury, and called the Younger, t9 distinguish him frcwrt hi* 
immediate predecessor of the same name, was at fisstcierk 
of the church of Toledo, and when chosen archbishop 1 pi* 
.the death of the elder Eugenius, retired to, Saragossa with 
a view- to sp$nd his days in the retirement of a, monastery, 
Being however discovered, he was brought back to Toledo 
by order of his sovereign, and appointed archbishop U| 

. . . . , 

7 * Life of Prince Eugene, 1735, 8va. — Memoires, &c. 1710, 2 vols. 8to, Ice, 
UMemolrs of hfe Life written by himielf, Weimar, 1*09; translated and p*ft» 
{ishedhere, in 1811. '< 

...» ptipiat-vMoisri, . • « H ... •:•». ;"-",.' . 

3*8 E V G E N I <J S. 

the yea? 646, art office which he filled for nine y*afe He 
presided at the councils held at Toledo in the years 668, 
695, and 656. He was the author of several- Works, pat- 
ifeulariy a, tre&tisei oh the Trinity, two book* of ^HTScellat- 
nies, and one in prose and verse, which were published by 
father Sirmond at Paris in 1619, 8vo, along with thp 
poetical pieces of Draconttas. His style is not remarkable 
for elegance, but his thoughts are often just and piou*. 
He died in the year 657. 4 

 EULER (Leonard), a very eminent mathematician, 
*was born at Basil, on the 14th of April, 1707 : he Was this 
-tfon of Paul Eutar and of Margaret Bmcfcer (of a family 
lllufstrieus in literature), and spent the first year of his life 
at the village of Richen, » of whidh place his father was prd*- 
testant minister. Being intended for the church, his father, 
%ho had himself studied under James Bernoulli, taught 
•hibi mathematics, as a ground-work of his other studies, tit 
at least a n6ble and useful secondary occupation. But 
JSuler, assisted and perhaps secretly encouraged by John 
BerrrtmilH, who easily' discovered that he would be thfe 
grfetftest scholar be should ever educate, soon declared hi* 
intention of devoting bis life to that pursuit. This inten- 
tion the wise father did not thwatt, but- the son did not so 
Mindly adhere to it, as not to connect with it a more thart 
common inYprovetnent in eVety other kind of useful learn* 
lug, insomuch that in hid latter day* men often wondefed 
fcoW with 1 such a superiority in one branch, he could have- 
been so near to eminence in all the rest. Upon the fouiU 
dation of the academy of sciences at St. Petersburg)], hi 
¥729, by Catherine I. the two younger Bernouillis^ Nioho* 
)as and Daniel, had gone thither, promising, when they 
set out, to endeavour to procure Euler a place in k : they 
accordingly wrote to him soon after, to apply his mathe* 
tics* to physiology, which be did, and studied under the 
best naturalists- at Basil, but at the same time, i. e. in 1727* 
)}ttbHtfbed a dissertation on the nature and propagation of 
ftrtund ; and an answer to the question on the masting of 
ships, wliicb the academy of sciences at Paris judged 
worthy of the* accessit. Soon after this, he was called to 
8t Petersburgb, and declared adjutant to the mathematical 
class in the academy, a class, in which, from the circuni- 
aWMHtts of the times (Newton, Leibnitz, and so many other 

> D»pift*— Moreri,— <;»fe, to!. I,«~fffcbric. Bittl, Jat, 1M» 

£ tf L E & 

*fr*ir>ettt tfehofersr bdng just dead), no gasy laurel* werd to 
fee gathered. Nature, however, who had organized s4 
Asany mathematical heads at one time! was not yet tirftd 
of her miracles ; and the added Enter to the number. Hi 
Indeed was much Wanted ; the science of the caicuhcs intt± 
grilif, hardly come oiit of the hands of its creators, Waft 
Mil tod near the stage of its infancy not to want to be made 
taofe perfebt. Mechanics, dynariics, and especially hy- 
drodynamics, and the science of the motion of the hea- 
venly bodies, felt the imperfection. The application of 
the differential calculus, to them, bad been sufficiently 
successful ; but there were difficulties whenever it Was nc* 
Pessary to go from the fluxional quantity to the fluent; 
Whir regard to the nature and properties of numbers', thd 
, Writings of Fermat (who had been so successful in them), 
itW together with these all his profound' researches, Herd 
lost Engineering and navigation were reduced to vague 
principles, and were founded on a heap of often contra-' 
Victory observations, rather than a regular theory. TM 
ftregriiaf rite* in the iriotiotis of the celestial Bodied, antf 
Especially the complication of forces which influence thai 
6f the moon, were still the disgrace of geometers. Prac- 
tical astronomy Had yet to wrestle with the imperfection of 
telescopes, insOaittcb, that it could hardly bie said that any 
fale for making tfeem existed.— Etrier turned his eyes to 
411 these objects ; he perfected the cdleulu* integrate ; h& 
«iws the inventor of a new kind of calculus,- that of skies j 
he simplified analytical operations ; and, aided by thes'd 
powerful- belp-mates, and' the astonishing facility wHK 
#hich he knew hdwto subdue expressions the most intract-i 
able, he-threw ane^lighf on all the brtincbes of the ma-' 
ttfematrcs. But at 1 Catherine'^ death the academy was* 
threatened with extinction, by men. who knew not thd' con- 
nection which arts and sciences have With* the happiness of 
& people. Euler Was offered and accepted a lieutenancy 1 
On board one of the empress's ships, with the promise of 
speedy advancement. Luckily things changed, and the! 
teamed Captain again found his own element, and wa4 
riamed Professor of Natural Philosophy in 1733, in th& 
. itoom of his friend John Bernouitti. The number of me- 
moirs which Euler produced, prior to this period, is asto- 
nishing*, but what he did in 1735 is almost incredible. 

* On the theory of the mem re- ben and periw-r-the calceJui iotegr*. 
Karkable conres-^tue nature of nuuu lit— the movement oi the celestial bo* 

960 E U L E, R, 

An important calculation was to be made, without loss of 
time ; the other academicians had demanded spate month* 
to do it. Euler asked three days — in three days he did it* 
but the fatigue threw him into a fever, and the fever left 
him not without the lass of an eve, an admonition which) 
would have made an ordinary man more sparing of the 
other. The great revolution, produced by the discovery; 
of fluxions, had entirely changed the face of mechanics ^ 
still, however, there was no complete work on the science 
of motion, two or three only excepted, of which Euier felt 
the insufficiency. He saw, with pain, that then best works 
pn the subject, viz. " Nekton's Priocipia," a !*d " Her-, 
man's Phoronomia," concealed the method by which these 
great men had come at so many wonderful discoveries, 
under a synthetic veil. In order to lift this up, Euler 
employed all the resources of that analysis, which h^d 
served him so well on so many other occasions; and thus 
uniting his own discoveries to those of other geometers, bad 
them published by the academy in 1736. To say that* 
clearness, precision, and order, are the characters of this 
work, would be barely to say, that it is, what without these 
qualities no work can be, classical of its kind. It placed - 
Euler in the rank of the first geometricians then existing, 
and this at a time when John Bernouilli was still living. 
Such labours demanded some relaxation; the only one 
which Euler admitted was music, but even to this he could, 
not go without the spirit of geometry with him. They 
produced together the essay on a new. theory of music, 
which was published in 1739, but not very well received, 
probably, because it contains too much geometry for a> 
musician, and too much music for a geometrician. Inde- 
pendently, however, of the theory, which is. built on Py- 
thagorean principles, there are many things in it which 
may be of service, both to composers, and to makers of 
instruments. The doctrine, likewise, of the genera and 
the modes of music is here cleared up with all the clear* 
ness and precision which mark the works of Euler. . Br, 
Burney remarks, that upon the whole, Euler seems not to 
have invented much in this treatise ; and to have done little 
snore than arrange and methodise former discoveries in a 
scientific an,d geometric manner. 'He may, indeed, not 

dies — the attraction of spheroidico- infinity of other objects, the hundredth 
elliptical bodies — the famous solution part of which would have made an or* 
wfthc jsoferfcejricftl ptoblem— and an dinary man illustrious. 

£ U L E R; **t 

kara, known what antecedent writers had' discovered be? 
lore ; and though not the first, yet to have imagined him-i 
•elf. an inventor. In 1740, his. genius was again called 
forth by the academy of Paris (who> in 1738, had adjudged 
the prize to his paper on the nature, and properties of fire} 
to discuss the nature of the tid^s, an important question* 
which demanded a prodigious extent of calculations, and 
an entire new system of the world. This prize Eider did 
Bot gain alone, hut be divided it with Maclaurin and Di 
JJeruouilli, forming with them a triumvirate of candidates* 
which the realms of science had not. often beheld.; .The 
agreement of the .several memoirs of Eulefr and Bernoulli^ 
oq - this, occasion, is very remarkable. Though the ope 
philosopher had set out on the principle of admitting vor- 
tices, which the other rejected, they not only arrived a} 
the same end of the journey, but met several times on thq 
road ; for instance, in the determination of the tides undej? 
the frozen .zone. Philosophy, indeed, led these two gre^fc 
men by different paths.; Bernouilli, who had more -pat;ienpfe 
than his. friend, sanctioned every physical hypothesis ift 
was obliged to make, by painful and laborious experiment* 
These Euler's impetuous genius scorned ; and, though, hi£ 
natural sagacity did not always supply the loss, he mad? 
amends by his superiority in analysis, as off en as there w#g 
any occasion to simplify expressions, to adapt them to 
practice, and to recognize, by final formulae, the nature 
of the result. In 1741, Euler received some very advanta-* 
geous propositions from Frederic the Second (who had just 
ascended the Prussian throne), to go and assist him ir* 
forming an academy of sciences, out of the wrecks of the 
Royal Society founded by Leibnitz. With these offers the 
tottering state of the St. Petersburg!) academy, under the 
regency,  made it necessary for the philosopher to comply* 
He accordingly illumined the last volume of the " Me* 
langes de Berlin," with five essays, which are, perhaps* 
the best things in it, and contributed largely to the aca- 
demical volumes, the first of which was' published in 1744* 
No part of his multifarious labours is, perhaps, a morcfc 
Wonderful proof of the exteosiveness and facility of his 
genius, than what he executed at Berlin, at a time when 
he contrived also that the Petersburgh acts should not 
suffer from the loss of him. In 1744, Euler published a 
complete treatise of isoperimetrical curves. The same 
year beheld the theory of the motions of the planets snd 

i«§ « ti l i & 

comets; tiW well-known theory of rttegftettetrf, wfti&gHiH 
ed the Paris prize ; and the muCh^amendetl translation of 
Itobius's " Treatise on Gunnery." In 1 740, his* " Theorjr 
♦Sf Lfght and* Colours"* overturned Newton's " System tit 
Emanations ;" as did another work, at that time triumphant, 
the "Monads of Wolfe and Leibnitz." Navigation wag 
tVow the only branch of useful knowledge, for which the 
labours of analysis and geometry had done nothing. The 
hydrogra'phical part atone, and that which delates to the 
4li*ection of the bourse of ships, had been treated by geo* 
Metricians Conjointly with nautical astronomy. Euler was 
the first who conceived and etecuted the jfrtojefct of making 
<hbf a complete science. A memoir on the motion' of float- 
ing bodies, communicated to the academy <rf St. Petefrs* 
fcurgb, in 1735, by M. le Croix, first gave him thfs idest. 
Itis researches on' the equilibrium of ships furnished hirii 
w4th the means of bringing the stability to a determined 
Measure. His success- encouraged him to gO oh, and pro- 
duced the great work which the academy published in 
PT49j in wbich we find^ in systematic order, the ihost 
sublime notions on the theory of the equilibrium and mo- 
tion of floating bodies, and on the resistance of fluids. 
Tim was followed by a second part, which left nothing tb 
be desired on the subject, except the turning it into a 
language easy of access, and divesting it of the calcdfc* 
fidns which prevented its being of general use. Accord- 
ingly, in 1773, from a conversation- with Admiral Kriowletf, 
And other assistance, out of the ** Scientia Navalis," 2 vols. 
4to, was produced, the " Theorie, complette de la Cori- 
rtntction et de la Manoeuvre des Vaisseau* " This work 
tfatf instantly translated into all languages, and the author 
jfeeeived a present of 6000 livres from the French king : be 
hid before had 300£ Jrom the English parliament, -for the 
tbeoreins, by die assistance of wbich Meyer madehis lurttor 

, * See onr life of DoUond, (vol. XII.) 

f It was with great difficulty that ract, formed in his left eye, which had 

this extraordinary man, ia 1766, ob- been essentially damaged by the loss 

tained permission from the kins of of the other eye, and a too close ap- 

Prussia to* ret* m to Petersbargb, where plicatfcm to study; deprived Ann ea- 

he wished to pass the remainder of his tirely of the use of that organ. If 

days* * Soon after his return, which in this distressing situation that be 

svfcts gtofeionsly rewarded by the snnnf- dictated to his serf ant, a taylor's apl- 

fieeace of Catherine H. he was seized prentice, who was absolutely deroinV 

with "a* violent disorder, which ended of mathematical knowledge, bis Ele- 

i* tbw total toss of his sight; A c*ta> taentr of Algebra ; '' wbxdr by their 

£ U L £ & 


- Atidnefer it was time to collect into oft'6 Systematical 
<*on¥ifiued work, all the important discoveries on the 
•fipitesUial analysis, which Euler had been making fot * 
«h if ty years, and' which lay dispersed in the memoir* of tite 
different academies.* This, accordingly, the professor ah* 
^ertook j but he prepared the way by atv elementary work, 
containing all the previous requisites Tor this study. Thb 
is called "An Introduction to the analysis of ft) finked* 
*nate," and is *• work in which the author has exhausted 
all the doctrine of fractions, whether algebraical or tnm»* 
feendeftf&l; by shewing their transformation, their resolu> 
*ten, And their dgVelepement This introduction was stxrtk 
followed by the author's several lessons on the " calcultte 
integralis, aftd dtfferentialis." Having engaged himself 
to count Orlow, to furnish the academy with papers : suf- 
ficient to fill their volumes for twenty years after his death, 
the philosopher is likely to keep his word, having presented 
seventy papers* through Mr. Golof kin, in the course of his 
Hfe* and left two hundred and fifty more behind him ; not 
is there one df these that does nbt dontain a discovery, ofr 
something that may lead to one. The most ancient of 
these memoirs form the collection then published, under 
the title < of «Opusctila Analytica." Such were Euler** 
labours* and these his titles to immortality! His memory 
shall endure till science herself is no morel Few men of 
letters have written so much as Euler; no geometrician 
has eirer embraced so many objects at one time ; or bafc 
equalled him, either in the variety or magnitude of hit 
discoveries. When we reflect on the good such men d6 
their felldw-creatures, we cannot help indulging a wish 
•(v*m, alas! as it is) for their illustrious course to be pro* 
fonged beyond the term allotted to mankind. Euler's^ 
though it has had an end, was very long and very honour- 
able ; and- it affords us some consolation for bis loss, tfc 
think that he enjoyed it exempt from the ordinary conse- 
quences of extraordinary application, and that his last la- 
bours abounded in proofs of that vigour of understanding 
tVbich marked his early days, and which he preserved to 

intrinsic merit in point of perspicuity 
and method, and the unhappy circum- 
arauces in which they were compose^ 
nave equally excited wonder and ap- 
plause. This work, though purely 
^elementary, plainly discovers the proofs 
•f an inventive genius ) and it i» per- 

haps here alone that we meet with a 
complete theory of the analyst* of 
X)iopbantus. Some time after {hie ha 
underwent the operation of ooaohiogt 
which partly restored his sight, feat by 
some neglect or misconduct after the 
optration f be again became blind. 


his end: Some swimmings in the head, which /seized him 
On; the first days of September, 1783, did not prevent his 
paying hold of a few facts, which reached him through the 
Sjiannel of the public papers, to calculate the motions ol 
t|b$ aerostatical globes ; and he even compassed 3 very dif- 
ficult integration, in which the calculation bad engaged 
pirn*. But the decree was gone forth : on the 7th of Sep- 
tember he talked with Mr. Lexell, who had come to din* 
jwith him,, of the new planet, aqd discoursed with him upon 
other subjects, with his usual penetration. He was- play- 
ing with- one of his. grand-children at tea-time, when be 
was seized with an apoplectic fit. " I am dying," said he» 
before he lost his senses ; and he ended his glorious life a 
few hours after, .aged seventy-six years, five months, and 
three days. His Jitter days were tranquil and serene. A 
few infirmities excepted, which are the inevitable lot of 
an advanced age, he enjoyed a share of health which air 
lowed him to give little time to repose^ Euler possessed 
$p a great degree what is commonly called erudition; he 
iad read all the Latin classics; was perfect master of an- 
cient mathematical literature; and had the history of all 
. -ftges, and all nations, even to the minutest facts, ever pre* 
jent to his mind. Besides this, he knew much more of 
physic, botany, and chemistry, than could be. expected 
from any man who bad not made these sciences his peculiar 
pccqpatioru " I have seen," says his biographer, Mr. 
Fuss, " strangers go from him with. a kind of surprise mixed 
with admiration; they could not conceive how a man, 
who for half a century bad seemed taken up in making 
and publishing discoveries in natural philosophy and ma- 
$h$matics, could have found means to preserve so much 
knowledge that seemed useless to himself, and foreign to 
.the studies in which he was engaged. This was the effect 
of a happy memory, that lost nothing of wh^t bad ever 
been entrusted to it;, nor was it a wonder that the ma$ 
who was able to repeat the whole iEneis,. and to point out 
to his hearers the first and last verses of every page of hi* 
pwn edition of it, should not have lost what, he had learned, 
at an age when the impressions made upon us are the 

* This reminds us of the illustrious eager to see was published, read tb* 

Boerbaave, who kept feeling his pulse book, and said, " Now the btis&esf e# 

toe morning, of his death, to see wbe- HfeisoYer," 
ther it would beat till a book he was - * 

E U L E R. ttt 

strongest*. Nothing cstn gqual the ease with which, with* 
out expressing the least degree of ill-humour, he could 
quit his abstruse meditations, and give himself up* to thfe 
general amusements of society. The art of not appearing 
wise above one's fellows, of descending to the level of those 
with whom, one lives, is too rare in these days not to make 
it a merit in Euler to have possessed it. A temper evet 
equal, a natural and easy chearfutness, a, species of satnriJ 
cat wit, tempered with urbane humanity, the art of telling 
a story archly, and with simplicity, made his conversation 
generally sought. The great fund of vivacity, whteh he 
bad at all times possessed, and without which, indeed, the 
activity we have just been admiring could not have exited* 
carried bim sometimes away, and he was apt to grow warm* 
but his anger left him as quickly as it came on, and there 
never has existed a man to whom he bore malice. He 
possessed a precious fund of rectitude and probity; The 
sworn enemy of injustice, whenever or by whomsoever 
committed, he used to censure and attack it, without the 
least attention to the rank or riches «of the offender.— Re- 
cent examples of this are in the recollection of all who hdar 
me." As he was filled with respect for religion, bis piety 
was sincere, and his. devotion full of fervour. — He went 
through all his Christian duties with the greatest attention* 
Euler loved all mankind, and if he ever felt a motion' of 
indignation, it was against the enemy of religion, particu- ' 
}arly against the declared apostles of infidelity. He watf 
of a very religious turn of mind. He published a New De- 
monstration of the Existence of God, and of the Spirituality 
of, the Soul, which last has been admitted into several di- 
vinity schools as a standard book. With scrupulous exact-* 
ness be adhered, to the religion of his country, that of 
Calvinism, and, fortified by its principles, he was a gooct 
husband, a good father, a good friend, a good citizen, a 
good member of private society. 

" Euler was twice married, and had thirteen children, 
lour of whom only have survived him. The eldest son was 
• - .  • . . 

..•, "Another proof of the strength powers of other numbers; these ,t» 

pT his memory and imagination de- used 10 make in his head; and oua 

serves to be related. Being engaged night, not being able to sleep," he cal- 

i* teaching hi* grandchildren geometry outated the six first powers of all ilia 

and algebra, and obliged, in conse- numbers above twenty, and to our 

qifence, to initiate them in the extrac- great astonishment, repeated their .ta 

lion of root?, he was obliged to give us several days after." 
them numbers, which should be the 

far florae tfoc hi* fatherV assistant and successor ; the scm 
Mud, physician to the epipress ; and the third a lieutenants 
eoloael of artillery, and director of the armory ait Sestet 
beck. The dtogbter married major Bell. From these 
$hildreo tie had ibirty-eight grand-children, twenty-six of 
whom are still alive. Never have I been present at a more 
touching sight than that exhibited by this venerable old 
men, suarounded, like a patriarch, by bis numeroui off- 
apring, all attentive to make bis old age agree&b\e> and , 
enliven the remainder of his days, by every species of kind 
aolicitude and care." 

Tbe catalogue of hia works in the printed edition makes 
pO page*, 14 of wbich contain the MS works.-— r Tbe 
printed books consist of works published separately, atu| 
Others ;to be found in the several Peter sburgh *cts, in 3$ 
jroiumes, (from 6 to K) papers in each volume)— ^in the 
Paris acts — in 26 volumes of the Berlin acts (about 5 
papers to each volume) :— in tbe " Acta Eruditorum," in 
ft volumes ;i — in the " Miscellanea Taurinensia?"— in vol* 
IX. of the society of Ulyssingue — in the " Ephemerides 
4e Berlin ;" and in the " Memoires de la Societg CEcono- 
mique for 1766." His " Letters on Physics and Philo* 
topby" were translated by the late Dr. Henry Hunter,, and 
published in 1 802, 2 vols. Svo. * 

EULOGIUS, the patriarch of Alexandria, a man of 
learning and piety, succeeded John IV. in that office in 
the year 58 1. He exerted himself with great effect against 
the heresies of bis time, aud wrote an able exposition of 
tfre .orthodox faith, in a letter which he addressed to Eu- 
tycbios, patriarch of Constantinople. He wrote also 
against the Novatians ; but of his works there are only a 
law fragments remaining. He is said to have died in the 
year 608.* 

EULOGIUS, archbishop of Toledo in the »inth cen- 
tury, was of an ancient Christian family of Cordova. 1$ 
l/m youth be joined the community of ecclesiastics of St. 
Zoilus, then in tbe monastery of Cutelar, vrbece he be- 
came intimate with Alvarus. In the year 844 he travelled 
into Navarre, and after his return to Cordova, in the year 
850, he was imprisoned, under the reign of Abderaniijs^ 
some other Christians, on account of his religion. 

'1 Principally from his Eloge by Fuis 9 printed at Petepbuigtt and ^erUo, 
1783, to.— Hutton'i Math. Dictionary. « ]>UD l ja.-*Cave, rol. ^ 

, < E U L SI if ,*• *»t 

fnm this, however, he appear to We ba#n rebated* tod 
continued to. exhort the Christians to maintain, their faith a* 
Jjhe risk of their lives; Having concealed a yO*H>g Ghaftttaik 
female named Leocritja, whom her MabWetan parents 
Wfip\d fcave forced to apostatize, he waa apprehended with 
foer, and both. were condemned to be hebeaded, whiak 
sentepce was executed in the year 859. This was soom 
after hi* appointment to the archbishopric of Toledo, tar 
which, however* he was never consecrated. . He wrote 
" Mempriale Sanctorum/ 9 an account of the martyrdom of 
the Christians who bad suffered before him iniCpcdowa^ 
JWi^ afteryvard$ be. wrote an ajpplogy or defence, of, the juiie 
puwtyrs. These aod his other writings are inserted intba 
fiity. Patrum, vol. XV. and were printed separately by 
Morales in 1554, and by Poncius Leo in 1574. r . . 

EUMENIUS, a celebrated orator of the fourth century, 
was a Greek by family, as his name imports, but was bora 
at Autun, as he himself informs us in the fine panegyric . 
*vbich be spoke at Treves in the year 3.09, in the preseuc* 
of Constantine the Great. In the year £11 he again de* 
livered an oration before that prince at Treves, as spokes* 
man f<A the inhabitants of Autun, whom Constantine bad 
honoured with a visit, and an whose cjty he had bestowed 
marks of liberality and favour. Eumenius long taught 
rhetoric in that city, and was highly esteemed by Con* 
stantipe, as he bad before been by Gonstantius Cbtaws, 
the emperor's father, who died in the year 306. Eu* 
menius appeared to most .advantage in the oration which 
he delivered before Rictio varus, or Riccius Varus, the pre* 
feet of Lyons, in favour of the pi?bUc schools for the young 
Cauls, of which, he him&elf bad the eare. They had been 
destroyed by the incursions of some rebels, and JEueaenius, 
in order to tbeir re-establishment, offered the whole .of his 
salary, which is said to have amounted to 600,000 sast$rces, 
$r more than 3000/. of our money; bpt thia appears to 
have included his salary as imperial secretary, an office 
which he also held. All ftbai remain of his works are 
pointed in the " Panegyrici uteres." His style indicates 
the d&ctension of pure Latinky. 9 

E UN API US, a native af Sardis in Lydia, flourished in 
the fourth .century, . under the emperors Valeouoian* Yakens* 

1 9*|WIV-i :Mi*eu,igrfia*e, Tot h 

* Jdorcyi,— fabric Bibl. Ut.—Saxii Onommit , . , • :! 

-, i 

E U tf A P I U A 

and 6ratian. He was a celebrated ' sophist, a phJaicraA 
and historian* He was brought up by Chrysanthius, & 
sophist of noble birth, who was related to him by marriage j 
at whose request he wrote his book " Of the Lives of the 
Philosophers and Sophists," in which he frequently shews 
himself. an enemy to Christianity. Brucker- calls it a mass 
of extravagant tales, discovering a feeble understanding, 
and. an imagination prone to Superstition. He wrote a 
history of the Caesars, which he deduced from the reign of 
, Claudius, where Herodian left off, down to that of Arca- 
dius and Honorius. Photius speaks with approbation of 
this history ; but complains, that he all along treats the 
Christian emperors very injuriously, while he is so partial 
to the heathen, as even to prefer Julian to'Constimtine th£ 
Great. He inveighs also severely against the monks, whom 
he charged with pride and insolence, under the mask- of 
austerity ; and ridicules with great profaneness the relics 
of the martyrs. This history is lost ; but the stibstance of 
it is in Zosimus, who is supposed to have done little more 
than copy it. We have no other remains of Eunapius, but 
his " Lives of the Sophists," 1596, 8vo, except a small 
fragment of his history, which is printed at the end of some 
editions of the lives ; though Fabricius is of opinion that 
this fragment belongs to another Eunapius, who lived some- 
what earlier. 1 

. EUNOMIUS, an Arian heretic of the fourth century, 
was born at Dacora, a town of Cappadocia ; and was the 
ion of a peasant : but not relishing a country life, be went 
to Constantinople, and afterwards to Alexandria, where 
he became the disciple and secretary of iEtius, but was 
abundantly more subtle than his master, as well as more 
bold in propagating the doctrines of his sect, who have 
since been called Eunomians. He then returned to An* 
tioch, where he was ordained a deacon by Eudoxius, bishop 
of that place; but being sent to defend Eudoxius against 
Basil of Ancyra, before the emperor Constantius, he was 
seized upon the road by the partisans of Basil, and banished , 
to Mida, a town of Pbrygia. . He returned to Constan- 
tinople, and in the year 360 was made bishop of Cysicum* 
by his protector Eudoxius, who advised him to conceal his 
doctrines: but Eunomius was incapable of following' this 

i Cave, vol. I.— Mortfi.— Brucker.— Lardner't Worloi.— Sow Onomst,— 
Fabric. Bibj. Giro. • -  ••. • • • ^ • 

E U N O M I U S. 9$» 

advice, and gave so north disturbande to the cbfcnh. hy 
the intemperance of his &eal, that Eudoxin* himself* by 
the order of Constantius, was obliged to depose him from, 
liis bishopric, and he was that year banished again* He 
retired to a boose which he had in Cbakedonia, where he 
concealed the tyrant Procopins in the year 365, and being 
accused by the emperor Valens of having afforded shelter 
to his enemy, was by him banished a third time to Man*- 
ritania. Valens, bishop of Mursa, got him recalled ; and 
he was next banished to the isle of. Naxoa, for disturbing 
the peace of the church. He again returned to Chalce* 
dbnia; but Theodosius the elder obliged him to quit that 
place, and sent him first to Halmyris, a desert of Mcesia, 
hear the Danube, and afterwards to Ceesarea of Cappa- . 
docia ; where, however, the inhabitants, would not suffer 
him to continue, because be had formerly written against . 
Basil, their bishop. Tired, at length, with being thus 
tossed about, he petitioned to retreat to the place of his 
birth ; where he died very old, about the year 394, after 
having experienced great variety of sufferings. 

Eunomius wrote many works ; and his writings were so 
highly esteemed by his followers, that they thought their 
authority preferable to that of the gospels. The greatest 
part of them are lost : there is, however, besides two o* 
three small pieces, " a confession of his faith" still re-» 
maining, winch Cave took from a MS. in archbp. Tenison's 
library, and inserted into his " Historia Literaria," and 
Whiston afterwards published it in bis " Primitive Chris- * 
tianity revived." The substance of his opinions is, " There . 
is one God, uncreate and without beginning; who has 
nothing existing before him ; for nothing can exist before 
what is uncreate ; nor with him, for what is uncreate must : 
be oue; nor in him, for God is a simple and uncompouoded 
being. This one, simple and eternal being, is God the 
creator and ordainer of ail things : first indeed, and prin« 
cipally of his only begotten Son, and then through him of 
all other things. For God begot, created, and made the 
Son only, by his own direct operation and power, before., 
all things and every other creature; not producing how- 
ever any other being like himself, nor imparting any pf his 1 
own proper substance to, the Son: for God is immortal, 
uniform, indivisible, and therefore cannot communicate any 
part of his own proper substance to another. He alone is 
unbegotten ; and it is impossible that any other being 

Vol. XIII. B a 

370 E U N O M I U S. 

should be formed of an unbegotten substance. He did 
not use his own substance in begetting the Son, bat his 
will only ; nor did he beget hint in tbe likeness of his sub- 
stance, but according to his own good pleasure. He then 
created the Holy Spirit, the first and greatest of all spirits 
by his own power indeed and operation mediately, yet by 
the immediate power and operation of the Son. After the 
Holy Spirit, he created all other things, in heaven and in 
earth, visible and invisible, corporeal and incorporeal, me* 
• diately by himself, by the power and operation of the Son* 
&c, &c."« 

EUPHORION, the son of Polymnestus of Cfaalcis in 
Eubosa, a Greek poet and historian, was born, according to 
Suidas, in the 26th olympiad, at the time when Pyrrhps 
was defeated by the Romans, which was in the third year 
of that olympiad, or B. C. 274. Although his person was 
not captivating, he is said to have been beloved by Nicia, 
the wife of Alexander, the king of his. country. Towards 
tbe latter end of his life, he grew rich, and became libra- 
rian to Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, at the time of 
whose accession he was above fifty years of age. The time 
of his death is uncertain. He wrote in heroic verse, some 
few fragments of which are still extant. Cicero speaks of 
his compositions as obscure.: but he was highly esteemed 
by the emperor Tiberius, who imitated his style, and placed 
statues of him in the libraries of. Rome. There was also 
another Euphokion, a son of iEschylus, who gained prizes 
at Athens for some posthumous tragedies of his father's ; 
and wrote a few himself; and a third, author of some Greek 
epigrams in tbe Anthologia, . who flourished in the 126th 
olympiad. * 

EUPHRANOR, an excellent sculptor and painter of 
Athens, was the disciple of. Aristides, and flourished about 
362 years before Christ. He wrote several volumes on the 
art of colouring, and on symmetry, which are lost. His 
conceptions were noble and elevated, bis style masculine 
and bold ; and be was, according to Pliny, the first who 
signalized himself by representing the majesty of heroes: 
Among his most* celebrated paintings were tbe twelve 
Gods, the battle of Man tinea, and Theseus. The refine-* 
inents of expression were certainly carried very far by 
Eqpbranor, if we may form our judgment from the Theseus* 

1 Cave, vol. I.— Lardner's Work* — Moreri. — Saxii Onomast 
* Moreri.-dWcL Hist. 


which he opposed to that of Parrhasius, and the bronze 
 figure of Alexander Paris, in whom, says Pliny, the urn* 
"pire of the goddesses, the lover of Helen, and yet the 
murderer of Achilles, might be traced. He made the cha- 
< racter of Paris so pregnant, that those who knew his his- 
tory might trace in it the origin of all his future feats, 
though first impressed by the expression allotted to the pre- 
dominant quality and moment. Such appears to be the ex- 
pression of the sitting Paris, formerly in the cortile of the 

• palace Altheims at Rome, a work of the highest style, and 
worthy of Euphranor, "though," says Mr. Fuseli, " I shall 
not venture to call it a repetition in marble of his bronze." * 

EUPHRATES of Alexandria, a stoic philosopher, who 
flourished in the second century, was a friend of Dio and 
of Apollonius Tyanaeus, who introduced him to Vespasian. 
Although a violent quarrel arose between the latter philo- 
sopher and Euphrates, in consequence of which Philo- 
stratus, the panegyrist of the former, inveighs with great 
- severity against the latter, it appears from the testimony 

• of Epictetus, PHny the, younger, and Eusebius, that Eu- 
phrates was universally esteemed for his talents and virtues, 
and that the censures of Philostratus deserve only con- 
tempt. Pliny's character of him is highly interesting. 

.*' If ever,** says he, " polite learning flourished at Rome, 
it certainly does at present. Of this I could give you 
many instances ; but I will content myself with naming 
only Euphrates the philosopher. When in my youth I 
served in the array in Syria, I had an opportunity of con- 
versing familiarly with this excellent man, and took some 
pains to gain his affection, though that indeed was 
not difficult ; for he is exceedingly open to access, and 
full of that gentleness of manner which he teaches. Eu- 
phrates is possessed of shining talents, which cannot fail 
to interest even the unlearned. He discourses with great 
accuracy, dignity, and elegance ; and frequently rises into 
the sublimity and luxuriance of Plato himself. His style 
is copious and diversified, and so wonderfully sweet as to 
captivate even the most reluctant auditor. Add to all this^ 
his graceful form, comely aspect, long hair, and large 
white beard ; circumstances which, though they may pro- 
bably be thought trifling and accidental, contribute, how* 
ever, to procure him much reverence. .There is- no dis- 

V Diet Hist.— Fuseli's Lectures, p. 46, fcc 

BB 2 

972 fe U P* H K A T JB 9. 


gustiog negligepce in hi* dross ; his countenance is gfttaty 
put not austere; his approach commands respect, with- 
out exciting awe. With the strictest sanctity, he unites 
the most perfect politeness of manner. Be inveighs again** 
vice* ngt against men; and, without chastising, reclaims the 
offender. You listen with fixed attention to his exhortations, * 
and even 'when convinced, still hang with eagerness upon 
his lips. 9 ' In conformity to the principles of the stoic phi- 
losophy, Euphrates, when be found his strength worn out 
by disease arid old age, voluntarily put a period to his life 
by drinking hemlock, hairing first, for some unknown rea- 
son, obtained permission from the emperor Adrian. 1 

EUPHRATES, a heretic of the seoond century, was 
the founder of the sect of Ophites or Serpentariaus, one 
of whose dogmas was, " that the serpent by which our first 
parents were deceived, was either Christ himself of So- 
phia (wisdom) concealed under that form, 1 ' for which reason 
they paid a kind of divine honours to certain serpents kept 
for that purpose In most points he adhered to the Ori- 
ental or Gnostic philosophy, of two opposite principles 
with the JfLom 9 and other dreams of those sects. Origert 
did not consider the disciples of Euphrates as Christians* 
but as calumniators of Jesus Christ;, but Dr. Lardner, iu 
their defence, has proved that they believed in Jesus, as 
an excellent man^ and the true Messiah. • 

JEUPOLIS, was at) Athenian comic poet, who flourished 
about the year 435 before Christ, in the tifne of the old 
comedy. (See Cratinus). Hia play of " Num^nis" was 
acted in this year, and his " Flatterers," about the year 
420. Many others of hie pieces are known by name, of 
which only fragments now remain. Of bis death various 
accounts are given. Some say that He was thrown into th6 
$ea, by order of Alcibiades, for writing the "Baptsg 9 * 
against him ; others, that he was shipwrecked in a military 
expedition in the Hellespont, which produced, says Sukiaa* 
a decree, that no poet should perform military service. He 
obtained seven prizes in the theatres of Athens. His first 
^Irama was produced at the age of seventeen. There are 
some remarks on this poet in Cumberland's " Observer/* 
but which are now known to have been Bentley's. * 

EURIPIDES, a celebrated tragic poet, the contempo- 
rary and rival of Sophocles, was born of a creditable Atfar 

1 Brucker.— Moreri. * Lardner's Works,— Jtfsshctm'f Hist* 

s Vossius de Pod. Grace— Fabric. Bibl. Grsec. 


nian family ; especially on his mother ClitOf s side, whom 
Suidas reports to have been nobly descended, though 
Aristophanes in jest calls her a cabbage-seller, and Vafe# 
rftis Mtfximus has recorded it in* earnest He was born in 
the island Sal am is, whither his father and mother had fled, 
with a great many other eminent families of Athens, upon 
the formidable invasion of Greece by Xerxes: and his 
birth is supposed to have happened im the first year of the 
76th olympiad, 480 years before Christ. His name is sup- 
posed to have been formed from the JEnripus, or narrow 
sea, in which the 'tattle of Salamis was fought, and the 
Persians defeated. It -fe' said, that while his mother was 
with child, her husband^ Mnesarchus consulted the oracle 
of Apollo, to know what he might hope for ; and that be 
rebeived in answer, that the child who should be born td 
him would reach the summit of glory, and earn the honour 
of the sacred garland. Mnesarchus mferely interpreting 
this promise of the oracle, that his son should win the 
prize in the Olympic games, took care to educate him it* 
the same manner with those whom the Greeks designed for 
athletse or wrestlers : but Euripides, though he made so 
good a progress in these feats of the body, a$ to gam the 
crown at the Athenian sports in honour of Ceres and The- 
seus, bad always a more laudable ambition r and therefore, 
while his father was labouring to' have him perfect in the 
ptfta&stra, became a constant auditor of Anax&gor&s in phi- 
losophy, and Prod reus in rhetoric; and diverted his leisure 
hours by studying painting, which some will hare to have 
been at first his profession. It is not probable, that Enri- 
pide* learnt morality of Socrates; as Gellias reports: So- 
crates was ten or twelve years younger than Euripides, and 
therefore is more likely to have profited by him ; but it is 
certain that tbey were friends, and Socrates is thought to 
have been consulted by him in the composition of his 
dramas. Socrates very rarely frequented the theatre, ex- 
cept when the' pieces of Euripides were represented. In 
tbe character of Palamedes, Euripides is supposed to hive, 
delineated that of bis friend, and some verses are quoted 
addressing the Greeks as having slain the best and wisest 
of tfceif Ration, which the audience are said to have ap- 
plied t6 the fate of Socrates, and to have burst into tears 
at the recollection of their crime. This, however, seems 
rather to savour of conjecture, and if the Athenians, were 
ever thus affected, it must hfive been at some representa- 


tipn of the play subsequent to the death of Socrates, whd . 
survived Euripides some years, and therefore, in the cha- . 
racter of Palamedes could have only alluded to his death, 
as the probable result of the jealousy and rashness of the 

The occasion of his applying himself to dramatic poetry 
was the extreme danger his master Auaxagoras had incur- 
red -by his philosophy ; who, under the accusation of de- 
spising the public gods, was banished from Athens by the 
fury of the mob, and narrowly escaped with his life. Eu- 
ripides was then eighteen ; but his works will evidently 
shew, that he did not afterwards lay aside the study of 
morality and physics. He wrote a great number of tragef 
dies, which were highly esteemed both in his life- time and 
after his death : and Quintilian, among many others, 
doubted whether he was not the best of the tragic poets. 
"Sophocles and Euripides," says he, " have far excelled 
JEschylus in tragedy. Many people question, which of 
these two poets in their different manner deserves the pre-, 
ference; but, as this bears no relation to what I am now 
writing upon, I shall leave it undetermined. However, 
there is no one but must own, that Euripides will be of 
much more use to those who are intended to plead : for 
his diction, which is censured by such as think there is 
more sublimity in the grave, majestic, and soporous style 
of Sophocles, comes nearer to that of an orator. He like- 
wise abounds with moral reflections ; and is almost equal 
to the sages, when he treats on the same subject with them; 
In his manner of reasoning and replying, be may be com- 
pared to the most renowned orators at the bar. He charms 
all, when he attempts to raise the passions ; and, when ,he . 
would raise pity, he is inimitable." Quintilian has here, 
specified three of the most prominent characteristics of 
Euripides, his disposition to philosophize, the rhetorical 
cast of his style, and the power of touching the passions, , 
which, notwithstanding frequent insipidity, he sometimes 
exercises in a high degree. The philosophy of his master 
Anaxagoras may be ofteq traced in his writings, as has 
been proved by Valckenaer in his learned diatribe on the 
fragments of Euripides, some chapters, of which are devoted 
to the illustration of this subject. 

It has been wondered, that the Roman poets. should ce- 
lebrate Sophocles, <£schylus, and Thespis, as Virgil, Prp r 
pertius, and Horace have done, yet should make no meqi 


tipn of Euripides : but the reason assigned for this omission 
is, that the syllables which compose his name were not 
suited to hexameter verse, and not that they thought him 
inferior, at least to ^schylus and Thespis. Varro relates, 
that out of the seventy-five tragedies written by him, five 
only gained the victory ; yet observes, that most of those 
who conquered him were wretched poetasters. He was 
probably defeated by that private interest and intrigue, 
which frequently pronounces the fate of compositions; 
and the basest arts, we are told, were employed, in order to 
procure the favour of the judges. In the mean time, his 
pieces-were prodigiously applauded ; and nothing can bet- 
ter demonstrate the high esteem they were in, than the 
service they did to the Athenians in Sicily. The Athenian 
army under the command of Nicias suffered all the calami-* 
ties of unsuccessful war, and the victors made a most cruel 
advantage of their victories ; but although they treated the 
Athenian soldiers with so much inhumanity, yet they are 
said to have spared such as could repeat any verses of Eu- 
ripides. " We are told," says Plutarch, " that many, who 
returned safe to their country, kindly saluted Euripides, 
declaring that they had been restored to their liberty, for 
teaching their victors such verses of his as they remembered ; 
and that others, who roamed up and down, bad meat and 
>drink given them, in return for singing hi* verses/ 1 
. It was almost impossible for two great poets, suck as 
Sophocles and Euripides, who were contemporary, and 
aspired to the same glory, to love one another, or to con- 
tinue long in friendship; and Athenaeus relates several par- 
ticulars of their enmity, which are no way honourable to 
them. Yet Sophocles discovered a great esteem for Euri- 
pides, when he heard of his death, and caused a tragedy 
to be represented, in which he himself appeared in a 
mourning habit, and made his actors take off their crowns. 
Aristophanes took great pleasure in ridiculing Euripides in 
his comedies, which perhaps might give him more uneasi- 
ness than his quarrel with Sophocles. 

About a year after the Sicilian defeat, Euripides left 
Athens, and went to the Macedonian court, to which king 
Archelaus, who was fond of learned men, invited them by 
acts of munificence, gave them a gracious reception, and 
often raised them to very high honours. Euripides, if 
Solinus may be credited, he made his prime minister. 
Nptljittg can be a more express proof of the high v esteem' 

37* E U lIPilD Z 9, 

Archelaus bad for him, than his roe eating som« pmasnX 
insults of one Decamnicbus offered to Euripides. Our 
poet was seyenty- two years of age when he weot to that 
court, andiiad passed bqt few years there, tin- 
frappy accident concluded hi? Life. . He was. walking in a 
wood, arid, according to his usual manner, in deep me* 
Citation; wheal unfortunately meeting with Archelais's 
hounds,, he was by them torn to pieces. Every account 
gives him the same end, though it differs from the rest iu 
some minute circumstances. Soodq indeed relate. that he 
was pulled to pieces by women, to revenge the honour of 
th^ir sex > but this is a fable, copied from that of Orpheus, 
yho is said to have been destroyed by Bacchanals. I^ia 
rip* certain, whether his death happened by chance, Qr 
through envy of some of the courtiers The author of an 
<9pigrapi in the Anthology denies all these -accounts* and 
ascribe* bis death to a decay of nature. Archelaus, how- 
ever, buried him with great magnificence; and not con-? 
tente4 with splemni?ing his funeral obsequies, he also cut 
ljis bair, and assumed all the marks of grief. The Athenians 
were so moved with his death, that the whole city went 
into mourning ; and oqe of his friends, named Philemon* 
declared that, could he be persuaded that the dead enjoy a 
sense of things, he would bang himself, in order to be with 
' Euripides* The Athenians also sent ambassadors to Mace- 
donia, to request of Archelaus that his body ought be re- 
moved to bis native country ; but the king refused their 
demand, and erected in memory of the poet a noble mo- 
nument in the vicinity of Pella, his chief cky. , Disap- 
pointed of this, the Athenians testified their respect for 
Euripides by a cenotaph on the road leading from the city 
to the Pir^us. Thucydides the historian is said to hsvre 
written an epitaph on hira* to this purpose : <c All Greece 
is the monument of Euripides.; the Macedonian land poa~ 
* sesses his bones, for there he reached the boundary of his 
life. His country is Athens* the Greece of Greece. Hay* 
ing afforded general delight by hist muse, be enjoys the re* 
cempense of general praise," That he was the friend of 
Socrates, may be thought a circumstance which strongly 
testifies the virtues of his private character. He seems net 
to have possessed the social qualities which distinguished his 
rival' Sophocles. Both Euripides and his follow-disciple 
Pericles are said to have* imitated the austere mangers* of 
their master Anagagprag, An aneieat poet, Alexander 

EUR1P ID E S, S11 

jEtqhis, quoted by Gellius, says of him, that he was 
morose in social intercourse, averse from laughter, and 
even during the festivity of the banquet, ignorant how to 
promote hilarity ; but that whatever he wrote be tempered 
with the sweetness of honey, and the charms of the Sirens. 
He has been charged with a professed antipathy to the fair 
sex. This should seem to be contradicted by his having 
been twice married ; but it appear* that he was unhappily 
married in both instances, and may from bis own experi- 
ence have contracted some degree of prejudice against 
the sex in general. Yet although he seems eager to take 
9very opportunity of uttering a bitter or malignant senti- 
ment against women, Sophocles is said to have observed, 
that the hatred which he expressed against them was con- 
£ned to the stage. And even there our countryman, 
Faroes, observes that if he has described some females 
with all the vi$es incident to human nature, yet he has de- 
lineated many others with all the virtues that can adorn their 
sex,— ~He was near seventy-five years old when he died; and, 
notwithstanding some aspersions recorded by Athenaeus, he 
vras, according to the best accounts, a man of great gravity 
pud severity in his conduct, and regardless of pleasures. 

He is, of all writers, the most remarkable for having in- 
terspersed moral reflections and philosophical aphorisms in 
his dramatic pieces ; and, it is generally thought, he has 
done it toe frequently. Though he had the fate of Anaxa- . 
goras before his eyes, yet he was not always so well 

Carded in his maxims as he should have been. He 
zarded one, relating to the sanctity of an oath, in his 
Hippolytus, which brought him in danger : " My tongue 
has sworn, but still my mind is free." For this verse he 
was impea